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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simultaneous Synthesis and Assembly of Silver Nanoparticles to Three-Demensional Superstructures for Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Construction of superstructures with controllable morphologies from NPs is of great scientific and technological importance. A one-step method for simultaneous synthesis and assembly of Ag NPs to three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous superstructures is demonstrated. By varying the adsorption time of Ag precursors, an array of well-defined Ag superstructures with different morphologies are harvested. A "hot spot"-rich substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is established, which exhibits high sensitivity in trace detection of molecules. It is believed that the presented 3D nanoporous Ag superstructures hold great potential for various uses, such as novel multifunctional sensing and monitoring chips or devices.
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[Effect of meteorological factors on characteristics of PCDD/F pollution in Guangzhou].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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High-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was used to measure contents of 2, 3, 7, 8-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) in ambient air in Guangzhou city, and its sources were traced and tracked preliminarily. Spatial and seasonal distributions, the correlation between PCDD/F concentrations and various kinds of meteorological factors were studied with emphasis, as well as the trajectory of air mass simulated by hybrid single-particle lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model of the U. S. A Air Resources Laboratory, which will provide important basic data for understanding PCDD/F pollution levels in urban regions. The results show, PCDD/F concentrations in the industrial area are higher than others, and in spring, PCDD/F TEQs are the highest. Meteorological factors, like wind direction and speed, temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, precipitation all have influence on pollution levels of atmospheric PCDD/Fs. Temperature and wind speed has a negative correlation with the concentration, but it is not obvious. By the analysis of the backward trajectory of air mass, something are obtained that the trajectory extends mainly to northwest areas in autumn, and air masses from inland migrate slowly in winter, while they arrive at Guangzhou after passing southeast coast or sea.
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[Concentrations, distribution characteristics and electron beam radiolysis degradation of PCDD/Fs in waste water from a paper mill].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in waste water from a paper mill. And concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in waste water before and after electron beam irradiation with different doses were compared. The feasibility, mechanism and rates of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs degradation were discussed. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were 239 pg x L(-1) and 41.0 pg x L(-1), respectively, in the waste water. The concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs decreased after electron beam radiolysis at a dose of 30 kGy and 60 kGy with degradation rates of 5.27% and 23.6%, respectively.
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[Effect of moxibustion on vascular endothelial cell and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in rats with cutaneous wound].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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To explore the effect and action mechanism of moxibustion on healing of cutaneous wound in rats.
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Studies on pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of aminophylline in partridge chickens.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Veterinary medicine plays a significant role in the development of animal husbandry. Drugs residual in food would follow the food-chain coming into human body, which might bring hidden dangers to people. Chicken is the prime source of meat food, whose quality is important for our life and health. Therefore, it is necessary to realize the withdrawal period and establish an efficient, sensitive and accurate method for monitoring the metabolic process of drugs in chicken body. In this paper, the pharmacokinetics of aminophylline in partridge chicken after intravenous and oral administration was investigated using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method. Plasma concentration-time profiles of aminophylline were analyzed by a non-compartmental model using Topfit 2.0. Following intravenous and oral administration, the peak concentrations (C max) were found to be (16.5 ± 3.0) µg/mL at (0.08 ± 0) h and (7.4 ± 1.5) µg/mL at (1.83 ± 1.11) h, respectively. The elimination half-time (t 1/2) after intravenous and oral administration were, respectively, (13.1 ± 4.17) h and (11.65 ± 1.14) h. Areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were (209.6 ± 22.8) µg h mL(-1)(AUC0-t ) and (219.5 ± 28.3) µg h mL(-1) (AUC0?? ) after intravenous, and (165.1 ± 37.0) µg h mL(-1)(AUC0-t ) and (179.3 ± 35.6) µg h mL(-1) (AUC0?? ) after oral administration. Mean retention time (MRT) after intravenous and oral administration were, respectively, (14.06 ± 0.86) and (15.27 ± 0.62) h. The total clearance rates (CLtol) were (0.77 ± 0.10) mL min(-1) kg(-1) of intravenous and (0.97 ± 0.20) mL min(-1) kg(-1) of oral administration. The apparent distribution volume (V d) was (0.87 ± 0.27) and (0.97 ± 0.20) L kg(-1), respectively, for intravenous and oral administration. The absolute bioavailability (F) after oral administration was (83.1 ± 11.7) %. The results showed that aminophylline in partridge chickens had a longer elimination half-time, a smaller clearance rate, as well as a higher absolute bioavailability for oral administration. Therefore, aminophylline in partridge chickens produced a long healing efficacy and oral administration can achieve a good absorption which could meet the requirement.
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Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Avena based on chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and single-copy nuclear gene Acc1.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Two uncorrelated nucleotide sequences, chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and acetyl CoA carboxylase gene (Acc1), were used to perform phylogenetic analyses in 75 accessions of the genus Avena, representing 13 diploids, seven tetraploid, and four hexaploids by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Phylogenic analyses based on the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH confirmed that the A genome diploid might be the maternal donor of species of the genus Avena. Two haplotypes of the Acc1 gene region were obtained from the AB genome tetraploids, indicating an allopolyploid origin for the tetraploid species. Among the AB genome species, both gene trees revealed differences between Avena agadiriana and the other species, suggesting that an AS genome diploid might be the A genome donor and the other genome diploid donor might be the Ac genome diploid Avena canariensis or the Ad genome diploid Avena damascena. Three haplotypes of the Acc1 gene have been detected among the ACD genome hexaploid species. The haplotype that seems to represent the D genome clustered with the tetraploid species Avena murphyi and Avena maroccana, which supported the CD genomic designation instead of AC for A. murphyi and A. maroccana.
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[Uncertainty analysis of ecological risk assessment caused by heavy-metals deposition from MSWI emission].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The CALPUFF model was applied to simulate the ground-level atmospheric concentrations of Pb and Cd from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, and the soil concentration model was used to estimate soil concentration increments after atmospheric deposition based on Monte Carlo simulation, then ecological risk assessment was conducted by the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the largest atmospheric concentrations of Pb and Cd were 5.59 x 109-3) microg x m(-3) and 5.57 x 10(-4) microg x m(-3), respectively, while the maxima of soil concentration incremental medium of Pb and Cd were 2.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively; High risk areas were located next to the incinerators, Cd contributed the most to the ecological risk, and Pb was basically free of pollution risk; Higher ecological hazard level was predicted at the most polluted point in urban areas with a 55.30% probability, while in rural areas, the most polluted point was assessed to moderate ecological hazard level with a 72.92% probability. In addition, sensitivity analysis of calculation parameters in the soil concentration model was conducted, which showed the simulated results of urban and rural area were most sensitive to soil mix depth and dry deposition rate, respectively.
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Prognostic value of red blood cell distribution width for patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Multiple studies have investigated the prognostic role of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) for patients with heart failure (HF), but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to estimate the impact of RDW on the prognosis of HF by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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[Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.
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Tenax as sorption sink for in vitro bioaccessibility measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Physiologically based in vitro methods have been developed to measure bioaccessibility of organic contaminants in soils. However, bioaccessibility of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) can be underestimated by in vitro tests if gastrointestinal (GI) solution fails to provide sufficient sorption sink for HOCs. To circumvent this drawback, Tenax was included in GI solution as sorption sink to trap mobilized HOCs and maintain the desorption gradient between soil and GI solution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as target HOCs, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was selected as the in vitro method. Inclusion of Tenax in GI solution increased bioaccessibility of PAHs in five spiked soils from 8.25-20.8% to 55.7-65.9% and the bioaccessibility of PAHs in a field contaminated soil from 3.70-6.92% to 16.3-31.0%. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of Tenax as sorption sink to enhance PAH mobilization in bioaccessibility measurement in soils.
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Red blood cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio are positively correlated with disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are increased in various inflammation related diseases, but their clinical significance in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of RDW and NLR in pSS patients.
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Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is more efficacious than insulin glargine for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The aim of the present study was to compare the reported efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-l receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and insulin glargine (IGlar) for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.
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Pseudohypoparathyroidism with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Turner syndrome: a case report.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To report the case of an individual with PHP, Turner syndrome and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
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[Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.
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[Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.
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[Seasonal variation of concentrations and distribution characteristics of PCDD/Fs in atmosphere of an industrial area, Guangzhou].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Atmospheric concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured seasonally in an industrial area of Guangzhou City. And seasonal variation of concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8- PCDD/Fs was investigated. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were in the range of 2.33-75.4 pg x m(-3) (mean = 23.2 pg x m(-3)) and 0.229-10.7 pg x m(-3) (mean = 2.00 pg x m(-3)), respectively. The seasonal variation of PCDD/Fs concentrations was obvious, with the highest concentration was found in spring (37.8 pg x m(-3)) and the lowest in summer (13.5 pg x m(-3)). However, no obvious difference of concentrations was observed for autumn (22.3 pg x m(-3)) and winter (19.1 pg x m(-3)). The seasonal variation of I-TEQ values is as follows: spring (5.58 pg x m(-3)) > summer (1.06 pg x m(-3)) > autumn (0.839 pg x m(-3)) > winter (0.525 pg x m(-3)). The influences of monsoon and rainfall on the concentration of PCDD/Fs in atmosphere are discussed.
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SIRT1 in cardiovascular aging.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with aging as the key independent risk factor. Effective interventions are necessary to delay aging. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, is closely related to lifespan extension. SIRT1 exerts beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the functions of SIRT1 in cardiovascular aging, focusing on the underlying molecular mechanisms, including inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation, and induction of autophagy. We also demonstrate that moderate up-regulation or activation of SIRT1 in cardiovascular aging and age-related CVD may confer important application values.
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Developments of DNA-dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitors as Anticancer Agents.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity, cell survival, and prevention tumorigenesis. Three pathways are responsible for the repair of DNA DSBs: homologous recombination (HR), single strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK), the key component of the NHEJ pathway, becomes an important target for cancer therapy. A large number of small molecules exhibit inhibitory activities against DNA-PK in an ATP-competitive manner. This paper reviews the recent developments of a diversity of small molecule DNA-PK inhibitors, with emphasis on their structural features, biological activities, and structure-activity relationships (SARs).
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Plasmid-based Stat3-specific siRNA and GRIM-19 inhibit the growth of thyroid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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It has been shown that overexpression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) contribute to the progression and metastasis of various solid tumors and that silencing Stat3 inhibits tumor growth in several types of cancer. Gene associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a Stat3-inhibitory protein, was identified as a potential tumor suppressor associated with growth inhibition and cell apoptosis by targeting the transcription factor Stat3 for inhibition. However, little is known about Stat3 and GRIM-19 roles in the tumor growth of thyroid carcinoma cells. In the present study, we developed a dual expression plasmid that co-expressed Stat3-specific siRNA and GRIM-19 (pSi-Stat3-GRIM-19) and transfected it into SW579 cells (thyroid carcinoma cell line) to evaluate its effects on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell migration and cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Simultaneous expression of pSi-Stat3-GRIM-19 in SW579 cancer cells was found to significantly suppress the proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, when compared to the controls either Stat3-specific siRNA or GRIM-19 alone. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that a combined strategy of co-expressed Stat3-specific siRNA and GRIM19 synergistically and more effectively suppressed thyroid tumor growth, and have therapeutic potential for the treatment of thyroid cancer.
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HPLC-ELSD determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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A novel method for the direct determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth using high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed. An Agilent Technologies C18 column was utilized, evaporation temperature of 40°C and nitrogen pressure of 3.5?bar, the optimized mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (65:35, v/v), containing 11.6?mM heptafluorobutyric acid (isocratic elution with flow rate of 0.5?mL/min) with the gain 11. Kanamycin B was eluted at 5.6?min with an asymmetry factor of 1.827. The method showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.80?mg/mL for the kanamycin B (r(2) ?=?0.9987). The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation obtained from kanamycin B were less than 4.3%. Mean recovery of kanamycin B from spiked fermentation broth was 95%. The developed method was applied to the determination of kanamycin B without any interference from other constituents in the fermentation broth. This method offers simple, rapid and quantitative detection of kanamycin B. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni.
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Developments of kinesin spindle protein inhibitors as antitumor agents based on the five-membered heterocycle scaffolds.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Kinesin spindle protein (KSP) plays an essential role in centrosome separation and formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. Its exclusive involvement in the mitotic spindle of proliferating cells presents an opportunity for developing new anticancer agents with reduced side effects relative to antimitotics that target tubulin. Small molecule KSP inhibitors have demonstrated their potential as novel antimitotic agents. Several KSP inhibitors have progressed into clinical trials and many others are in preclinical developments. Recently, KSP inhibitors of wide structural diversity have appeared in literatures. This review will summarize the developments of KSP inhibitors based on the five-membered heterocycle scaffolds in recent 10 years. These small molecule KSP inhibitors were classified as dihydropyrazoles, dihydropyrroles, thiophenes, dihydrothiadiazoles, thiazoles and fused pyrroles, their structure-activity relationships were discussed.
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MicroRNA-31 contributes to colorectal cancer development by targeting factor inhibiting HIF-1? (FIH-1).
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The molecular mechanisms underlying colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis remain incompletely understood, partially contributing to the mortality of CRC. Advances in identification of novel mechanisms are therefore in an urgent need to fill the gap of our knowledge in CRC development. Here, we performed both in vitro and in vivo experiments along with in silico analysis to identify a new regulatory circuit that stimulated CRC tumorigenesis. In this report, we, for the first time, analyzed the correlation of FIH-1 level with clinicopathological features of CRC. The finding that FIH-1 was not only significantly decreased in tumor tissue as compared with the adjacent normal tissue but also was significantly correlated with tumor T stage status, indicated the role of FIH-1 as a tumor suppressor in CRC development. Moreover, we found the expression of miR-31, a short non-coding RNA which played a critical role in CRC development, was negatively correlated with FIH-1 expression in CRC samples and cell lines. Together with the result from luciferase report assay, it was demonstrated that miR-31 could directly regulate FIH-1 expression in CRC. This miR-31/FIH-1 nexus was further shown to control cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and to control tumor growth in vivo. Additionally, correlation of the miR-31 expression with clinicopathologic features in CRC samples was examined in support of the driving role of newly identified miR-31/FIH-1 nexus in CRC tumorigenesis. These findings highlight the critical role of miR-31/FIH-1 nexus in CRC and reveal the contribution of miR-31 to CRC development by targeting FIH-1.
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Neutron structure of the cyclic glucose-bound xylose isomerase E186Q mutant.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Ketol-isomerases catalyze the reversible isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. D-Xylose isomerase carries out the first reaction in the catabolism of D-xylose, but is also able to convert D-glucose to D-fructose. The first step of the reaction is an enzyme-catalyzed ring opening of the cyclic substrate. The active-site amino-acid acid/base pair involved in ring opening has long been investigated and several models have been proposed. Here, the structure of the xylose isomerase E186Q mutant with cyclic glucose bound at the active site, refined against joint X-ray and neutron diffraction data, is reported. Detailed analysis of the hydrogen-bond networks at the active site of the enzyme suggests that His54, which is doubly protonated, is poised to protonate the glucose O5 position, while Lys289, which is neutral, promotes deprotonation of the glucose O1H hydroxyl group via an activated water molecule. The structure also reveals an extended hydrogen-bonding network that connects the conserved residues Lys289 and Lys183 through three structurally conserved water molecules and residue 186, which is a glutamic acid to glutamine mutation.
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A high temperature capacitive pressure sensor based on alumina ceramic for in situ measurement at 600 °C.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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In response to the growing demand for in situ measurement of pressure in high-temperature environments, a high temperature capacitive pressure sensor is presented in this paper. A high-temperature ceramic material-alumina is used for the fabrication of the sensor, and the prototype sensor consists of an inductance, a variable capacitance, and a sealed cavity integrated in the alumina ceramic substrate using a thick-film integrated technology. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor has stability at 850 °C for more than 20 min. The characterization in high-temperature and pressure environments successfully demonstrated sensing capabilities for pressure from 1 to 5 bar up to 600 °C, limited by the sensor test setup. At 600 °C, the sensor achieves a linear characteristic response, and the repeatability error, hysteresis error and zero-point drift of the sensor are 8.3%, 5.05% and 1%, respectively.
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Overexpression of the Malus hupehensis MhNPR1 gene increased tolerance to salt and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Earlier, we have reported that overexpression of Malus hupehensis Non-expressor of pathogenesis related gene 1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco could induce the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and enhance resistance to fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we showed that MhNPR1 can be induced by NaCl, PEG6000, low temperature (4 °C), abscisic acid and apple aphids' treatments in M. hupehensis. Heterogonous expression of MhNPR1 gene in tobacco conferred enhanced resistance to NaCl at the stage of seed germination, and conferred resistance to mannitol at the stage of seed germination and to PEG6000 at the stage of seedlings. Furthermore, overexpression of MhNPR1 in transgenic tobacco led to higher expression levels of osmotic-stress related genes compared with wild-type plants. This was the first report of a novel function of NPR1 that overexpression of MhNPR1 gene has a positive effect on salt and osmotic stress in tobacco, which differs from the function that overexpressing of AtNPR1 gene has a negative effect on dehydration and salt stress in rice.
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Electroacupuncture for pressure ulcer: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Pressure ulcers are one of the most common health complaints, which often take months or years to heal, and affect patients' morbidity and quality of life. Medical options for pressure ulcers are limited. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been employed to relieve the symptoms for patients with pressure ulcers, but there is limited clinical evidence for its effectiveness.
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[Development of spectrometer for tongue diagnosis based on plane holography concave grating].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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The traditional tongue inspection method should be urgently improved due to the relative large diagnosis error probability caused by the excessive dependence on the Chinese physicians experience and judgment. But the application of tongue diagnosis based on image processing is limited by some factors including the performance of light source, image acquisition device and the low recognition rate of similar color for different diseases. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the spectroscopy method was employed to analyze the tongue by using the unique fingerprint effect of tongue spectrum. A spectrometer for tongue diagnosis (STD) was developed to achieve this goal in this paper. Meanwhile, to overcome the shortcomings of traditional light-splitting devices, a plane holographic concave grating was used as the diffractive grating, which not only can improve the luminous flux efficiency and miniaturize system, but also improve the spectral imaging quality and resolution. Experimental results demonstrated that the spectral range of STD reached 340-850 nm, and its spectral resolution is better than 2 nm. And the result of simulation experiment validated the feasibility of spectrometers system.
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[Prevention and treatment of complications during and after endoscopic mucosal band ligation for esophageal precancerous lesions and early cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the prevention and treatment of complications during and after endoscopic mucosal band ligation(EMBL) for precancerous lesions and early cancer in the esophagus.
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Cone Tracing for Furry Object Rendering.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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We present a cone-based ray tracing algorithm for high-quality rendering of furry objects with reflection, refraction and defocus effects. By aggregating many sampling rays in a pixel as a single cone, we significantly reduce the high supersampling rate required by the thin geometry of fur fibers. To reduce the cost of intersecting fur fibers with cones, we construct a bounding volume hierarchy for the fiber geometry to find the fibers potentially intersecting with cones, and use a set of connected ribbons to approximate the projections of these fibers on the image plane. The computational cost of compositing and filtering transparent samples within each cone is effectively reduced by approximating away in-cone variations of shading, opacity and occlusion. The result is a highly efficient ray tracing algorithm for furry objects which is able to render images of quality comparable to those generated by alternative methods, while significantly reducing the rendering time. We demonstrate the rendering quality and performance of our algorithm using several examples and a user study.
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Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Paired Human Hair and Serum from e-Waste Recycling Workers: Source Apportionment of Hair PBDEs and Relationship between Hair and Serum.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Human hair has been widely used as a bioindicator for human persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure, but studies on the sources of hair POPs and the relationship between hair and body burden are limited. This study analyzed the possible source apportionment of hair PBDEs and examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations in paired hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers. Using the ratio of BDE 99/47 and BDE 209/207 as indices, we calculated that only 15% of the highly brominated congeners (nona- and deca-BDE congeners) comes from exogenous (external) exposure for both female and male hair, but an average of 64% and 55% of the lower-brominated congeners (tetra- to penta-BDE congeners) come from exogenous exposure for female and male hair, respectively. The higher contribution of exogenous exposure for less-brominated congeners could be related to their relatively lower log KOW and higher volatility than higher-brominated congeners, which make them more readily to evaporate from dust and then to be adsorbed on hair. Higher hair PBDE levels and higher exogenous exposure of less-brominated congeners in females than in males can be attributed to a longer exogenous exposure time for females than males. Significant positive relationships were found in tri- to hepta-BDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 66, 85, 100, 153, 154, and 183) (R = 0.36-0.55, p < 0.05) between hair and serum, but this relationship was not found for octa- to deca-BDE. Difference in the half-lives between highly brominated congeners and less-brominated congeners could be a reason. This result also implied that we should treat the results of correlation analyses between hair and other organs cautiously.
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Interaction of TiO2 (-) with water: Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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The interactions of titania with water molecules were studied via photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations of TiO(OH)2 (-) and Ti(OH)4(H2O)n (-) (n = 0-5) clusters which are corresponding to the TiO2(H2O)(-) and TiO2(H2O)n+2 (-) (n = 0-5) systems, respectively. Experimental observation and theoretical calculations confirmed that TiO(OH)2 (-) was produced when TiO2 (-) interacts with one water molecule, and Ti(OH)4(H2O)n (-) (n = 0-5) were produced successively when TiO2 (-) interacts with two or more water molecules. The structures of Ti(OH)4(H2O)n (-) with n = 4, 5 are slightly different from those of n = 1-3. The structures of Ti(OH)4(H2O)1-3 (-) can be viewed as the water molecules interacting with the Ti(OH)4 (-) core through hydrogen bonds; however, in Ti(OH)4(H2O)4,5 (-), one of the water molecules interacts directly with the Ti atom via its oxygen atom instead of a hydrogen bond and distorted the Ti(OH)4 (-) core.
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[Asthma at acute attack stage treated with "Shaos five needling therapy": a multi-central randomized controlled study].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy of asthma at acute attack stage treated with "Shaos five needling therapy".
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[Concentration, profile distribution and source identification of PCDD/Fs in environmental medium around a HSWI].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The concentration and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the environmental air, soil and plant samples around a hospital solid waste incinerator (HSWI) in Northwest of China were determined by HRGC/HRMS, and the flue gas samples of the HSWI were also involved. The results showed that the average concentration (I-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs in the exhaust gas was 184 ng x m(-3), which seriously exceeds the emission standard (0.5 ng x m(-3)). And the average concentration of PCDD/ Fs was 7.30 pg x m(-3) in the ambient air samples, 52.5 pg x g(-1) in the soil samples, and 146 pg x g(-1) in the leaves samples. All of them were at quite high levels. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples of downwind were obviously higher than those of upwind. The concentration increased and then decreased with the increase of distance from the HSWI, and the highest concentration occurred at the distance of 700 m from the HSWI. The mass concentration (I-TEQ) proportional distributions of 2, 3, 7, 8 substitution toxic dioxins in downwind air and soil samples was similar to those in the exhaust gas samples. The analysis results of PCDD/Fs concentrations, profiles distributions and principal components all showed that the major source of PCDD/Fs in this area was from the HSWI flue gas emissions.
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Increased expression of Siglec-1 on peripheral blood monocytes and its role in mononuclear cell reactivity to autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Objectives. Elevated expression of Siglec-1 on circulating monocytes has been reported in some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its expression and role in RA has not been elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Siglec-1 in peripheral blood and to explore its role in mononuclear cell reactivity to autoantigen in RA.Methods. Siglec-1 protein and mRNA levels in 42 RA patients, 39 OA patients, 28 SLE patients and 42 normal controls were determined by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. In addition, 10 patients with active RA received DMARDs for 12 weeks and the frequencies of Siglec-1-positive cells and the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) were assessed before and after therapy. Furthermore, TNF-?, IFN-? and type II collagen were used to up-regulate Siglec-1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different groups were stimulated with mitogens or antigens and cell proliferation and cytokine production were determined.Results. The protein and mRNA levels of Siglec-1 on PBMCs and monocytes in RA patients were significantly higher than those in OA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the expression of Siglec-1 protein on PBMCs was positively correlated with DAS28, ESR, high-sensitivity CRP and IgM-RF, but not with anti-CCP antibody. Interestingly, Siglec-1 expression was decreased in parallel with the decrease in the DAS28 after 12 weeks of anti-rheumatic treatment. Furthermore, TNF-?, IFN-? and type II collagen can up-regulate Siglec-1 in PBMCs. Elevated PBMC proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production to collagen stimulation in RA patients decreased when Siglec-1 was inhibited by anti-Siglec-1 antibodies.Conclusion. Elevated Siglec-1 expression in PBMCs and monocytes can potentially serve as a biomarker for monitoring disease activity in RA. Siglec-1 may also play a proinflammatory role in stimulating lymphocyte proliferation and activation in RA.
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[Experimental study on effect of anhydroicaritin phytosomes in preventing and treating bone loss and enhancing bone quality in ovariectomized osteoporosis rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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To explore the effect of anhydroicaritin phytosomes (AIP) in preventing and treating bone loss and enhancing bone quality in ovariectomized osteoporosis rats.
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[Abnormal expression of miR-let-7b in primary biliary cirrhosis and its clinical significance].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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To evaluate the expression of microRNA (miR)-let-7b in peripheral blood cells of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and investigate its relationship to clinical disease parameters.
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The Relationship Between Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels and Acute Ischemic Stroke Risk.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2013
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Complement activation and inflammation have been suggested in the pathogenesis of stroke, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) were found to have roles during the process. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and serum MBL levels in Chinese population. From January 1 to June 30 2013, all patients with first-ever AIS were recruited to participate in the study. Serum MBL levels and routine test were examined. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was assessed on admission blinded to MBL levels. During the inclusion period, 148 patients with AIS were registered and completed study. The results indicated that the serum MBL levels were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in acutely ischemic stroke patients as compared to normal controls [1,332; interquartile range (IQR) 996-2,134 ?g/L and 897; IQR 678-1,100 ?g/L, respectively]. There was a correlation between serum levels of MBL and NIHSS score [r (spearman) = 0.608, p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, serum MBL as a continuous variable was associated with an increased risk of AIS, after adjustment for above possible confounders (OR 1.002, 95 % CI 1.001-1.008; p < 0.0001). These results indicated that elevated MBL levels could be considered as an independent stroke risk factor in Chinese population, suggesting a role of MBL and the lectin pathway of complement activation in the pathogenesis of stroke.
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Recent Developments of Small Molecule PI3K/mTOR Dual Inhibitors.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that play a central role in control of cell growth, proliferation, migration, survival and angiogenesis, and drive the progression of tumors by activating phosphoinositide-dependent kinase, protein kinase B (Akt) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been shown to play an important role in cancer and has become an important target for anticancer drug development. An interest in targeting two important points along this critical signaling pathway has spurred the development of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors that could both prevent cancer cell proliferation and induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) by fully suppressing Akt activation. This review summarizes the developments of a diversity of small molecule dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in recent 10 years, with an emphasis on their structural features, the relevant biological activities, and the structure-activity relationships (SARs).
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Electroacupuncture at Jing-jiaji points for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2013
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Neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis (CS) has become one of the most common health problems around the world. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been employed to relieve CS neck pain, but there is limited clinical evidence for its effectiveness.
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[Analysis of the short-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal band ligation in the treatment of esophageal precancerous lesions and esophageal early cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal band ligation(EMBL) in the treatment of esophageal precancerous lesions and esophageal early cancer.
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Regurgitant derived from the tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua suppresses wound-induced polyphenol oxidases activity in tea plants.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have been reported to play an important role in protecting plants from attack by herbivores. However, little is known about their role in tea. Here, we investigated the effect of PPOs on interactions between tea plants and the tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua, one of the most important insect pests of tea. Jasmonic acid (JA) treatment resulted in increases in PPO activity, and the effect of JA was dose dependent. Ectropis obliqua caterpillars grew and developed more slowly on JA-treated tea plants than on control plants, and larval weight gains depended on the JA dosage. Artificial diet complemented with PPOs reduced the growth and survival rate of E. obliqua caterpillars, and there was a negative relationship between PPO level and larval growth and survival. Unlike mechanical wounding, which is an effective inducer of tea plant PPO activity, wounding plus the herbivore regurgitant or herbivore infestation suppressed the wound-induced PPO activities, especially at 4 days after treatment. These results suggest that PPOs are an important anti-herbivore factor in tea plants, defending them against E. obliqua larvae, and that E. obliqua larvae have evolved to elude the tea plants defense by inhibiting the production of PPOs.
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Recent developments of 19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogues.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The vitamin?D hormone, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin?D3 [1,25-(OH)2 D3 ], exerts its hormonal effects predominantly on intestine, bone, and kidney, where it plays a crucial role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and bone mineralization. In addition to its classical actions, 1,25(OH)2 D3 exerts pleiotropic effects in a wide variety of target tissues and cell types, often in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. These biological activities of 1,25(OH)2 D3 have suggested a multitude of potential therapeutic applications for the vitamin?D hormone in the treatment of hyperproliferative disorders (e.g. cancer and psoriasis), immune dysfunction (autoimmune diseases), and endocrine disorders (e.g. hyperparathyroidism). However, the calcemic effects induced by 1,25(OH)2 D3--hypercalcemia, increased bone resorption, and soft tissue calcification--limit the use of the natural ligand in these clinical applications. Therefore, numerous 1,25(OH)2 D3 analogues have been synthesized with the intent of producing therapeutic agents devoid of hypercalcemic and hyperphosphatemic side effects. To this aim, much attention has been focused on the development of 19-nor-vitamin?D3 derivatives that lack the ring-A exocyclic methylene group (C19). In this review, the 19-nor-1,25(OH)2 D3 analogues are classified according to modifications made at the A-ring, the side chain, or both the A-ring and side chain, as well as other positions. The biological activities of these 19-nor-1,25(OH)2 D3 analogues are summarized and their structure-activity relationships and binding features with the vitamin?D receptor (VDR) are discussed.
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Moxibustion for the Correction of Nonvertex Presentation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Objectives. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for the correction of nonvertex presentation. Methods. Records without language restrictions were searched up to February 2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing moxibustion with other therapies in women with a singleton nonvertex presentation. Cochrane risk of bias criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the trials. Results. Seven of 392 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. When moxibustion was compared with other interventions, a meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in favor of moxibustion on the correction of nonvertex presentation at delivery (risk ratio (RR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 1.49, and I (2) = 0). The same findings applied to the cephalic presentation after cessation of treatment (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.71, and I (2) = 80%). A subgroup analysis that excluded two trials with a high risk of bias also indicated favorable effects (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.86, and I (2) = 0%). With respect to safety, moxibustion resulted in decreased use of oxytocin. Conclusion. Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that moxibustion may be an effective treatment for the correction of nonvertex presentation. Moreover, moxibustion might reduce the need for oxytocin.
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Analytic double product integrals for all-frequency relighting.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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This paper presents a new technique for real-time relighting of static scenes with all-frequency shadows from complex lighting and highly specular reflections from spatially varying BRDFs. The key idea is to depict the boundaries of visible regions using piecewise linear functions, and convert the shading computation into double product integrals—the integral of the product of lighting and BRDF on visible regions. By representing lighting and BRDF with spherical Gaussians and approximating their product using Legendre polynomials locally in visible regions, we show that such double product integrals can be evaluated in an analytic form. Given the precomputed visibility, our technique computes the visibility boundaries on the fly at each shading point, and performs the analytic integral to evaluate the shading color. The result is a real-time all-frequency relighting technique for static scenes with dynamic, spatially varying BRDFs, which can generate more accurate shadows than the state-of-the-art real-time PRT methods.
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Self-expandable metallic stent placement plus laparoscopy for acute malignant colorectal obstruction.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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To investigate the clinical advantages of the stent-laparoscopy approach to treat colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with acute colorectal obstruction (ACO).
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Microsolvation of LiI and CsI in Water: Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab initio Calculations.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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In order to understand the microsolvation of LiI and CsI in water and provide information about the dependence of solvation processes on different ions, we investigated the LiI(H2O)n(-) and CsI(H2O)n(-) (n = 0-6) clusters using photoelectron spectroscopy. The structures of these clusters and their corresponding neutrals were investigated with ab initio calculations and confirmed by comparing with the photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Our studies show that the structural evolutions of LiI(H2O)n and CsI(H2O)n clusters are very different. The Li-I distance in LiI(H2O)n(-) increases abruptly at n = 3, whereas the abrupt elongation of the Li-I distance in neutral LiI(H2O)n occurs at n = 5. In contrast to the LiI(H2O)n(-) clusters, the Cs-I distance in CsI(H2O)n(-) increases significantly at n = 3, reaches a maximum at n = 4, and decreases again as n increases further. There is no abrupt change of the Cs-I distance in neutral CsI(H2O)n as n increases from 0 to 6. Water molecules interact strongly with the Li ion; consequently, water molecule(s) can insert within the Li(+)-I(-) ion pair. In contrast, five or six water molecules are not enough to induce obvious separation of the Cs(+)-I(-) ion pair since the Cs-water interaction is relatively weak compared to the Li-water interaction. Our work has shown that the structural variation and microsolvation in MI(H2O)n clusters are determined by the delicate balance between ion-ion, ion-water, and water-water interactions, which may have significant implications for the general understanding of salt effects in water solution.
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Janus-like role of fibroblast growth factor 2 in arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease: atherogenesis and angiogenesis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Angiogenic stimulation is a promising new strategy for treating patients with arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease. This strategy aims to ameliorate cardiac function by improving myocardial perfusion and lowering the risk of myocardial infarction. However, angiogenesis may contribute to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions. Atherogenesis is also a potential side effect of angiogenic therapy. Early clinical trials were performed using fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) protein, which enhances the formation of new collateral vessels to reduce ischaemic symptoms. Conversely, angiogenic stimulation by FGF2 is a dilemma because it could cause negative angiogenic effects, such as atherosclerosis. Thus far, clinical trials in patients with recombinant FGF2 protein therapy have not yet yielded undisputable beneficial effects. Future trials should determine whether an improvement can be obtained in patients with coronary artery disease using a combination of FGF2 and other growth factors or a combination of the FGF2 gene and stem cell therapy. This review summarises the multiple roles of FGF2 in the progression of atherosclerosis, its effect on pro-angiogenesis and improvement of cardiac function in coronary artery disease, and the potentially unfavourable effect of angiogenesis on the prevention and treatment of atherogenesis.
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Factors influencing HIV infection in men who have sex with men in China.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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To identify risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention interventions. Between December 2011 and August 2012, a case-control study was conducted among MSM who underwent voluntary counselling and testing for HIV. Confirmed HIV-positive MSM were included in the case group, and HIV-negative MSM were included in the control group. Information on possible risk factors was collected by a survey questionnaire and a qualitative interview. The results of a conditional logistic regression showed that the following were influencing factors for HIV infection: average monthly income between 2001 and 3000 Yuan (odds ratio (OR)=6.341, 95% CI: 1.714-12.544), only sometimes using condoms when having anal sex with men in the last 6 months (OR=7.601, 95% CI: 1.359-23.083), having HIV-positive sex partners (OR=5.273, 95% CI: 1.572-17.691), rectal trauma with bleeding in the last 6 months (OR=2.947, 95% CI: 1.308-6.638), not using condoms at last sexual encounter (OR=1.278, 95% CI: 1.012-5.595), engaging in commercial sex (OR=5.925, 95% CI: 1.923-13.890) and having more than 16 sex partners in the last 6 months (OR=1.175, 95% CI: 1.021-1.353). These seven factors were the risk factors of HIV infection (OR>1). However, having anal sex less than 10 times in the previous 1 month (OR=0.002, 95% CI: 0.000-0.287) was a protective factor against HIV infection among MSM (OR<1), and insertive (OR=0.116, 95% CI: 0.000-0.236) (OR<1) anal intercourse influenced HIV infection. Interventions should be targeted at MSM whose average monthly income is between 2001 and 3000 Yuan, and who engage in commercial sex. In addition, the importance of using condoms at every sexual encounter should be emphasised in health education, as should the treatment of rectal trauma with bleeding. Finally, MSM should decrease the number of sex partners and frequency of anal sex to decrease the rate of HIV infection.
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The role of Siglec-1 and SR-BI interaction in the phagocytosis of oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Macrophages play a proatherosclerotic role in atherosclerosis via oxLDL uptake. As an adhesion molecular of I-type lectins, Siglec-1 is highly expressed on circulating monocytes and plaque macrophages of atherosclerotic patients, but the exact role of Siglec-1 has not been elucidated.
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Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia: a clinical comparative study of endoscopic full-thickness and circular muscle myotomy.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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A circular muscle myotomy preserving the longitudinal outer esophageal muscular layer is often recommended during peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for achalasia. However, because the longitudinal muscle fibers of the esophagus are extremely thin and fragile, and completeness of myotomy is the basis for the excellent results of conventional surgical myotomy, this modification needs to be further debated. Here, we retrospectively analyzed our prospectively maintained POEM database to compare the outcomes of endoscopic full-thickness and circular muscle myotomy.
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Resolution of structural heterogeneity in dynamic crystallography.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Dynamic behavior of proteins is critical to their function. X-ray crystallography, a powerful yet mostly static technique, faces inherent challenges in acquiring dynamic information despite decades of effort. Dynamic `structural changes are often indirectly inferred from `structural differences by comparing related static structures. In contrast, the direct observation of dynamic structural changes requires the initiation of a biochemical reaction or process in a crystal. Both the direct and the indirect approaches share a common challenge in analysis: how to interpret the structural heterogeneity intrinsic to all dynamic processes. This paper presents a real-space approach to this challenge, in which a suite of analytical methods and tools to identify and refine the mixed structural species present in multiple crystallographic data sets have been developed. These methods have been applied to representative scenarios in dynamic crystallography, and reveal structural information that is otherwise difficult to interpret or inaccessible using conventional methods.
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Jugular vein phlebectasia in paediatric patients with vocal fold nodules.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Jugular vein phlebectasia (JVP) may often be overlooked in clinical practice and the management for JVP include surgery and a conservative approach. We have studied the relationship between JVP and vocal fold nodules in paediatric patients as well as the effects of treatment. Twenty-three cases of paediatric vocal fold nodules with JVP were studied. All patients received voice therapy. After 6 months of treatment, hoarseness, neck appearance (subjective evaluation) and the degree of dilation of the jugular vein detected by Doppler ultrasonography were analysed. The follow-up period was 6 to 84 months. The hoarseness disappeared or lessened noticeably after treatment for 1-4 months. The neck masses also lessened (pre vs. post: 2.58 ± 0.40 vs. 1.60 ± 0.19) after treatment for 1-4 months. The visual analogue score of the post-treatment symptoms decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment (p <0.05). The degree of dilation of the post-treatment jugular vein also decreased significantly (p <0.05). Conclusion: Paediatric vocal fold nodules may be related to JVP. Voice changes may also be observed in cases of paediatric JVP. Voice therapy may offer another conservative treatment option for JVP accompanied by vocal fold nodules, and it may offer better results than simple observation of JVP.
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Hydrogen sulfide prevents H?O?-induced senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through SIRT1 activation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the attenuation of endothelial cell senescence by H2S and to explore the mechanisms underlying the anti-aging effects of H2S. Senescence was induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by incubation in 25 µmol/l H2O2 for 1 h. Senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) activity was examined to determine the effects of H2S on senescent HUVECs. The results indicated that SA-?-gal activity in the H2O2-treated HUVECs was 11.2 ± 1.06%, which was attenuated in the NaHS group. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM), a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibitor, inhibited the reduction in senescence associated with H2S. Immunoblot analyses revealed that SIRT1 levels in senescent HUVECs treated with NaHS (60 µM) were indistinguishable from controls; however, analyses of SIRT1 activity indicated that SIRT1 enzyme activity was enhanced. In addition, we found that H2S improves the function of senescent HUVECs. The present study demonstrated that H2S protects against HUVEC senescence, potentially through modulation of SIRT1 activity. Furthermore, this study establishes a novel endothelial protective effect of H2S.
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TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations.
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Hydrogen sulfide, the next potent preventive and therapeutic agent in aging and age-associated diseases.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is physiologically generated by cystathionine-?-lyase, cystathionine-?-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H(2)S has been gaining increasing attention as an important endogenous signaling molecule because of its significant effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Substantial evidence shows that H(2)S is involved in aging by inhibiting free-radical reactions, activating SIRT1, and probably interacting with the age-related gene Klotho. Moreover, H(2)S has been shown to have therapeutic potential in age-associated diseases. This article provides an overview of the physiological functions and effects of H(2)S in aging and age-associated diseases, and proposes the potential health and therapeutic benefits of H(2)S.
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Value of baseline platelet count for prediction of complications in primary biliary cirrhosis patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Decreased platelet count has been observed in various liver diseases, but its significance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the platelet count at diagnosis for PBC-related complications in patients newly diagnosed with PBC and treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA).
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Reverse engineering the cooperative machinery of human hemoglobin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hemoglobin transports molecular oxygen from the lungs to all human tissues for cellular respiration. Its ?2?2 tetrameric assembly undergoes cooperative binding and releasing of oxygen for superior efficiency and responsiveness. Over past decades, hundreds of hemoglobin structures were determined under a wide range of conditions for investigation of molecular mechanism of cooperativity. Based on a joint analysis of hemoglobin structures in the Protein Data Bank (Ren, companion article), here I present a reverse engineering approach to elucidate how two subunits within each dimer reciprocate identical motions that achieves intradimer cooperativity, how ligand-induced structural signals from two subunits are integrated to drive quaternary rotation, and how the structural environment at the oxygen binding sites alter their binding affinity. This mechanical model reveals the intricate design that achieves the cooperative mechanism and has previously been masked by inconsistent structural fluctuations. A number of competing theories on hemoglobin cooperativity and broader protein allostery are reconciled and unified.
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Reaction trajectory revealed by a joint analysis of protein data bank.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Structural motions along a reaction pathway hold the secret about how a biological macromolecule functions. If each static structure were considered as a snapshot of the protein molecule in action, a large collection of structures would constitute a multidimensional conformational space of an enormous size. Here I present a joint analysis of hundreds of known structures of human hemoglobin in the Protein Data Bank. By applying singular value decomposition to distance matrices of these structures, I demonstrate that this large collection of structural snapshots, derived under a wide range of experimental conditions, arrange orderly along a reaction pathway. The structural motions along this extensive trajectory, including several helical transformations, arrive at a reverse engineered mechanism of the cooperative machinery (Ren, companion article), and shed light on pathological properties of the abnormal homotetrameric hemoglobins from ?-thalassemia. This method of meta-analysis provides a general approach to structural dynamics based on static protein structures in this post genomics era.
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[Pathologic changes of the palatopharyngeal muscles in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome of different degrees].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To study the pathologic changes of the palatopharyngeal muscles with transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), the role of the above muscle in OSAHS pathogenesis was discussed.
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Cooperative macromolecular device revealed by meta-analysis of static and time-resolved structures.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Here we present a meta-analysis of a large collection of static structures of a protein in the Protein Data Bank in order to extract the progression of structural events during protein function. We apply this strategy to the homodimeric hemoglobin HbI from Scapharca inaequivalvis. We derive a simple dynamic model describing how binding of the first ligand in one of the two chemically identical subunits facilitates a second binding event in the other partner subunit. The results of our ultrafast time-resolved crystallographic studies support this model. We demonstrate that HbI functions like a homodimeric mechanical device, such as pliers or scissors. Ligand-induced motion originating in one subunit is transmitted to the other via conserved pivot points, where the E and F helices from two partner subunits are "bolted" together to form a stable dimer interface permitting slight relative rotation but preventing sliding.
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[Effects of electroacupuncture on expression of calmodulin in the hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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To investigate the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on injured neurons and the signal transduction mechanism of calmodulin (CaM) in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI).
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[Laparoendoscopic single-site retroperitoneal adrenalectomy:a report of 7 cases].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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To summarize our preliminary clinical experiences of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) retroperitoneal adrenalectomy.
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Genetic diversity and identification of Chinese-grown pecan using ISSR and SSR markers.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Pecan is an important horticultural nut crop originally from North America and now widely cultivated in China for its high ecological, ornamental and economic value. Currently, there are over one hundred cultivars grown in China, including introduced American cultivars and Chinese seedling breeding cultivars. Molecular markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of these cultivars and to identify the pedigrees of fine pecan plants with good characteristics and no cultivar-related data. A total of 77 samples grown in China were studied, including 14 introduced cultivars, 12 domestic seedling breeding cultivars, and 49 fine pecan plants with no cultivar data, together with Carya cathayensis and Juglans nigra. A total of 77 ISSR and 19 SSR primers were prescreened; 10 ISSR and eight SSR primers were selected, yielding a total of 94 amplified bands (100% polymorphic) in the range of 140-1,950 bp for the ISSR and 70 amplified bands (100% polymorphic) in the range of 50-350 bp for SSR markers. Genetic diversity analyses indicated Chinese-grown pecan cultivars and fine plants had significant diversity at the DNA level. The dengrograms constructed with ISSR, SSR or combined data were very similar, but showed very weak grouping association with morphological characters. However, the progeny were always grouped with the parents. The great diversity found among the Chinese cultivars and the interesting germplasm of the fine pecan plants analyzed in this study are very useful for increasing the diversity of the pecan gene pool. All 77 accessions in this study could be separated based on the ISSR and SSR fingerprints produced by one or more primers. The results of our study also showed that ISSR and SSR techniques were both suitable for genetic diversity analyses and the identification of pecan resources.
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Interaction of Co(m)O(-) (m = 1-3) with water: anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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We investigated the reactions between cobalt-oxides and water molecules using photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. It has been confirmed by both experimental observation and theoretical calculations that dihydroxide anions, Co(m)(OH)(2)(-) (m = 1-3), were formed when Co(m)O(-) clusters interact with the first water molecule. Addition of more water molecules produced solvated dihydroxide anions, Co(m)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(n)(-) (m = 1-3). Hydrated dihydroxide anions, Co(m)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(n)(-), are more stable than their corresponding hydrated metal-oxide anions, Co(m)O(H(2)O)(n+1)(-).
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[Peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia: report of 42 cases].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia (AC).
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Temperature-scan cryocrystallography reveals reaction intermediates in bacteriophytochrome.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Light is a fundamental signal that regulates important physiological processes such as development and circadian rhythm in living organisms. Phytochromes form a major family of photoreceptors responsible for red light perception in plants, fungi and bacteria. They undergo reversible photoconversion between red-absorbing (Pr) and far-red-absorbing (Pfr) states, thereby ultimately converting a light signal into a distinct biological signal that mediates subsequent cellular responses. Several structures of microbial phytochromes have been determined in their dark-adapted Pr or Pfr states. However, the structural nature of initial photochemical events has not been characterized by crystallography. Here we report the crystal structures of three intermediates in the photoreaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophytochrome (PaBphP). We used cryotrapping crystallography to capture intermediates, and followed structural changes by scanning the temperature at which the photoreaction proceeded. Light-induced conformational changes in PaBphP originate in ring D of the biliverdin (BV) chromophore, and E-to-Z isomerization about the C(15) = C(16) double bond between rings C and D is the initial photochemical event. As the chromophore relaxes, the twist of the C(15) methine bridge about its two dihedral angles is reversed. Structural changes extend further to rings B and A, and to the surrounding protein regions. These data indicate that absorption of a photon by the Pfr state of PaBphP converts a light signal into a structural signal via twisting and untwisting of the methine bridges in the linear tetrapyrrole within the confined protein cavity.
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[Oat growth and cation absorption characteristics under salt and alkali stress].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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This paper monitored the oat growth and cation absorption characteristics on a saline-alkali soil in the Baicheng region of Jilin Province under low, medium, and high levels of salt stress. No significant differences were observed in the shoot growth and yield components under the three levels of salt stress, but the root biomass and root/shoot ratio decreased significantly with increasing salt stress level. At maturing stage, the root/shoot ratio under medium and high salt stresses was 77.2% and 64.5% of that under low salt stress, respectively. Under the three levels of salt stress, the K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios in oat plant had significant differences at trefoil stage, but no significant differences at heading stage. With the increase of salt stress level, the cation absorption selectivity coefficient of oat at filling stage decreased significantly, but the transportation selectivity coefficient had no significant difference under the three levels of stress. It was concluded that oat could adapt to the salt and alkali stress of soda-alkaline soil to some extent, and the adaptation capability decreased with the increasing level of stress. The decrease of oat root biomass and the stronger ion selective absorption capacity at heading stage under salt and alkali stress could benefit the shoot growth and yield components of oat.
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Inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, insulin resistance and metabolic control after periodontal intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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To evaluate the effects of periodontal intervention on inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic control and to investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and moderately poor glycemic control and chronic periodontitis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.