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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-dose Pharmacokinetics of Daptomycin in Pediatric Patients 3-24 Months of Age.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Daptomycin is approved for treatment of complicated skin/skin structure infections and Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (bacteremia) in adults. This study was undertaken to determine the pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in pediatric patients 3-24 months of age with proven/suspected bacterial infection.
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The representation of material categories in the brain.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric), while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation) or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation). To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation). Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.
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Immune reconstitution reactions in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients: report of a case and review of the literature.
JAMA Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a phenomenon initially described in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Upon initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy, recovery of cellular immunity triggers inflammation to a preexisting infection or antigen that causes paradoxical worsening of clinical disease. A similar phenomenon can occur in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients, including pregnant women, neutropenic hosts, solid-organ or stem cell transplant recipients, and patients receiving tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.
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fMRI Guided rTMS Evidence for Reduced Left Prefrontal Involvement after Task Practice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cognitive tasks that do not change the required response for a stimulus over time (consistent mapping) show dramatically improved performance after relative short periods of practice. This improvement is associated with reduced brain activity in a large network of brain regions, including left prefrontal and parietal cortex. The present study used fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has been shown to reduce processing efficacy, to examine if the reduced activity in these regions also reflects reduced involvement, or possibly increased efficiency.
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Multiple types of cerebellar target neurons and their circuitry in the vestibulo-ocular reflex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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The cerebellum influences behavior and cognition exclusively via Purkinje cell synapses onto neurons in the deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei. In contrast with the rich information available about the organization of the cerebellar cortex and its synaptic inputs, relatively little is known about microcircuitry postsynaptic to Purkinje cells. Here we examined the cell types and microcircuits through which Purkinje cells influence an oculomotor behavior controlled by the cerebellum, the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex, which involves only two eye muscles. Using a combination of anatomical tracing and electrophysiological recordings in transgenic mouse lines, we identified several classes of neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus that receive Purkinje cell synapses from the cerebellar flocculus. Glycinergic and glutamatergic flocculus target neurons (FTNs) with somata densely surrounded by Purkinje cell terminals projected axons to the ipsilateral abducens and oculomotor nuclei, respectively. Of three additional types of FTNs that were sparsely innervated by Purkinje cells, glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons projected to the contralateral and ipsilateral abducens, respectively, and GABAergic neurons projected to contralateral vestibular nuclei. Densely innervated FTNs had high spontaneous firing rates and pronounced postinhibitory rebound firing, and were physiologically homogeneous, whereas the intrinsic excitability of sparsely innervated FTNs varied widely. Heterogeneity in the molecular expression, physiological properties, and postsynaptic targets of FTNs implies that Purkinje cell activity influences the neural control of eye movements in several distinct ways. These results indicate that the cerebellum regulates a simple reflex behavior via at least five different cell types that are postsynaptic to Purkinje cells.
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Single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of daptomycin 8 to 10 mg/kg in children aged 2 to 6 years with suspected or proved Gram-positive infections.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed for single intravenous doses of daptomycin 8 or 10 mg/kg in subjects aged 2 to 6 years. Proportional increases in maximum plasma concentration (68.4 ?g/mL, 79.2 ?g/mL) and area under the curve (429.1 ?g · h/mL, 549.7 ?g · h/mL) were observed for each dose cohort, respectively. Half-life, clearance, and distribution volume were similar between groups. Both doses were well tolerated.
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Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of single-dose intravenous ertapenem in infants, children, and adolescents.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Ertapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic with broad spectrum activity and a pharmacokinetic profile that favors once-daily administration in adults.
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Use of field-portable XRF analyzers for rapid screening of toxic elements in FDA-regulated products.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Analytical instrumentation continues its amazing evolution, especially in regard to generating ever more sensitive, faster, and reliable measurements. Perhaps the most difficult challenges are making these instruments small enough to use in the field, equipping them with well-designed software that facilitates and simplifies their use by nonexperts while preserving enough of their analytical capabilities to render them useful for a wide variety of applications. Perhaps the most impressive and underappreciated example of instruments that meet these criteria are field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers. In the past, these analyzers have been routinely used for environmental applications (lead in paint and soil, metal particulates in air samples collected onto filters), geology studies (ore and soil analysis, precious metal identification), and recycling industries (alloy identification). However, their use in the analysis of toxic elements in food, food ingredients, dietary supplements, and medicinal and herbal products, especially within the FDA and regulatory environments, has been surprisingly limited to date. Although XRF will not replace atomic spectrometry techniques such as ICP-MS for sub-parts per million level analyses, it offers a number of significant advantages including minimal sample preparation, high sample throughputs, rapid and definitive identification of many toxic elements, and accurate quantitative results. As should be obvious from many recent news reports on elevated levels of toxic elements in childrens lunchboxes, toys, and supplements, field-portable XRF analyzers can fill a very important niche and are becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of elemental analysis applications. This perspective begins with a brief review of the theory of XRF to highlight the underlying principle, instrumentation, and spectra. It includes a discussion of various analytical figures of merit of XRF to illustrate its strengths and limitations compared to existing methods such as ICP-MS. It concludes with a discussion of a number of different FDA applications and case studies in which XRF has been used to screen, identify, and in some cases quantify toxic elements in various products. This work clearly demonstrates that XRF analyzers are an exceedingly valuable tool for routine and nonroutine elemental analysis investigations, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the future, it is hoped that both field-portable and laboratory-grade XRF analyzers will see more widespread use for investigational and forensic-type applications of food and other regulated consumer products.
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Neurodevelopmental outcomes following ganciclovir therapy in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infections involving the central nervous system.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Ganciclovir protects against hearing deterioration in infants with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease involving the central nervous system (CNS).
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The amygdala, top-down effects, and selective attention to features.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
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While the amygdalar role in fear conditioning is well established, it also appears to be involved in a wide spectrum of other functions concerning emotional information. For example, the amygdala is thought to be involved in guiding spatial attention to emotionally relevant information such as the eye region in faces, and it gets activated differentially during different tasks. Here, we propose that the guidance of feature-based attention is the basis for the involvement of the amygdala in these seemingly disparate functions. Feature-based attention usually precedes spatial attention, and performing different tasks usually requires attending to different features. Although to date, no experiments have specifically tested the amygdalar role in feature-based attention, studies showing that the amygdala responds to simple elements, and findings of amygdalar involvement in non-spatial forms of attention hint at such a role. Our hypothesis that the amygdala guides feature-based attention builds on earlier proposals that the amygdala guides spatial attention and assesses biological relevance, but it is more specific and accounts for the failure to find amygdalar activation when spatial cues guide attention. Our hypothesis results in the testable prediction that the amygdala is involved when searching for stimuli based on their feature information, but not when searching for stimuli based on spatial cues.
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Vaccine policy and Arkansas childhood immunization exemptions: a multi-year review.
Am J Prev Med
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An increase in total vaccine exemptions (medical, philosophic, and religious) occurred in Arkansas after a 2003 legislation added a philosophic category and used a new process for vaccine exemptions. By legislative requirement, the Arkansas Department of Health monitored exemptions through the 2009-2010 school year.
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Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state.
PLoS ONE
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How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to ones internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.