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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Patients with nodding syndrome in Uganda improve with symptomatic treatment: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood neurological disorder affecting thousands of children in Africa. In March 2012, we introduced a treatment intervention that aimed to provide symptomatic relief. This intervention included sodium valproate for seizures, management of behaviour and emotional difficulties, nutritional therapy and physical rehabilitation. We assessed the clinical and functional outcomes of this intervention after 12?months of implementation.
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High Plasma Erythropoietin Levels are Associated With Prolonged Coma Duration and Increased Mortality in Children With Cerebral Malaria.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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?Elevated endogenous plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels have been associated with protection from acute neurologic deficits in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria (CM). Based on these findings and animal studies, clinical trials of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) have been started in children with CM. Recent clinical trials in adults with acute ischemic stroke have demonstrated increased mortality with rHuEPO treatment. We conducted a study in children with CM to assess the relationship of endogenous plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) EPO levels with mortality and acute and long-term neurologic outcomes.
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Severe malarial anemia is associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with long-term neurocognitive impairment in children ?5 years of age. No prospective studies to date have assessed neurocognitive impairment in children with CM <5 years of age, or in children with severe malarial anemia (SMA), a form of severe malaria estimated to affect as many as 5 million children annually.
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Childhood acute non-traumatic coma: aetiology and challenges in management in resource-poor countries of Africa and Asia.
Paediatr Int Child Health
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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This review examines the best available evidence on the aetiology of childhood acute non-traumatic coma in resource-poor countries (RPCs), discusses the challenges associated with management, and explores strategies to address them.
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Fosphenytoin for seizure prevention in childhood coma in Africa: a randomized clinical trial.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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We conducted a double-blind trial to determine whether a single intramuscular injection of fosphenytoin prevents seizures and neurologic sequelae in children with acute coma.
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Nodding syndrome in Ugandan children--clinical features, brain imaging and complications: a case series.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder of uncertain aetiology affecting children in Africa. There is no diagnostic test, and risk factors and symptoms that would allow early diagnosis are poorly documented. This study aimed to describe the clinical, electrophysiological and brain imaging (MRI) features and complications of nodding syndrome in Ugandan children.
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Acute seizures attributable to falciparum malaria in an endemic area on the Kenyan coast.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2011
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Falciparum malaria is an important cause of acute symptomatic seizures in children admitted to hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa, and these seizures are associated with neurological disabilities and epilepsy. However, it is difficult to determine the proportion of seizures attributable to malaria in endemic areas since a significant proportion of asymptomatic children have malaria parasitaemia. We studied children aged 0-13 years who had been admitted with a history of seizures to a rural Kenyan hospital between 2002 and 2008. We examined the changes in the incidence of seizures with the reduction of malaria. Logistic regression was used to model malaria-attributable fractions for seizures (the proportion of seizures caused by malaria) to determine if the observed decrease in acute symptomatic seizures was a measure of seizures that are attributable to malaria. The overall incidence of acute symptomatic seizures over the period was 651/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 632-670) and it was 400/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 385-415) for acute complex symptomatic seizures (convulsive status epilepticus, repetitive or focal) and 163/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 154-173) for febrile seizures. From 2002 to 2008, the incidence of all acute symptomatic seizures decreased by 809/100,000/year (69.2%) with 93.1% of this decrease in malaria-associated seizures. The decrease in the incidence of acute complex symptomatic seizures during the period was 111/100,000/year (57.2%) for convulsive status epilepticus, 440/100,000/year (73.7%) for repetitive seizures and 153/100,000/year (80.5%) for focal seizures. The adjusted malaria-attributable fractions for seizures with parasitaemia were 92.9% (95% confidence interval 90.4-95.1%) for all acute symptomatic seizures, 92.9% (95% confidence interval 89.4-95.5%) for convulsive status epilepticus, 93.6% (95% confidence interval 90.9-95.9%) for repetitive seizures and 91.8% (95% confidence interval 85.6-95.5%) for focal seizures. The adjusted malaria-attributable fractions for seizures in children above 6 months of age decreased with age. The observed decrease in all acute symptomatic seizures (809/100?000/year) was similar to the predicted decline (794/100,000/year) estimated by malaria-attributable fractions at the beginning of the study. In endemic areas, falciparum malaria is the most common cause of seizures and the risk for seizures in malaria decreases with age. The reduction in malaria has decreased the burden of seizures that are attributable to malaria and this could lead to reduced neurological disabilities and epilepsy in the area.
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Cerebral malaria: mechanisms of brain injury and strategies for improved neurocognitive outcome.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With >575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties, and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood neurodisability in the region. The pathogenesis of neurocognitive sequelae is poorly understood: coma develops through multiple mechanisms and there may be several mechanisms of brain injury. It is unclear how an intravascular parasite causes such brain injury. Understanding these mechanisms is important to develop appropriate neuroprotective interventions. This article examines possible mechanisms of brain injury in cerebral malaria, relating this to the pathogenesis of the disease, and explores prospects for improved neurocognitive outcome.
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The role for osmotic agents in children with acute encephalopathies: a systematic review.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is known to complicate both traumatic and non-traumatic encephalopathies. It impairs cerebral perfusion and may cause death due to global ischaemia and intracranial herniation. Osmotic agents are widely used to control ICP. In children, guidelines for their use are mainly guided by adult studies. We conducted this review to determine the current evidence of the effectiveness of osmotic agents and their effect on resolution of coma and outcome in children with acute encephalopathy.
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Severe neurological sequelae and behaviour problems after cerebral malaria in Ugandan children.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of falciparum malaria and a leading cause of death and neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe functional deficits and behaviour problems in children who survived cerebral malaria with severe neurological sequelae and identify patterns of brain injury.
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Iron deficiency and acute seizures: results from children living in rural Kenya and a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area.
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Neonatal seizures in a rural Kenyan District Hospital: aetiology, incidence and outcome of hospitalization.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Acute seizures are common among children admitted to hospitals in resource poor countries. However, there is little data on the burden, causes and outcome of neonatal seizures in sub-Saharan Africa. We determined the minimum incidence, aetiology and immediate outcome of seizures among neonates admitted to a rural district hospital in Kenya.
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Child neurology practice and neurological disorders in East Africa.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Neurological disorders, including neurodevelopmental disorders, have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the greatest threats to global public health. It is generally believed that these conditions are more prevalent in the developing than the developed world because of multiple known risk factors such as infections, malnutrition, and limited resources for obstetric and neonatal management. In East Africa, few investigations have been conducted to obtain data on the magnitude and description of neurological disorders among children, and the practice of child neurology is faced with challenges cutting across areas of health personnel, patient diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. This article reviews the burden, types, and causes of neurological disorders in the East African region. The challenges and successes in the practice of child neurology and recommendations for the future are discussed.
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Impaired everyday memory associated with encephalopathy of severe malaria: the role of seizures and hippocampal damage.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Seizures are common in children admitted with severe falciparum malaria and are associated with neuro-cognitive impairments. Prolonged febrile seizures are associated with hippocampal damage and impaired memory. It was hypothesized that severe malaria causes impaired everyday memory which may be associated with hippocampal damage.
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Socioeconomic predictors of cognition in Ugandan children: implications for community interventions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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Several interventions to improve cognition in at risk children have been suggested. Identification of key variables predicting cognition is necessary to guide these interventions. This study was conducted to identify these variables in Ugandan children and guide such interventions.
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Can erythropoietin be used to prevent brain damage in cerebral malaria?
Trends Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Erythropoietin (Epo) modulates the survival of developing erythroid cells and the production of new erythrocytes in the bone marrow and is a key molecule in the adaptation to hypoxia and anaemia. Epo receptors have been found to be widely expressed on non-haematopoietic cells, and Epo has been shown to have diverse actions (in particular, preventing ischaemic damage to tissues of the central nervous system). Recently, Epo has been shown to improve the outcome in a murine model of malaria, and high plasma levels of Epo in children with cerebral malaria were associated with a better outcome. Here, we review the biological importance of Epo, its mechanisms of action and the rationale for the proposed use of Epo as an adjunct treatment in cerebral malaria.
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Age patterns of severe paediatric malaria and their relationship to Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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The understanding of the epidemiology of severe malaria in African children remains incomplete across the spectrum of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensities through which communities might expect to transition, as intervention coverage expands.
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Changing trends in incidence and aetiology of childhood acute non-traumatic coma over a period of changing malaria transmission in rural coastal Kenya: a retrospective analysis.
BMJ Open
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Recent changes in malaria transmission have likely altered the aetiology and outcome of childhood coma in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors conducted this study to examine change in incidence, aetiology, clinical presentation, mortality and risk factors for death in childhood non-traumatic coma over a 6-year period.
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Continuous EEG monitoring in Kenyan children with non-traumatic coma.
Arch. Dis. Child.
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The aim of this study was to describe the EEG and clinical profile of seizures in children with non-traumatic coma, compare seizure detection by clinical observations with that by continuous EEG, and relate EEG features to outcome.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.