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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Exploring the Concepts of Abstinence and Recovery through the Experiences of Long Term Opiate Substitution Clients.
Subst Abus
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: This study aimed to explore the client experience of long term opiate substitution treatment (OST). Methods: A qualitative grounded theory study set in a UK rural community drug treatment service. Results: Continuous OST enabled stability and a sense of 'normality'. Participants expressed relief at moving away from previous chaotic lifestyles and freedom from the persistent fear of opiate withdrawal. However, for some, being on a script made them feel withdrawn, lethargic and unable to fully participate in mainstream society. Intrapersonal barriers (motivation and fear) were perceived as key barriers to abstinence. Conclusions: Participants experienced long term OST as a transition between illicit drug use and recovery. Recovery was seen as a process rather than a fixed goal, confirming that there is a need for services to negotiate individualised recovery goals, spanning harm minimisation and abstinence oriented treatment approaches.
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Applying micro-costing methods to estimate the costs of pharmacy interventions: an illustration using multi-professional clinical medication reviews in care homes for older people.
Int J Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Economic methods are underutilised within pharmacy research resulting in a lack of quality evidence to support funding decisions for pharmacy interventions. The aim of this study is to illustrate the methods of micro-costing within the pharmacy context in order to raise awareness and use of this approach in pharmacy research.
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A functional role of the sky's polarization pattern for orientation in the greater mouse-eared bat.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Animals can call on a multitude of sensory information to orient and navigate. One such cue is the pattern of polarized light in the sky, which for example can be used by birds as a geographical reference to calibrate other cues in the compass mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the female greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) uses polarization cues at sunset to calibrate a magnetic compass, which is subsequently used for orientation during a homing experiment. This renders bats the only mammal known so far to make use of the polarization pattern in the sky. Although there is currently no clear understanding of how this cue is perceived in this taxon, our observation has general implications for the sensory biology of mammalian vision.
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Improving adherence to glaucoma medication: a randomised controlled trial of a patient-centred intervention (The Norwich Adherence Glaucoma Study).
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Improving adherence to ocular hypertension (OH)/glaucoma therapy is highly likely to prevent or reduce progression of optic nerve damage. The present study used a behaviour change counselling intervention to determine whether education and support was beneficial and cost-effective in improving adherence with glaucoma therapy.
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Abandoned acid? Understanding adherence to bisphosphonate medications for the prevention of osteoporosis among older women: a qualitative longitudinal study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is significant morbidity and mortality caused by the complications of osteoporosis, for which ageing is the greatest epidemiological risk factor. Preventive medications to delay osteoporosis are available, but little is known about motivators to adhere to these in the context of a symptomless condition with evidence based on screening results.
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Viral arthritis.
Aust Fam Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Arthralgia is a common presentation to general practice, and many cases will not require any specific treatment. It is important to differentiate viral arthritis from other causes as early intervention in inflammatory arthritis has been shown to improve long-term outcome.
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Are pharmacy-based minor ailment schemes a substitute for other service providers? A systematic review.
Br J Gen Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Pharmacy-based minor ailment schemes (PMASs) have been introduced throughout the UK to reduce the burden of minor ailments on high-cost settings, including general practice and emergency departments.
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Regaining control: The patient experience of supervised compared with unsupervised consumption in opiate substitution treatment.
Drug Alcohol Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Supervised consumption of opiate substitution treatment is standard practice in the UK yet little is known about the patient experience of this treatment modality. This study aimed to assess the patient experience of receiving supervised compared with unsupervised consumption of methadone or buprenorphine.
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Economic evaluation: a comparison of methadone versus buprenorphine for opiate substitution treatment.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The cost of opiate substitution is usually considered lower in cost when methadone is used, as compared to that of buprenorphine, however the overall cost effectiveness of substitution programmes comparing the two drugs remains largely unknown.
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The experience of long-term opiate maintenance treatment and reported barriers to recovery: a qualitative systematic review.
Eur Addict Res
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To inform understanding of the experience of long-term opiate maintenance and identify barriers to recovery.
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A magnetic pulse does not affect homing pigeon navigation: a GPS tracking experiment.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The cues by which homing pigeons are able to return to a home loft after displacement to unfamiliar release sites remain debated. A number of experiments in which migratory birds have been treated with a magnetic pulse have produced a disruption in their orientation, which argues that a ferrimagnetic sense is used for navigation in birds. One previous experiment has also indicated an effect of magnetic pulses on homing pigeon navigation, although with inconsistent results. Previous studies have shown that some magnetic-related information is transmitted by the trigeminal nerve to the brain in some bird species, including the homing pigeon. The function of this information is still unclear. It has been suggested that this information is important for navigation. Previous studies with trigeminal nerve lesioned homing pigeons have clearly shown that the lack of trigeminally mediated information, even if magnetic, is not crucial for homing performance. However, this result does not completely exclude the possibility that other ferrimagnetic receptors in the homing pigeon play a role in navigation. Additionally, recent studies on homing pigeons suggested the existence of a ferrimagnetic sense in a novel location presumably located in the inner ear (lagena). In the present study, we tested whether any ferrimagnetic magnetoreceptors, irrespective of their location in the birds head, are involved in pigeons homing. To do this, we treated homing pigeons with a strong magnetic pulse before release, tracked birds with GPS loggers and analyzed whether this treatment affected homing performance. In the single previous magnetic pulse experiment on homing pigeons, only initial orientation at a release site was considered and the results were inconsistent. We observed no effect of the magnetic pulse at any of the sites used on initial orientation, homing performance, tortuosity or track efficiency, which does not support a role for the ferrimagnetic sense in homing pigeon navigation, at least not in this geographic area, where magnetic field variations are in the region of 200 nT intensity and 0.8 deg inclination.
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Sequence squeeze: an open contest for sequence compression.
Gigascience
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Next-generation sequencing machines produce large quantities of data which are becoming increasingly difficult to move between collaborating organisations or even store within a single organisation. Compressing the data to assist with this is vital, but existing techniques do not perform as well as might be expected. The need for a new compression technique was identified by the Pistoia Alliance who commissioned an open innovation contest to find one. The dynamic and interactive nature of the contest led to some novel algorithms and a high level of competition between participants.
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Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758) are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring returned to the populations breeding grounds in the Baltics and Northwest Russia. Contrary to the control animals, the translocated mallards did not continue migration and stayed at Lake Constance. In spring, three types of movement tactics could be observed: 61.5% of the ducks (16 of 26) stayed around Lake Constance, 27% (7 of 26) migrated in a northerly direction towards Sweden and 11.5% of the individuals (3 of 26) headed east for ca. 1,000 km and then north. We suggest that young female mallards flexibly adjust their migration tactics and develop a navigational map that allows them to return to their natal breeding area.
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Pharmacist-led management of chronic pain in primary care: results from a randomised controlled exploratory trial.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To compare the effectiveness of pharmacist medication review, with or without pharmacist prescribing, with standard care, for patients with chronic pain.
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A strong magnetic pulse affects the precision of departure direction of naturally migrating adult but not juvenile birds.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The mechanisms by which migratory birds achieve their often spectacular navigational performance are still largely unclear, but perception of cues from the Earths magnetic field is thought to play a role. Birds that possess migratory experience can use map-based navigation, which may involve a receptor that uses ferrimagnetic material for detecting gradients in the magnetic field. Such a mechanism can be experimentally disrupted by applying a strong magnetic pulse that re-magnetizes ferrimagnetic materials. In captivity, this treatment indeed affected bearings of adult but not of naive juvenile birds. However, field studies, which expose birds to various navigational cues, yielded mixed results. Supportive studies were difficult to interpret because they were conducted in spring when all age groups navigate back to breeding areas. The present study, therefore, applied a magnetic pulse treatment in autumn to naturally migrating, radio-tagged European robins. We found that, although overall bearings were seasonally correct, orientation of adult but not juvenile robins was compromised by a pulse. Pulsed adults that departed within 10 days of treatment failed to show significant orientation and deviated more from mean migration direction than adult controls and juveniles. Thus, our data give field-based support for a possible ferrimagnetic map-sense during bird migration.
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A pilot randomised controlled trial of brief versus twice weekly versus standard supervised consumption in patients on opiate maintenance treatment.
Drug Alcohol Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Methadone maintenance remains the mainstay of treatment for opiate dependence in Scotland. Guidelines recommend supervised self-administration for at least 3 months, yet this is often interpreted as long-term supervision. However, there is no evidence base for deciding the optimal period of supervision. We tested the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of different supervision models.
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Does quality of care for hypertension in primary care vary with postcode area deprivation? An observational study.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Hypertension is a common major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease. Little is known about how achievement of financially incentivised and non-incentivised indicators of quality of care varies with deprivation, or about the effect of financial incentives on health inequalities in hypertension. General practices in the UK have received financial incentives for high quality care since 2004. This study set out to assess the variations in achievement of incentivised and non-incentivised quality indicators for hypertension by patient area deprivation, before and after the introduction of financial incentives.
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Migratory navigation in birds: new opportunities in an era of fast-developing tracking technology.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Birds have remained the dominant model for studying the mechanisms of animal navigation for decades, with much of what has been discovered coming from laboratory studies or model systems. The miniaturisation of tracking technology in recent years now promises opportunities for studying navigation during migration itself (migratory navigation) on an unprecedented scale. Even if migration tracking studies are principally being designed for other purposes, we argue that attention to salient environmental variables during the design or analysis of a study may enable a host of navigational questions to be addressed, greatly enriching the field. We explore candidate variables in the form of a series of contrasts (e.g. land vs ocean or night vs day migration), which may vary naturally between migratory species, populations or even within the life span of a migrating individual. We discuss how these contrasts might help address questions of sensory mechanisms, spatiotemporal representational strategies and adaptive variation in navigational ability. We suggest that this comparative approach may help enrich our knowledge about the natural history of migratory navigation in birds.
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A cost-consequences analysis of an adherence focused pharmacist-led medication review service.
Int J Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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The aim of this project was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Norfolk Medicines Support Service (NMSS), a pharmacist-led medication review service for patients identified in primary care as non-adherent.
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Methadone prescribing under supervised consumption on premises: a Scottish clinicians perspective on prescribing practice.
Drug Alcohol Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Specialist services have increased their capacity considerably in recent years to initiate and/or provide ongoing treatment for drug misuse. Consequently, methadone prescribing has substantially increased and over 17,000 patients are currently receiving methadone. Clinical guidance promotes consumption on the premises (COP) initially to ensure patients take medication as prescribed and also to prevent diversion. Diversion poses two risks: the patient may remain under-treated and continue illicit heroin use; diverted drugs put others at risk. However, COP can be restrictive. Current UK guidance is vague and not evidence-based recommending around three months subject to assessment of compliance and individual circumstances. The overall aim of this study was to describe clinical practice regarding prescribing methadone under COP in Scotland, and reasons for this. Design and Methods. A structured, postal questionnaire was sent to all lead clinicians in specialist drug treatment centres in Scotland in 2009 (n=42). The questionnaire explored current practice, influence of supervision on retention, views of best practice and contingency management.
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Juvenile songbirds compensate for displacement to oceanic islands during autumn migration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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To what degree juvenile migrant birds are able to correct for orientation errors or wind drift is still largely unknown. We studied the orientation of passerines on the Faroe Islands far off the normal migration routes of European migrants. The ability to compensate for displacement was tested in naturally occurring vagrants presumably displaced by wind and in birds experimentally displaced 1100 km from Denmark to the Faroes. The orientation was studied in orientation cages as well as in the free-flying birds after release by tracking departures using small radio transmitters. Both the naturally displaced and the experimentally displaced birds oriented in more easterly directions on the Faroes than was observed in Denmark prior to displacement. This pattern was even more pronounced in departure directions, perhaps because of wind influence. The clear directional compensation found even in experimentally displaced birds indicates that first-year birds can also possess the ability to correct for displacement in some circumstances, possibly involving either some primitive form of true navigation, or sign posts, but the cues used for this are highly speculative. We also found some indications of differences between species in the reaction to displacement. Such differences might be involved in the diversity of results reported in displacement studies so far.
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Multi-professional clinical medication reviews in care homes for the elderly: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analysis.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Evidence demonstrates that measures are needed to optimise therapy and improve administration of medicines in care homes for older people. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of a novel model of multi-professional medication review.
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Community-driven computational biology with Debian Linux.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
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The Open Source movement and its technologies are popular in the bioinformatics community because they provide freely available tools and resources for research. In order to feed the steady demand for updates on software and associated data, a service infrastructure is required for sharing and providing these tools to heterogeneous computing environments.
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The DBCLS BioHackathon: standardization and interoperability for bioinformatics web services and workflows. The DBCLS BioHackathon Consortium*.
J Biomed Semantics
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2010
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Web services have become a key technology for bioinformatics, since life science databases are globally decentralized and the exponential increase in the amount of available data demands for efficient systems without the need to transfer entire databases for every step of an analysis. However, various incompatibilities among database resources and analysis services make it difficult to connect and integrate these into interoperable workflows. To resolve this situation, we invited domain specialists from web service providers, client software developers, Open Bio* projects, the BioMoby project and researchers of emerging areas where a standard exchange data format is not well established, for an intensive collaboration entitled the BioHackathon 2008. The meeting was hosted by the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS) and Computational Biology Research Center (CBRC) and was held in Tokyo from February 11th to 15th, 2008. In this report we highlight the work accomplished and the common issues arisen from this event, including the standardization of data exchange formats and services in the emerging fields of glycoinformatics, biological interaction networks, text mining, and phyloinformatics. In addition, common shared object development based on BioSQL, as well as technical challenges in large data management, asynchronous services, and security are discussed. Consequently, we improved interoperability of web services in several fields, however, further cooperation among major database centers and continued collaborative efforts between service providers and software developers are still necessary for an effective advance in bioinformatics web service technologies.
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Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds: extending laboratory studies to study free-flying migrants in a natural setting.
Integr. Comp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can either be located from the ground or from aircraft (conventional tracking), or from space. Alternatively, positional information obtained by onboard equipment (e.g., GPS units) can be transmitted to receivers in space. Use of these tracking methods has provided a wealth of information on migratory behaviors that are otherwise very difficult to study. Here, we focus on the progress in understanding certain components of the migration-orientation system. Comparably exciting results can be expected in the future from tracking free-flying migrants in the wild. Use of orientation cues has been studied in migrating raptors (satellite telemetry) and thrushes (conventional telemetry), highlighting that findings in the natural setting may not always be as expected on the basis of cage-experiments. Furthermore, field tracking methods combined with experimental approaches have finally allowed for an extension of the paradigmatic displacement experiments performed by Perdeck in 1958 on the short-distance, social migrant, the starling, to long-distance migrating storks and long-distance, non-socially migrating passerines. Results from these studies provide fundamental insights into the nature of the migratory orientation system that enables experienced birds to navigate and guide inexperienced, young birds to their species-specific winter grounds.
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Differential effects of magnetic pulses on the orientation of naturally migrating birds.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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In migratory passerine birds, strong magnetic pulses are thought to be diagnostic of the remagnetization of iron minerals in a putative sensory system contained in the beak. Previous evidence suggests that while such a magnetic pulse affects the orientation of migratory birds in orientation cages, no effect was present when pulse-treated birds were tested in natural migration. Here we show that two migrating passerine birds treated with a strong magnetic pulse, designed to alter the magnetic sense, migrated in a direction that differed significantly from that of controls when tested in natural conditions. The orientation of treated birds was different depending on the alignment of the pulse with respect to the magnetic field. These results can aid in advancing understanding of how the putative iron-mineral-based receptors found in birds beaks may be used to detect and signal the intensity and/or direction of the Earths magnetic field.
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A nocturnal mammal, the greater mouse-eared bat, calibrates a magnetic compass by the sun.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Recent evidence suggests that bats can detect the geomagnetic field, but the way in which this is used by them for navigation to a home roost remains unresolved. The geomagnetic field may be used by animals both to indicate direction and to locate position. In birds, directional information appears to be derived from an interaction of the magnetic field with either the sun or the stars, with some evidence suggesting that sunset/sunrise provides the primary directional reference by which a magnetic compass is calibrated daily. We demonstrate that homing greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) calibrate a magnetic compass with sunset cues by testing their homing response after exposure to an altered magnetic field at and after sunset. Magnetic manipulation at sunset resulted in a counterclockwise shift in orientation compared with controls, consistent with sunset calibration of the magnetic field, whereas magnetic manipulation after sunset resulted in no change in orientation. Unlike in birds, however, the pattern of polarization was not necessary for the calibration. For animals that occupy ecological niches where the sunset is rarely observed, this is a surprising finding. Yet it may indicate the primacy of the sun as an absolute geographical reference not only for birds but also within other vertebrate taxa.
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Large-range movements of neotropical orchid bees observed via radio telemetry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) are often cited as classic examples of trapline-foragers with potentially extensive foraging ranges. If long-distance movements are habitual, rare plants in widely scattered locations may benefit from euglossine pollination services. Here we report the first successful use of micro radio telemetry to track the movement of an insect pollinator in a complex and forested environment. Our results indicate that individual male orchid bees (Exaerete frontalis) habitually use large rainforest areas (at least 42-115 ha) on a daily basis. Aerial telemetry located individuals up to 5 km away from their core areas, and bees were often stationary, for variable periods, between flights to successive localities. These data suggest a higher degree of site fidelity than what may be expected in a free living male bee, and has implications for our understanding of biological activity patterns and the evolution of forest pollinators.
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Studies of benzothiophene template as potent factor IXa (FIXa) inhibitors in thrombosis.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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FIXa is a serine protease enzyme involved in the intrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. The upstream intervention of the coagulation cascade in selectively inhibiting FIXa would leave hemostasis intact via the extrinsic pathway, leading to an optimum combination of efficacy and safety with low incidence of bleeding. We have identified 2-amindinobenzothiophene template as a lead scaffold for FIXa inhibiton based on its homology with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Subsequent SAR work on the template revealed a number of highly potent FIXa inhibitors, though with moderate selectivity against FXa. X-ray study with one of the analogues demonstrated active site binding interaction with the induced opening of the S1 beta pocket and a secondary binding at the S2-S4 sites, which is in direct contrast with the previous finding.
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The SUMMIT trial: a field comparison of buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance treatment.
J Subst Abuse Treat
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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This prospective patient-preference study examined the effectiveness in practice of methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment and the beliefs of subjects regarding these drugs. A total of 361 opiate-dependent individuals (89% of those eligible, presenting for treatment over 2 years at a drug service in England) received rapid titration then flexible dosing with methadone or buprenorphine; 227 patients chose methadone (63%) and 134 buprenorphine (37%). Participants choosing methadone had more severe substance abuse and psychiatric and physical problems but were more likely to remain in treatment. Survival analysis indicated those prescribed methadone were over twice as likely to be retained (hazard ratio for retention was 2.08 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-2.94 for methadone vs. buprenorphine), However, those retained on buprenorphine were more likely to suppress illicit opiate use (odds ratio = 2.136, 95% CI = 1.509-3.027, p < .001) and achieve detoxification. Buprenorphine may also recruit more individuals to treatment because 28% of those choosing buprenorphine (10% of the total sample) stated they would not have accessed treatment with methadone.
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Effectiveness of complex psycho-educational interventions for smoking relapse prevention: an exploratory meta-analysis.
J Public Health (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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Existing systematic reviews have concluded that psycho-educational interventions for smoking relapse prevention were ineffective. Our objective was to conduct an exploratory meta-analysis, guided by mechanisms of these complex interventions for preventing smoking relapse.
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The bird GPS - long-range navigation in migrants.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Nowadays few people consider finding their way in unfamiliar areas a problem as a GPS (Global Positioning System) combined with some simple map software can easily tell you how to get from A to B. Although this opportunity has only become available during the last decade, recent experiments show that long-distance migrating animals had already solved this problem. Even after displacement over thousands of kilometres to previously unknown areas, experienced but not first time migrant birds quickly adjust their course toward their destination, proving the existence of an experience-based GPS in these birds. Determining latitude is a relatively simple task, even for humans, whereas longitude poses much larger problems. Birds and other animals however have found a way to achieve this, although we do not yet know how. Possible ways of determining longitude includes using celestial cues in combination with an internal clock, geomagnetic cues such as magnetic intensity or perhaps even olfactory cues. Presently, there is not enough evidence to rule out any of these, and years of studying birds in a laboratory setting have yielded partly contradictory results. We suggest that a concerted effort, where the study of animals in a natural setting goes hand-in-hand with lab-based study, may be necessary to fully understand the mechanism underlying the long-distance navigation system of birds. As such, researchers must remain receptive to alternative interpretations and bear in mind that animal navigation may not necessarily be similar to the human system, and that we know from many years of investigation of long-distance navigation in birds that at least some birds do have a GPS - but we are uncertain how it works.
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The secret life of oilbirds: new insights into the movement ecology of a unique avian frugivore.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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Steatornis caripensis (the oilbird) is a very unusual bird. It supposedly never sees daylight, roosting in huge aggregations in caves during the day and bringing back fruit to the cave at night. As a consequence a large number of the seeds from the fruit they feed upon germinate in the cave and spoil.
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Evidence for repeated independent evolution of migration in the largest family of bats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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How migration evolved represents one of the most poignant questions in evolutionary biology. While studies on the evolution of migration in birds are well represented in the literature, migration in bats has received relatively little attention. Yet, more than 30 species of bats are known to migrate annually from breeding to non-breeding locations. Our study is the first to test hypotheses on the evolutionary history of migration in bats using a phylogenetic framework.
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Patients self-assessed functional status in heart failure by New York Heart Association class: a prognostic predictor of hospitalizations, quality of life and death.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Clinician-assigned New York Heart Association (NYHA) class is an established predictor of outcomes in heart failure. This study aims to test whether patients self-assessment of functional status by NYHA class predicts hospital admissions, quality of life, and mortality.
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Impact of health reforms on child health services in Europe: the case of Bulgaria.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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In the last two decades, all countries in Europe have embarked on substantial health reforms, introducing new models of financing and provision of health services. Using Bulgaria as a case study, this article examines the impact of the reforms on child health services.
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BioMart--biological queries made easy.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Biologists need to perform complex queries, often across a variety of databases. Typically, each data resource provides an advanced query interface, each of which must be learnt by the biologist before they can begin to query them. Frequently, more than one data source is required and for high-throughput analysis, cutting and pasting results between websites is certainly very time consuming. Therefore, many groups rely on local bioinformatics support to process queries by accessing the resources programmatic interfaces if they exist. This is not an efficient solution in terms of cost and time. Instead, it would be better if the biologist only had to learn one generic interface. BioMart provides such a solution.
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Overall similarity and consistency assessment scores are not sufficiently accurate for predicting discrepancy between direct and indirect comparison estimates.
J Clin Epidemiol
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Indirect comparison methods have been increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of different interventions comparatively. This study evaluated a Trial Similarity and Evidence Consistency Assessment (TSECA) framework for assessing key assumptions underlying the validity of indirect comparisons.
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Topical treatments for cutaneous warts.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available.
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The at-risk registers in severe asthma (ARRISA) study: a cluster-randomised controlled trial examining effectiveness and costs in primary care.
Thorax
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Patients at risk of severe exacerbations contribute disproportionally to asthma mortality, morbidity and costs. We evaluated the effectiveness and costs of using asthma risk registers for these patients in primary care.
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Computerised therapy for depression with clinician vs. assistant and brief vs. extended phone support: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Trials
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Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) involves standardised, automated, interactive self-help programmes delivered via a computer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies have shown than cCBT reduces depressive symptoms as much as face-to-face therapy and more than waiting lists or treatment as usual. cCBTs efficacy and acceptability may be influenced by the "human" support offered as an adjunct to it, which can vary in duration and can be offered by people with different levels of training and expertise.
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BioJava: an open-source framework for bioinformatics in 2012.
Bioinformatics
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BioJava is an open-source project for processing of biological data in the Java programming language. We have recently released a new version (3.0.5), which is a major update to the code base that greatly extends its functionality.
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Positive effect of a targeted intervention to improve access and availability of fruit and vegetables in an area of deprivation.
Health Place
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Increasing fruit and vegetable intake has the potential to prevent chronic disease risk but substantial inequalities in intake exist between advantaged and disadvantaged communities. Access and availability of fruit and vegetables have been shown to be important determinants of intake. The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Mobile Food Store intervention to improve access to fruit and vegetables by making cost-price produce available to targeted communities. Postcode mapping identified communities with low fruit and vegetable intake and high chronic disease risk. The Mobile Food Store travelled to these communities each week. Evaluation of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake was collected by validated questionnaire for 255 users (62% response rate). Store use resulted in a significant increase in intake (1.2 portions per day, 95%CI 0.83-1.48; p<0.001) which was greater than all but one previous intervention in the UK. The targeted model of improving access to fruit and vegetables was effective in increasing intake; however future controlled trials are required to objectively examine potential effects on fruit and vegetable intake and health outcomes.
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Self-help materials for the prevention of smoking relapse: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
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Most people who stop smoking successfully for a few weeks will return to smoking again in the medium term. There are few effective interventions to prevent this relapse and none used routinely in clinical practice. A previous exploratory meta-analysis suggested that self-help booklets may be effective but requires confirmation. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a set of self-help educational materials to prevent smoking relapse in the National Health Service (NHS) Stop Smoking Service.
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Treatment retention, drug use and social functioning outcomes in those receiving three months versus one month of supervised opioid maintenance treatment. Results from the Super C randomised controlled trial.
Addiction
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Supervised consumption of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is standard in many drug centres reducing drug diversion, but is costly. We aimed to determine whether supervised consumption of OMT improved retention and other measures of drug use.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.