CD8(+) T cells undergo rapid expansion during infection with intracellular pathogens, which is followed by swift and massive culling of primed CD8(+) T cells. The mechanisms that govern the massive contraction and maintenance of primed CD8(+) T cells are not clear. We show in this study that the transcription factor, FoxO3a, does not influence Ag presentation and the consequent expansion of CD8(+) T cell response during Listeria monocytogenes infection, but plays a key role in the maintenance of memory CD8(+) T cells. The effector function of primed CD8(+) T cells as revealed by cytokine secretion and CD107a degranulation was not influenced by inactivation of FoxO3a. Interestingly, FoxO3a-deficient CD8(+) T cells displayed reduced expression of proapoptotic molecules BIM and PUMA during the various phases of response, and underwent reduced apoptosis in comparison with wild-type cells. A higher number of memory precursor effector cells and memory subsets was detectable in FoxO3a-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, FoxO3a-deficient memory CD8(+) T cells upon transfer into normal or RAG1-deficient mice displayed enhanced survival. These results suggest that FoxO3a acts in a cell-intrinsic manner to regulate the survival of primed CD8(+) T cells.
After vaccination, memory CD8(+) T cells migrate to different organs to mediate immune surveillance. In most nonlymphoid organs, following an infection, CD8(+) T cells differentiate to become long-lived effector-memory cells, thereby providing long-term protection against a secondary infection. In this study, we demonstrated that Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells that migrate to the mouse brain following a systemic Listeria infection do not display markers reminiscent of long-term memory cells. In contrast to spleen and other nonlymphoid organs, none of the CD8(+) T cells in the brain reverted to a memory phenotype, and all of the cells were gradually eliminated. These nonmemory phenotype CD8(+) T cells were found primarily within the choroid plexus, as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces. Entry of these CD8(+) T cells into the brain was governed primarily by CD49d/VCAM-1, with the majority of entry occurring in the first week postinfection. When CD8(+) T cells were injected directly into the brain parenchyma, cells that remained in the brain retained a highly activated (CD69(hi)) phenotype and were gradually lost, whereas those that migrated out to the spleen were CD69(low) and persisted long-term. These results revealed a mechanism of time-bound immune surveillance to the brain by CD8(+) T cells that do not reside in the parenchyma.
Ag presentation to T cells orchestrates the development of acquired immune response. Although it is considered that Ag presentation may persist at high levels during chronic infections, we have previously reported that in mice infected with bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Ag presentation gets drastically curtailed during the chronic stage of infection despite antigenic persistence. In this report we evaluated the mechanism of this curtailment. Ag presentation declined precipitously as the T cell response developed, and Ag presentation was not curtailed in mice that were deficient in CD8(+) T cells or MHC class II, suggesting that T cells regulate Ag presentation. Curtailment of Ag presentation was reduced in IFN-gamma-deficient mice, but not in mice with a deficiency/mutation in inducible NOS2, perforin, or Fas ligand. In hosts with no T cells (Rag1(-/-)), Ag presentation was not curtailed during the chronic stage of infection. However, adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not IFN-gamma(-/-), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into Rag1-deficient hosts strongly curtailed Ag presentation. Increased persistence of Ag presentation in IFN-gamma-deficient hosts correlated to increased survival of dendritic cells, but not of macrophages, and was not due to increased stimulatory capacity of IFN-gamma-deficient dendritic cells. These results reveal a novel mechanism indicating how IFN-gamma prevents the persistence of Ag presentation, thereby preventing memory T cells from going into exhaustion.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a virulent pathogen that induces rapid host death. Here we observed that host survival after infection with S. Typhimurium was enhanced in the absence of type I interferon signaling, with improved survival of mice deficient in the receptor for type I interferons (Ifnar1(-/-) mice) that was attributed to macrophages. Although there was no impairment in cytokine expression or inflammasome activation in Ifnar1(-/-) macrophages, they were highly resistant to S. Typhimurium-induced cell death. Specific inhibition of the kinase RIP1 or knockdown of the gene encoding the kinase RIP3 prevented the death of wild-type macrophages, which indicated that necroptosis was a mechanism of cell death. Finally, RIP3-deficient macrophages, which cannot undergo necroptosis, had similarly less death and enhanced control of S. Typhimurium in vivo. Thus, we propose that S. Typhimurium induces the production of type I interferon, which drives necroptosis of macrophages and allows them to evade the immune response.
Pathogens that reside in the phagosomes of infected cells persist despite the presence of potent T cell responses. We addressed the mechanism of immune evasion by using a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium (ST). Recombinants of ST were generated that translocated antigen to the cytosol or phagosomes of infected cells. We find that the kinetics of antigen presentation and CD8(+) T cell priming is accelerated by cytosolic antigen delivery, although the magnitude of CD8(+) T cell response is not influenced by antigenic location. More importantly, only those targets that readily display antigen on the cell surface, owing to antigenic translocation to the cytosol, are recognized and killed by CD8(+) T cells. Thus, vaccination approaches developed to control phagosomal pathogens should incorporate methods for modulating antigen presentation such that infected target cells can be readily recognized by CD8(+) T cells.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.