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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Importance of Nanometric Passivating Films on Cathodes for Li-Air Batteries.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Recently, there has been a transition from fully carbonaceous positive electrodes for the aprotic lithium oxygen battery to alternative materials and the use of redox mediator additives, in an attempt to lower the large electrochemical overpotentials associated with the charge reaction. However, the stabilizing or catalytic effect of these materials can become complicated due to the presence of major side-reactions observed during dis(charge). Here, we isolate the charge reaction from the discharge by utilizing electrodes prefilled with commercial lithium peroxide with a crystallite size of about 200-800 nm. Using a combination of S/TEM, online mass spectrometry, XPS, and electrochemical methods to probe the nature of surface films on carbon and conductive Ti-based nanoparticles, we show that oxygen evolution from lithium peroxide is strongly dependent on their surface properties. Insulating TiO2 surface layers on TiC and TiN - even as thin as 3 nm-can completely inhibit the charge reaction under these conditions. On the other hand, TiC, which lacks this oxide film, readily facilitates oxidation of the bulk Li2O2 crystallites, at a much lower overpotential relative to carbon. Since oxidation of lithium oxygen battery cathodes is inevitable in these systems, precise control of the surface chemistry at the nanoscale becomes of upmost importance.
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Effects of Shigella-, Campylobacter- and ETEC-associated Diarrhea on Childhood Growth.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Studies examining the etiology-specific effects of diarrheal disease on growth are limited and variable in their analytic methods, making comparisons difficult and priority setting based on these findings challenging. A study by Black et al (Black RE, Brown KH, Becker S. Effects of diarrhea associated with specific enteropathogens on the growth of children in rural Bangladesh. Pediatrics. 1984;33:1004-1009.) examined the association between Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-related disease and weight gain and linear growth in Bangladeshi children aged 0-5 years. We estimated similar associations in a 2002 cohort of 0- to 6-year-old children in the Peruvian Amazon.
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Santa Clara de Nanay: the MAL-ED cohort in Peru.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study communities in Peru are located in Loreto province, in a rural area 15 km from the city of Iquitos. This riverine population of approximately 5000 individuals is fairly representative of Loreto. The province lags behind the rest of the country in access to water and sanitation, per capita income, and key health indicators including infant mortality (43.0 vs 16.0 per 1000 nationwide) and under-5 mortality (60.6 vs 21.0 per 1000). Total fertility rates are higher than elsewhere in the country (4.3 vs 2.6). Nationwide, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is estimated at 0.45%, the prevalence of tuberculosis is 117 per 100 000, and the incidence of malaria is 258 per 100 000. Stunting in this community is high, whereas acute undernutrition is relatively uncommon. The population suffers from high rates of diarrheal disease. Prevalent enteric pathogens include Ascaris, Giardia, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Campylobacter.
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Environmental enteric dysfunction: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical consequences.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Stunting is common in young children in developing countries, and is associated with increased morbidity, developmental delays, and mortality. Its complex pathogenesis likely involves poor intrauterine and postnatal nutrition, exposure to microbes, and the metabolic consequences of repeated infections. Acquired enteropathy affecting both gut structure and function likely plays a significant role in this outcome, especially in the first few months of life, and serve as a precursor to later interactions of infection and malnutrition. However, the lack of validated clinical diagnostic criteria has limited the ability to study its role, identify causative factors, and determine cost-effective interventions. This review addresses these issues through a historical approach, and provides recommendations to define and validate a working clinical diagnosis and to guide critical research in this area to effectively proceed. Prevention of early gut functional changes and inflammation may preclude or mitigate the later adverse vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection.
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Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000-13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Trend data for causes of child death are crucial to inform priorities for improving child survival by and beyond 2015. We report child mortality by cause estimates in 2000-13, and cause-specific mortality scenarios to 2030 and 2035.
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An evolving perspective about the origins of childhood undernutrition and nutritional interventions that includes the gut microbiome.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and the World Health Organization (WHO) have worked together to formulate a research agenda for nutrition science. Undernutrition of children has profound effects on health, development, and achievement of full human capacity. Undernutrition is not simply caused by a lack of food, but results from a complex interplay of intra- and intergenerational factors. Representative preclinical models and comprehensive well-controlled longitudinal clinical studies are needed to further understand the contributions and the interrelationships among these factors and to develop interventions that are effective and durable. This paper summarizes work on mechanisms underlying the varied manifestations of childhood undernutrition and discusses current gaps in knowledge and challenges to our understanding of undernutrition and infection/immunity throughout the human life cycle, focusing on early childhood growth. It proposes a series of basic and clinical studies to address this global health challenge.
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Protocol for the economic evaluation of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salt therapy at scale through private and public providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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BackgroundChild diarrhea persists as a leading public health problem in India despite evidence supporting zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts as effective treatments. Across 2 years in 2010¿2013, the Diarrhea Alleviation using Zinc and Oral Rehydration Salts Therapy (DAZT) program was implemented to operationalize delivery of these interventions at scale through private and public sector providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India.Methods/DesignThis study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of DAZT program activities relative to status quo conditions existing before the study, comparing a Monte Carlo simulation method with net-benefit regression, discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. A control group was not included in the `before and after¿ study design as zinc has proven effectiveness for diarrhea treatment. Costs will be calculated using a societal perspective including program implementation and household out-of-pocket payments for care seeking, as well as estimates of wages lost. Outcomes will be measured in terms of episodes averted in net-benefit regression and in terms of the years of life lost component of disability-adjusted life years in the method based on Monte Carlo simulation. The Lives Saved Tool will be used to model anticipated changes in mortality over time and deaths averted based on incremental changes in coverage of oral rehydration salts and zinc. Data will derive from cross-sectional surveys at the start, midpoint, and endpoint of the program. In addition, Lives Saved Tool (LiST) projections will be used to define the reference case value for the ceiling ratio in terms of natural units.DiscussionThis study will be useful both in its application to an economic evaluation of a public health program in its implementation phase but also in its comparison of two methodological approaches to cost-effectiveness analysis. Both policy recommendations and methodological lessons learned will be discussed, recognizing the limitations in drawing strong policy conclusions due to the uncontrolled study design. It is expected that this protocol will be useful to researchers planning what method to use for the evaluation of similar before and after studies.
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Compliance with home-based fortification strategies for delivery of iron and zinc: its effect on haematological and growth markers among 6-24 months old children in north India.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Compliance is a key component in successful implementation of the delivery of micronutrients among children. The present study evaluates the compliance with two home-based food fortification strategies (fortified complementary food or sprinkle) for providing iron and zinc among children aged 6-24 months. A total of 292 children were randomly allocated to receive either rice-based fortified complementary food and nutrition education (Cf = 101), sprinkle and nutrition education (Mp = 97), or nutrition education alone as control (Ed = 94). All the enrolled children were breastfed at the beginning of the study and were advised to continue breastfeeding. Biweekly information on compliance and anthropometry was collected. Complete haemogram estimation was conducted at baseline and end of the study. Compliance with the fortified complementary food was higher compared to sprinkle (Cf = 81%, Mp = 64% child-days). Consumption of the fortified complementary food for 6 months resulted in a significant increase in mean haemoglobin in the intervention group compared to control group (Cf 1.29 +/- 1.6 g/dL; Ed 0.23 +/- 1.3 g/dL; p < 0.001). Our results showed that fortified complementary food had higher compliance than sprinkle and is a suitable delivery mechanism for iron and zinc in preschool children.
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An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting.
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Integrated community case management of childhood illness in Ethiopia: implementation strength and quality of care.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Ethiopia has scaled up integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) in most regions. We assessed the strength of iCCM implementation and the quality of care provided by health extension workers (HEWs). Data collectors observed HEWs' consultations with sick children and carried out gold standard re-examinations. Nearly all HEWs received training and supervision, and essential commodities were available. HEWs provided correct case management for 64% of children. The proportions of children correctly managed for pneumonia, diarrhea, and malnutrition were 72%, 79%, and 59%, respectively. Only 34% of children with severe illness were correctly managed. Health posts saw an average of 16 sick children in the previous 1 month. These results show that iCCM can be implemented at scale and that community-based HEWs can correctly manage multiple illnesses. However, to increase the chances of impact on child mortality, management of severe illness and use of iCCM services must be improved.
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Delivery, immediate newborn and cord care practices in Pemba Tanzania: a qualitative study of community, hospital staff and community level care providers for knowledge, attitudes, belief systems and practices.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Deaths during the neonatal period account for almost two-thirds of all deaths in the first year of life and 40 percent of deaths before the age of five. Most of these deaths could be prevented through proven cost-effective interventions. Although there are some recent data from sub-Saharan Africa, but there is paucity of qualitative data from Zanzibar and cord care practices data from most of East Africa. We undertook a qualitative study in Pemba Island as a pilot to explore the attitudes, beliefs and practices of the community and health workers related to delivery, newborn and cord care with the potential to inform the main chlorhexidine (CHX) trial.
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Case report on renal failure reversal in lambda chain multiple myeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone.
Case Rep Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Renal failure (RF) reversal in multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with an improved prognosis. Light chain myeloma, serum creatinine (SCr) > 4?mg/dL, extensive proteinuria, early infections, and certain renal biopsy findings are associated with lower rates of RF reversal. Our patient is a 67-year-old female with multiple poor prognostic factors for RF reversal who demonstrated a rapid renal response with bortezomib and dexamethasone (BD) regimen. She presented initially with altered mental status. On exam, she appeared lethargic and dehydrated and had generalized tenderness. She had been taking ibuprofen as needed for pain for a few weeks. Labs showed a white cell count-18,900/?L with no bandemia, hemoglobin 10.8?gm/dL, potassium-6.7?mEq/L, bicarbonate-15?mEq/L, blood urea nitrogen-62?mg/dL, SCr-5.6?mg/dL (baseline: 1.10), and corrected calcium-11.8?mg/dL. A rapid flu test was positive. Imaging studies were unremarkable. Her EKG showed sinus tachycardia and her urinalysis was unremarkable. The unexplained RF in an elderly individual in conjunction with hypercalcemia and anemia prompted a MM work-up; eventually, lambda variant MM was diagnosed. An immediate (4 days) renal response defined as 50% reduction in SCr was noticed after initiation of the BD regimen.
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The effect of intrapartum antibiotics on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a propensity score matched analysis.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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We estimate the effect of antibiotics given in the intrapartum period on early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh using propensity score techniques.
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Catch-up growth occurs after diarrhea in early childhood.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Diarrhea and linear growth faltering continue to burden low-income countries and are among the most important contributors to poor health during early childhood. Diarrhea is thought to adversely affect linear growth, but catch-up growth can occur if no additional insults are experienced. We sought to characterize catch-up growth in relation to diarrhea burden in a multisite dataset of 1007 children. Using longitudinal anthropometry and diarrheal surveillance data from 7 cohort studies in 4 countries, we examined the relation between diarrhea prevalence and growth in 3- to 6-mo periods using linear mixed-effect models. Growth during each period was calculated as a function of age using linear splines. We incorporated the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in both current and previous periods into the model. Diarrhea during the current period was associated with slower linear and ponderal growth. Faster (catch-up) growth in length was observed in children with no diarrhea in age groups immediately after an age group in which diarrhea was experienced [age group >6-12 mo: 0.03 mm/mo for each percentage diarrhea prevalence in the previous period (95% CI: 0.007, 0.06) relative to 11.3 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >12-18 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.02, 0.06) relative to 8.9 mm/mo mean growth rate; age group >18-24 mo: 0.04 mm/mo (95% CI: 0.003, 0.09) relative to 7.9 mm/mo mean growth rate]. The associations were stronger in boys than in girls when separate models were run. Similar results were observed when weight was the outcome variable. When diarrheal episodes are followed by diarrhea-free periods in the first 2 y of life, catch-up growth is observed that may allow children to regain their original trajectories. The finding of a greater effect of diarrhea on linear growth in boys than in girls was unexpected and requires additional study. Diarrhea burdens are high throughout the first 2 y of life in these study sites, therefore reducing the likelihood of catch-up growth. Extending diarrhea-free periods may increase the likelihood of catch-up growth and decrease the prevalence of stunting.
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Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Guidelines do not currently recommend the use of lung ultrasound (LUS) as an alternative to chest X-ray (CXR) or chest computerized tomography (CT) scan for the diagnosis of pneumonia. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize existing evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of LUS for pneumonia in adults.
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Estimating diarrheal illness and deaths attributable to Shigellae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among older children, adolescents, and adults in South Asia and Africa.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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While Shigellae and strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality among infants and young children (<5 years of age), their health impact in older age groups is unclear. We sought to quantify the overall burden of shigellosis and ETEC diarrhea among older children, adolescents, and adults in Africa and South Asia, the two regions with the highest levels of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality worldwide.
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Global distribution and disease burden related to micronutrient deficiencies.
Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that are essential for human life and health. Deficiencies in these micronutrients are common because of poor quality diets and frequent infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. The high prevalence of deficiencies and their important adverse consequences on mortality, morbidity and disability result in a substantial disease burden. In particular, deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc increase the risk of child mortality, and zinc deficiency increases infectious morbidity and reduces linear growth as well. Deficiencies of iodine and iron are significant primarily for their effects on development and cognition and consequent disabilities. Programs targeting each of these micronutrients are underway and, particularly for vitamin A and iodine, have some success. Greater efforts to address these and the full set of micronutrients are needed to reduce their global burden of diseases.
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Effect of iron/folic Acid supplementation on the outcome of malaria episodes treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
Malar Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Folic acid supplementation may potentially alter the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment in children with malaria. However, there is lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials and effects of folic acid supplementation on clinical efficacy of SP therapy remain moderately understood among children. In a double masked, placebo-controlled trial among preschool children in Pemba Island (Tanzania), iron and folic acid supplementation (Fe/FA) showed an increased risk of hospitalizations and death. In the present paper, we evaluated if folic acid supplementation reduced the efficacy of malaria treatment and thereby contributed to observed adverse effects. During the study, 1648 children had confirmed malarial episodes and received either sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment and iron folic acid or SP treatment and placebo. These children were evaluated for recovery and incidence of hospitalization during the next 15, 30, and 140 days. Two groups did not differ in malarial episode or hospitalization rate on subsequent 15, 30, and 140 days. Altered efficacy of SP by folic acid was not observed and did not contribute to adverse events in the previous trial. This trial is registered with Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN59549825.
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Efficiency of red cell distribution width in identification of children aged 1-3 years with iron deficiency anemia against traditional hematological markers.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Current strategy to identify iron deficiency anemia relies on markers involving high costs. Reports have suggested red cell distribution width (RDW) as a potential screening test for identifying iron deficiency anemia (IDA) but studies in pediatric populations are lacking. Our study elucidates the discriminative ability of RDW for detecting IDA among young children.
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Acute Lower Respiratory Infection Among Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-Vaccinated Children.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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To determine whether Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is linked to the risk of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) among children <5 years of age.
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Enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: a systematic review of Campylobacter, salmonella and Shigella-associated reactive arthritis.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a spondyloarthropathic disorder characterized by inflammation of the joints and tissues occurring after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. Diagnostic criteria for ReA do not exist and, therefore, it is subject to clinical opinion resulting in cases with a wide range of symptoms and definitions. Using standardized diagnostic criteria, we conducted a systematic literature review to establish the global incidence of ReA for each of the three most commonly-associated enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella. The weighted mean incidence of reactive arthritis was 9, 12, and 12 cases per 1,000 cases of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella infections respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of worldwide data that use well-defined criteria to characterize diarrhoea-associated ReA. This information will aid in determining the burden of disease and act as a planning tool for public-health programmes.
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Multiple Norovirus Infections in a Birth Cohort in a Peruvian Periurban Community.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Background.?Human noroviruses are among the most common enteropathogens globally, and are a leading cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries. However, data measuring the impact of norovirus at the community level are sparse. Methods.?We followed a birth cohort of children to estimate norovirus infection and diarrhea incidence in a Peruvian community. Stool samples from diarrheal episodes and randomly selected nondiarrheal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for norovirus genogroup and genotype. Excretion duration and rotavirus coinfection were evaluated in a subset of episodes. Results.?Two hundred twenty and 189 children were followed to 1 and 2 years of age, respectively. By 1 year, 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%-85%) experienced at least 1 norovirus infection and by 2 years, 71% (95% CI, 65%-77%) had at least 1 episode of norovirus-associated diarrhea. Genogroup II (GII) infections were 3 times more frequent than genogroup 1 (GI) infections. Eighteen genotypes were found; GII genotype 4 accounted for 41%. Median excretion duration was 34.5 days for GII vs 8.5 days for GI infection (P = .0006). Repeat infections by the same genogroup were common, but repeat infections by the same genotype were rare. Mean length-for-age z score at 12 months was lower among children with prior norovirus infection compared to uninfected children (coefficient: -0.33 [95% CI, -.65 to -.01]; P = .04); the effect persisted at 24 months. Conclusions.?Norovirus infection occurs early in life and children experience serial infections with multiple genotypes, suggesting genotype-specific immunity. An effective vaccine would have a substantial impact on morbidity, but may need to target multiple genotypes.
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Treating diarrhoeal disease in children under five: the global picture.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Rates of childhood mortality due to diarrhoea remain unacceptably high and call for renewed global focus and commitment. Affordable, simple and effective diarrhoeal treatments have already been available for many years, yet a shift in international health priorities has seen coverage of recommended treatments slow to a near-standstill since 1995. This article reviews coverage of recommended childhood diarrhoeal treatments (low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc), globally and regionally, and provides an overview of the major barriers to wide-scale coverage. It is argued that to ensure smooth supply and equitable distribution of ORS and zinc, adequate financing, relevant policy changes, strong public, private and non-government organisation (NGO) collaboration, local manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, mass media awareness and campaigning, in conjunction with strong government support, are necessary for successful treatment scale-up.
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Implications of acquired environmental enteric dysfunction for growth and stunting in infants and children living in low- and middle-income countries.
Food Nutr Bull
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Changes in small bowel function early in infancy in developing countries are increasingly being demonstrated, probably accompanied by altered mucosal architecture in most individuals, including reduced enterocyte mass and evidence of immune activation and inflammation in the mucosa. These alterations appear to be the result of factors of uncertain nature in the environment, and may be a cause of growth faltering and stunting in young children. For these reasons, this constellation of findings is being referred to as environmental enteropathy, or as we propose herein, environmental enteric dysfunction. If the causes were known and effective interventions were available, strategies and policies to intervene at--or possibly before--birth could be developed and promoted in order to prevent subsequent malnutrition and recurrent infection, which are known to interact in a cyclical and synergistic manner in a downward clinical course often ending in death. Resources would be mobilized and applied differently, and the emphasis would change from treatment to prevention. In order to move in this highly desired direction, investments in research will be required to establish the criteria to assess environmental enteric dysfunction, determine its predictive value for growth faltering and stunting, identify the causes, and propose and test potential interventions. The concepts and tools are available. What is required is the decision to move forward along this pathway to better health for infants and children in low-income countries.
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The unfinished agenda in child survival.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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10 years ago, The Lancet published a Series about child survival. In this Review, we examine progress in the past decade in child survival, with a focus on epidemiology, interventions and intervention coverage, strategies of health programmes, equity, evidence, accountability, and global leadership. Knowledge of child health epidemiology has greatly increased, and although more and better interventions are available, they still do not reach large numbers of mothers and children. Child survival should remain at the heart of global goals in the post-2015 era. Many countries are now making good progress and need the time and support required to finish the task. The global health community should show its steadfast commitment to child survival by amassing knowledge and experience as a basis for ever more effective programmes. Leadership and accountability for child survival should be strengthened and shared among the UN system; governments in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries; and non-governmental organisations.
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Improving and sustaining quality of child health care through IMCI training and supervision: experience from rural Bangladesh.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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BACKGROUND The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy includes guidelines for the management of sick children at first-level facilities. These guidelines intend to improve quality of care by ensuring a complete assessment of the childs health and by providing algorithms that combine presenting symptoms into a set of illness classifications for management by IMCI-trained service providers at first-level facilities. OBJECTIVES To investigate the sustainability of improvements in under-five case management by two cadres of first-level government service providers with different levels of pre-service training following implementation of IMCI training and supportive supervision. METHODS Twenty first-level health facilities in the rural sub-district of Matlab in Bangladesh were randomly assigned to IMCI intervention or comparison groups. Health workers in IMCI facilities received training in case management and monthly supportive supervision that involved observations of case management and reinforcement of skills by trained physicians. Health workers in comparison facilities were supervised according to Government of Bangladesh standards. Health facility surveys involving observations of case management were carried out at baseline (2000) and at two points (2003 and 2005) after implementation of IMCI in intervention facilities.Findings Improvement in the management of sick under-five children by IMCI trained service providers with only 18 months of pre-service training was equivalent to that of service providers with 4 years of pre-service training. The improvements in quality of care were sustained over a 2-year period across both cadres of providers in intervention facilities. CONCLUSION IMCI training coupled with regular supervision can sustain improvements in the quality of child health care in first-level health facilities, even among workers with minimal pre-service training. These findings can guide government policy makers and provide further evidence to support the scale-up of regular supervision and task shifting the management of sick under-five children to lower-level service providers.
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Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The Millennium Development Goals have galvanized efforts to improve child survival (MDG-4) and maternal health (MDG-5). There has been important progress on both MDGs at global level, although it now appears that few countries will reach them by the target date of 2015. There are known and efficacious interventions to address most of the major causes of these deaths, but important gaps remain. The biggest challenge is to ensure that all women and children have access to life-saving interventions. Current levels of intervention coverage are too low, representing missed opportunities. Providing services at the community level is an important emerging priority, but preventing maternal and neonatal deaths also requires access to health facilities. Readers of the Medicine for Global Health collection in BMC Medicine are urged to make maternal and child health one of their key concerns, even if they work on other topics.
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Oral zinc supplementation for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact of zinc treatment among children under five has not been well documented by previously published systematic reviews on the topic. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review, which included an exhaustive search of the Chinese literature, in an effort to update previously published estimates of the effect of therapeutic zinc. We conducted systematic literature searches in various databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and abstracted relevant data from studies meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used STATA 12.0 to pool select outcomes and to generate estimates of percentage difference and relative risk comparing outcomes between zinc and control groups. We identified 89 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese studies for the review, including studies in 10 countries from all WHO geographic regions, and analyzed a total of 18,822 diarrhea cases (9469 zinc and 9353 control). None of the included Chinese studies had previously been included in published pooled effect estimates. Chinese and non-Chinese studies reported the effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration and proportion of episodes lasting beyond three and seven days. Pooling Chinese and non-Chinese studies yielded an overall 26% (95% CI: 20%-32%) reduction in the estimated relative risk of diarrhea lasting beyond three days among zinc-treated children. Studies conducted in and outside China report reductions in morbidity as a result of oral therapeutic zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea among children under five years of age. The WHO recommendation for zinc treatment of diarrhea episodes should be supported in all low- and middle-income countries.
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Does comorbidity increase the risk of mortality among children under 3 years of age?
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Diarrhoea and pneumonia remain leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Little data is available to quantify the burden of comorbidity and the relationship between comorbid diarrhoea and pneumonia infections and mortality. We sought to quantify the relationship between comorbidity and risk of mortality among young children in two community-based studies conducted among South Asian children.
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Diarrhea in early childhood: short-term association with weight and long-term association with length.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The short-term association between diarrhea and weight is well-accepted, but the long-term association between diarrhea and growth is less clear. Using data from 7 cohort studies (Peru, 1985-1987; Peru, 1989-1991; Peru, 1995-1998; Brazil, 1989-1998; Guinea-Bissau, 1987-1990; Guinea-Bissau, 1996-1997; and Bangladesh, 1993-1996), we evaluated the lagged relationship between diarrhea and growth in the first 2 years of life. Our analysis included 1,007 children with 597,638 child-days of diarrhea surveillance and 15,629 anthropometric measurements. We calculated the associations between varying diarrhea burdens during lagged 30-day periods and length at 24 months of age. The cumulative association between the average diarrhea burden and length at age 24 months was -0.38 cm (95% confidence interval: -0.59, -0.17). Diarrhea during the 30 days prior to anthropometric measurement was consistently associated with lower weight at most ages, but there was little indication of a short-term association with length. Diarrhea was associated with a small but measurable decrease in linear growth over the long term. These findings support a focus on prevention of diarrhea as part of an overall public health strategy for improving child health and nutrition; however, more research is needed to explore catch-up growth and potential confounders.
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Safety and efficacy of simplified antibiotic regimens for outpatient treatment of serious infection in neonates and young infants 0-59 days of age in Bangladesh: design of a randomized controlled trial.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Because access to care is limited in settings with high mortality, exclusive reliance on the current recommendation of 7-10 days of parenteral antibiotic treatment is a barrier to provision of adequate treatment of newborn infections.
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Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain.
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Risk of early-onset neonatal infection with maternal infection or colonization: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Neonatal infections cause a significant proportion of deaths in the first week of life, yet little is known about risk factors and pathways of transmission for early-onset neonatal sepsis globally. We aimed to estimate the risk of neonatal infection (excluding sexually transmitted diseases [STDs] or congenital infections) in the first seven days of life among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization during the intrapartum period.
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Global action plan for childhood diarrhoea: Developing research priorities: Report from a Workshop of the Programme for Global Paediatric Research.
J Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Childhood diarrhoea remains a major public health problem responsible for the deaths of approximately 800?000 children annually, worldwide. The present study was undertaken to further define research priorities for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in low and middle income countries. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) process for defining research priorities. This provided a transparent, systematic method of obtaining the opinions of experts regarding research priorities in childhood diarrhoea. The present report describes the deliberations of a workshop that reviewed these research priorities by stakeholders including colleagues from: government agencies, academic institutions, major funding agencies and non-governmental organizations.
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Diarrhea as a risk factor for acute lower respiratory tract infections among young children in low income settings.
J Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age. We sought to quantify the correlation of diarrhea and respiratory infections within an individual child and to determine if infection with one illness increases the risk of infection with the other during the same time period.
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Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia in 2010: estimates of incidence, severe morbidity, mortality, underlying risk factors and causative pathogens for 192 countries.
J Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The recent series of reviews conducted within the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) addressed epidemiology of the two deadly diseases at the global and regional level; it also estimated the effectiveness of interventions, barriers to achieving high coverage and the main implications for health policy. The aim of this paper is to provide the estimates of childhood pneumonia at the country level. This should allow national policy-makers and stakeholders to implement proposed policies in the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF member countries.
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Early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: risk associated with maternal bacterial colonisation and chorioamnionitis.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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To estimate the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis among newborns of mothers with chorioamnionitis and/or bacterial colonisation in Dhaka.
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Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Maternal undernutrition contributes to 800,000 neonatal deaths annually through small for gestational age births; stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies are estimated to underlie nearly 3·1 million child deaths annually. Progress has been made with many interventions implemented at scale and the evidence for effectiveness of nutrition interventions and delivery strategies has grown since The Lancet Series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition in 2008. We did a comprehensive update of interventions to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in women and children and used standard methods to assess emerging new evidence for delivery platforms. We modelled the effect on lives saved and cost of these interventions in the 34 countries that have 90% of the worlds children with stunted growth. We also examined the effect of various delivery platforms and delivery options using community health workers to engage poor populations and promote behaviour change, access and uptake of interventions. Our analysis suggests the current total of deaths in children younger than 5 years can be reduced by 15% if populations can access ten evidence-based nutrition interventions at 90% coverage. Additionally, access to and uptake of iodised salt can alleviate iodine deficiency and improve health outcomes. Accelerated gains are possible and about a fifth of the existing burden of stunting can be averted using these approaches, if access is improved in this way. The estimated total additional annual cost involved for scaling up access to these ten direct nutrition interventions in the 34 focus countries is Int$9·6 billion per year. Continued investments in nutrition-specific interventions to avert maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies through community engagement and delivery strategies that can reach poor segments of the population at greatest risk can make a great difference. If this improved access is linked to nutrition-sensitive approaches--ie, womens empowerment, agriculture, food systems, education, employment, social protection, and safety nets--they can greatly accelerate progress in countries with the highest burden of maternal and child undernutrition and mortality.
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Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries.
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Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups.
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A common evaluation framework for the African Health Initiative.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The African Health Initiative includes highly diverse partnerships in five countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia), each of which is working to improve population health by strengthening health systems and to evaluate the results. One aim of the Initiative is to generate cross-site learning that can inform implementation in the five partnerships during the project period and identify lessons that may be generalizable to other countries in the region. Collaborators in the Initiative developed a common evaluation framework as a basis for this cross-site learning.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: current indicators for measuring coverage of diarrhea treatment interventions and opportunities for improvement.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Diarrhea morbidity and mortality remain important child health problems in low- and middle-income countries. The treatment of diarrhea and accurate measurement of treatment coverage are critical if child mortality is going to continue to decline. In this review, we examine diarrhea treatment coverage indicators collected in two large-scale community-based household surveys--the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Current surveys do not distinguish between children with mild diarrhea episodes and those at risk for dehydration. Additional disease severity questions may improve the identification of cases of severe diarrhea but research is needed to identify indicators with the highest sensitivity and specificity. We also review the current treatment indicators in these surveys and highlight three areas for improvement and research. First, specific questions on fluids other than oral rehydration salts (ORS) should be eliminated to refocus the treatment of dehydration on ORS and to prevent confusion between prevention and treatment of dehydration. Second, consistency across surveys and throughout translations is needed for questions about the caregiver behavior of "offering" the sick child fluid and food. Third, breastfeeding should be separated from other fluid and food questions to capture the frequency and duration of nursing sessions offered during the illness. Research is also needed to assess the accuracy of the current zinc indicator to determine if caregivers are correctly recalling zinc treatment for current and recent diarrhea episodes.
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Efficacy of zinc given as an adjunct in the treatment of severe and very severe pneumonia in hospitalized children 2-24 mo of age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Pneumonia is a leading cause of death; in India, an estimated 370,000 children die of pneumonia each year. Zinc has multiple influences on the immune response to infections. Zinc supplementation has been shown to prevent diarrhea and pneumonia in children. However, zincs therapeutic effect on respiratory infections is less clear.
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Developmental effects of micronutrient supplementation and malaria in Zanzibari children.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Childrens development is affected by the interplay of internal and external factors and changes in one factor can precipitate changes in multiple developmental domains.
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Impact of micronutrient fortification of yoghurt on micronutrient status markers and growth - a randomized double blind controlled trial among school children in Bangladesh.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Interventions providing foods fortified with multiple micronutrients can be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve micronutrient status and physical growth of school children. We evaluated the effect of micronutrient-fortified yoghurt on the biochemical status of important micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin A) as well as growth indicators among school children in Bogra district of Bangladesh.
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Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. We comprehensively reviewed the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in 2010-11 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. We estimated that, in 2010, there were 1·731 billion episodes of diarrhoea (36 million of which progressed to severe episodes) and 120 million episodes of pneumonia (14 million of which progressed to severe episodes) in children younger than 5 years. We estimated that, in 2011, 700,000 episodes of diarrhoea and 1·3 million of pneumonia led to death. A high proportion of deaths occurs in the first 2 years of life in both diseases--72% for diarrhoea and 81% for pneumonia. The epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and that of pneumonia overlap, which might be partly because of shared risk factors, such as undernutrition, suboptimum breastfeeding, and zinc deficiency. Rotavirus is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable severe diarrhoea (associated with 28% of cases), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (18·3%) of vaccine-preventable severe pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea are falling, but action is needed globally and at country level to accelerate the reduction.
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Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Global mortality in children younger than 5 years has fallen substantially in the past two decades from more than 12 million in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011, but progress is inconsistent between countries. Pneumonia and diarrhoea are the two leading causes of death in this age group and have overlapping risk factors. Several interventions can effectively address these problems, but are not available to those in need. We systematically reviewed evidence showing the effectiveness of various potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, and relevant delivery strategies. We used the Lives Saved Tool model to assess the effect on mortality when these interventions are applied. We estimate that if implemented at present annual rates of increase in each of the 75 Countdown countries, these interventions and packages of care could save 54% of diarrhoea and 51% of pneumonia deaths by 2025 at a cost of US$3·8 billion. However, if coverage of these key evidence-based interventions were scaled up to at least 80%, and that for immunisations to at least 90%, 95% of diarrhoea and 67% of pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years could be eliminated by 2025 at a cost of $6·715 billion. New delivery platforms could promote equitable access and community platforms are important catalysts in this respect. Furthermore, several of these interventions could reduce morbidity and overall burden of disease, with possible benefits for developmental outcomes.
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Ending of preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea: an achievable goal.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Global under-5 mortality has fallen rapidly from 12 million deaths in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011; however, this number still falls short of the target of a two-thirds reduction or a maximum of 4 million deaths by 2015. Acceleration of reductions in deaths due to pneumonia and diarrhoea, which together account for about 2 million child deaths every year, is essential if the target is to be met. Scaling up of existing interventions against the two diseases to 80% and immunisation to 90% would eliminate more than two-thirds of deaths from these two diseases at a cost of US$6·715 billion by 2025. Modelling in this report shows that if all countries could attain the rates of decline of the regional leaders, then cause-specific death rates of fewer than three deaths per 1000 livebirths from pneumonia and less than one death per 1000 livebirths from diarrhoea could be achieved by 2025. These rates are those at which preventable deaths have been avoided. Increasing of awareness of the size of the problem; strengthening of leadership, intersectoral collaboration, and resource mobilisation; and increasing of efficiency through the selection of the optimum mix of a growing set of cost-effective interventions depending on local contexts are the priority actions needed to achieve the goal of ending preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025.
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The effect of multiple anthropometric deficits on child mortality: meta-analysis of individual data in 10 prospective studies from developing countries.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Child stunting, wasting, and underweight have been individually associated with increased mortality. However, there has not been an analysis of the mortality risk associated with multiple anthropometric deficits.
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Pharmacokinetics of high-dose weekly oral vitamin D3 supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27-30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (?) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (-15 nmol/L, 95% CI -34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits.
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Global causes of diarrheal disease mortality in children <5 years of age: a systematic review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Estimation of pathogen-specific causes of child diarrhea deaths is needed to guide vaccine development and other prevention strategies. We did a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2011 reporting at least one of 13 pathogens in children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea. We included 2011 rotavirus data from the Rotavirus Surveillance Network coordinated by WHO. We excluded studies conducted during diarrhea outbreaks that did not discriminate between inpatient and outpatient cases, reporting nosocomial infections, those conducted in special populations, not done with adequate methods, and rotavirus studies in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was used. Age-adjusted median proportions for each pathogen were calculated and applied to 712 000 deaths due to diarrhea in children under 5 years for 2011, assuming that those observed among children hospitalized for diarrhea represent those causing child diarrhea deaths. 163 articles and WHO studies done in 31 countries were selected representing 286 inpatient studies. Studies seeking only one pathogen found higher proportions for some pathogens than studies seeking multiple pathogens (e.g. 39% rotavirus in 180 single-pathogen studies vs. 20% in 24 studies with 5-13 pathogens, p<0.0001). The percentage of episodes for which no pathogen could be identified was estimated to be 34%; the total of all age-adjusted percentages for pathogens and no-pathogen cases was 138%. Adjusting all proportions, including unknowns, to add to 100%, we estimated that rotavirus caused 197 000 [Uncertainty range (UR) 110 000-295 000], enteropathogenic E. coli 79 000 (UR 31 000-146 000), calicivirus 71 000 (UR 39 000-113 000), and enterotoxigenic E. coli 42 000 (UR 20 000-76 000) deaths. Rotavirus, calicivirus, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli cause more than half of all diarrheal deaths in children <5 years in the world.
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The global hidden hunger indices and maps: an advocacy tool for action.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the worlds stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions.
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Associations of suboptimal growth with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in children under five years: a pooled analysis of ten prospective studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.
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Evaluating the scale-up for maternal and child survival: a common framework.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Programs to reduce mortality among women and children are the target of new resources and redoubled commitment as the 2015 date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals approaches. The need for a common evaluation framework to guide the collection, analysis and synthesis of evidence is increasingly evident. This paper presents such a framework in four parts: (1) a conceptual model for the scale-up to MDGs 4 and 5 for maternal and child survival; (2) recommended indicators for each part of the model that bring together the work of various existing technical groups and prioritize a limited number of indicators for standardization and common use; (3) guidelines for documenting program implementation and contextual factors that may affect program implementation and its effectiveness in reducing maternal and child mortality; and (4) design considerations in evaluating the scale-up. We first present an overview of what is known and/or agreed upon within each of these areas, and in the discussion highlight areas of uncertainty or where there are gaps to be addressed.
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Laboratory medicine best practices: systematic evidence review and evaluation methods for quality improvement.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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To develop methods for systematically reviewing evidence for identifying effective laboratory medicine (LM) practices associated with improved healthcare quality outcomes.
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Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets.
Popul Health Metr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment.
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Preventive zinc supplementation in developing countries: impact on mortality and morbidity due to diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Zinc deficiency is commonly prevalent in children in developing countries and plays a role in decreased immunity and increased risk of infection. Preventive zinc supplementation in healthy children can reduce mortality due to common causes like diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. The main objective was to determine all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing countries for preventive zinc supplementation. DATA SOURCES/ REVIEW METHODS: A literature search was carried out on PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the WHO regional databases to identify RCTs on zinc supplementation for greater than 3 months in children less than 5 years of age in developing countries and its effect on mortality was analyzed.
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Impact of vitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Vitamin A is important for the integrity and regeneration of respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia and is involved in regulating human immune function. It has been shown previously that vitamin A has a preventive effect on all-cause and disease specific mortality in children under five. The purpose of this paper was to get a point estimate of efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in reducing cause specific mortality by using Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) guidelines.
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Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. New data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region.
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Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness.
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Effect of case management on neonatal mortality due to sepsis and pneumonia.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Each year almost one million newborns die from infections, mostly in low-income countries. Timely case management would save many lives but the relative mortality effect of varying strategies is unknown. We have estimated the effect of providing oral, or injectable antibiotics at home or in first-level facilities, and of in-patient hospital care on neonatal mortality from pneumonia and sepsis for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).
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Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method.
Popul Health Metr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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"Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability.Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsys success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries. From 2005 to 2009, 10 high-mortality states in India conducted community-based maternal verbal/social autopsies with participatory data sharing with communities and health programs that resulted in the implementation of numerous data-driven maternal health interventions.Social autopsy is a powerful tool with the demonstrated ability to raise awareness, provide evidence in the form of actionable data and increase motivation at all levels to take appropriate and effective actions. Further development of the methodology along with standardized instruments and supporting tools are needed to promote its wide-scale adoption and use.
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Levels, timing, and etiology of stillbirths in Sylhet district of Bangladesh.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Lack of data is a critical barrier to addressing the problem of stillbirth in countries with the highest stillbirth burden. Our study objective was to estimate the levels, types, and causes of stillbirth in rural Sylhet district of Bangladesh.
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Stabilizing lithium-sulphur cathodes using polysulphide reservoirs.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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The possibility of achieving high-energy, long-life storage batteries has tremendous scientific and technological significance. An example is the Li-S cell, which can offer a 3-5-fold increase in energy density compared with conventional Li-ion cells, at lower cost. Despite significant advances, there are challenges to its wide-scale implementation, which include dissolution of intermediate polysulphide reaction species into the electrolyte. Here we report a new concept to mitigate the problem, which relies on the design principles of drug delivery. Our strategy employs absorption of the intermediate polysulphides by a porous silica embedded within the carbon-sulphur composite that not only absorbs the polysulphides by means of weak binding, but also permits reversible desorption and release. It functions as an internal polysulphide reservoir during the reversible electrochemical process to give rise to long-term stabilization and improved coulombic efficiency. The reservoir mechanism is general and applicable to Li/S cathodes of any nature.
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Effect of knowledge of community health workers on essential newborn health care: a study from rural India.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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This study explored the relationship between the knowledge of community health workers (CHWs)-anganwadi workers (AWWs) and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs)-and their antenatal home visit coverage and effectiveness of the visits, in terms of essential newborn health care practices at the household level in rural India.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.