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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ambient particulate air pollution and microRNAs in elderly men.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs control gene expression at a posttranscriptional level. Altered microRNA expression has been reported in processes related to cardiovascular disease and PM exposure, such as systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. Polymorphisms in microRNA-related genes could influence response to PM.
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Comparison of traditional and nontraditional weight loss methods: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey.
South. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To evaluate the real-world use of various weight loss techniques and to compare the effectiveness of nontraditional methods with diet and exercise in helping nongeriatric adults lose weight.
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The COMmunity of Practice And Safety Support (COMPASS) total worker health™ study among home care workers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Home care workers are a high-risk group for injury and illness. Their unique work structure presents challenges to delivering a program to enhance their health and safety. No randomized controlled trials have assessed the impact of a Total Worker Health™ program designed for their needs.
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Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150mL flask and a 1L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0mLmin(-1), respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40°C and 20°C, respectively, at the 1L scale. Reactions in the 1L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate concentration profiles for all the components in the reaction. Also, it was possible to detect the presence of a simulated impurity of ethanol (at levels of 2.6 and 9.1% mol/mol) in butan-1-ol, and the resulting production of ethyl acetate, by DLSMS, but not by in-line MIR spectrometry.
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Association between length of gestation and cervical DNA methylation of PTGER2 and LINE 1-HS.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Worldwide, more than 1 in 10 infants is born prior to 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth can lead to increased mortality risk and poor life-long health and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Whether environmental risk factors affect preterm birth through epigenetic phenomena is largely unstudied. We sought to determine whether preterm risk factors, such as smoke exposure and education, were associated with cervical DNA methylation in the prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene (PTGER2) and a repetitive element, long interspersed nuclear element-1 Homo sapiens-specific (LINE 1-HS). Second, we aimed to determine whether mid-pregnancy DNA methylation of these regions in cervical samples could predict the length of gestation. We obtained a cervical swab between 16-19 weeks gestation from 80 women participating in a Mexico City birth cohort, used pyrosequencing to analyze DNA methylation of PTGER2 and LINE 1-HS, and examined associations with maternal covariates. We used accelerated failure time models to analyze associations of DNA methylation with the length of gestation. DNA methylation of both sequences was associated with Pap smear inflammation. LINE 1-HS methylation was associated with smoke exposure, BMI and parity. In adjusted models, gestations were 3.3 days longer (95%CI 0.6, 6.0) for each interquartile range of PTGER2 DNA methylation. Higher LINE 1-HS methylation was associated with shorter gestations (-3.3 days, 95%CI -6.5, -0.2). In conclusion, cervical DNA methylation was associated with risk factors for preterm birth and the length of gestation.
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Associations of prenatal maternal blood mercury concentrations with early and mid-childhood blood pressure: a prospective study.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Childhood blood pressure (BP) is an important determinant of adult cardiovascular disease. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury through maternal fish consumption has been reported to increase the BP of children years later.
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Folding and Hydrodynamics of a DNA i-Motif from the c-MYC Promoter Determined by Fluorescent Cytidine Analogs.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The four-stranded i-motif (iM) conformation of cytosine-rich DNA has importance to a wide variety of biochemical systems that range from their use in nanomaterials to potential roles in oncogene regulation. The iM structure is formed at slightly acidic pH, where hemiprotonation of cytosine results in a stable C-C(+) basepair. Here, we performed fundamental studies to examine iM formation from a C-rich strand from the promoter of the human c-MYC gene. We used a number of biophysical techniques to characterize both the hydrodynamic properties and folding kinetics of a folded iM. Our hydrodynamic studies using fluorescence anisotropy decay and analytical ultracentrifugation show that the iM structure has a compact size in solution and displays the rigidity of a double strand. By studying the rates of circular dichroism spectral changes and quenching of fluorescent cytidine analogs, we also established a mechanism for the folding of a random coil oligo into the iM. In the course of determining this folding pathway, we established that the fluorescent dC analogs tC° and PdC can be used to monitor individual residues of an iM structure and to determine the pKa of an iM. We established that the C-C(+) hydrogen bonding of certain bases initiates the folding of the iM structure. We also showed that substitutions in the loop regions of iMs give a distinctly different kinetic signature during folding compared with bases that are intercalated. Our data reveal that the iM passes through a distinct intermediate form between the unfolded and folded forms. Taken together, our results lay the foundation for using fluorescent dC analogs to follow structural changes during iM formation. Our technique may also be useful for examining folding and structural changes in more complex iMs.
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Contaminated turmeric is a potential source of lead exposure for children in rural Bangladesh.
J Environ Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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During the conduct of a cohort study intended to study the associations between mixed metal exposures and child health outcomes, we found that 78% of 309 children aged 20-40 months evaluated in the Munshiganj District of Bangladesh had blood lead concentrations ?5?µg/dL and 27% had concentrations ?10?µg/dL.
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Maternal iron metabolism gene variants modify umbilical cord blood lead levels by gene-environment interaction: a birth cohort study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Given the relationship between iron metabolism and lead toxicokinetics, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in iron metabolism genes might modify maternal-fetal lead transfer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal and/or infant transferrin (TF) and hemochromatosis (HFE) gene missense variants modify the association between maternal blood lead (MBL) and umbilical cord blood lead (UCBL).
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Monoamine reuptake site occupancy of sibutramine: Relationship to antidepressant-like and thermogenic effects in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Sibutramine was formerly marketed as an anti-obesity agent. The current study investigated the relationships between monoamine reuptake site occupancy for sibutramine and both its antidepressant-like efficacy and thermogenic effects. Sibutramine's effects on locomotor activity (LMA) and food intake were also evaluated. Sibutramine occupied monoamine reuptake binding sites with the rank order of potency of NET>SERT>DAT; at 10mg/kg, po, occupancy was 95% NET, 81% SERT and 73% DAT. Sibutramine produced antidepressant-like behavior in the forced swim test; at the lowest effective dose (3mg/kg, po) occupancy was 61%, 90% and 23% at SERT, NET and DAT sites, respectively. Sibutramine also increased body core temperature in a dose- and time-dependent manner; at the lowest effective dose (30mg/kg) SERT, NET and DAT occupancies were respectively 78%, 86% and 59%. A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 3 and 10mg/kg, po. LMA was increased at ?10mg/kg, sc. The relationship between efficacy in the FST and occupancy was also determined for citalopram, fluoxetine and reboxetine. Similarly, the relationship between thermogenesis and target occupancy for several single or double/triple reuptake inhibitors was measured and showed that >40-50% DAT binding was required for thermogenesis. Thermogenesis was blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH39166 (3mg/kg, sc). Our findings indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of sibutramine may result from additive or synergistic actions on the three reuptake binding targets. At higher doses, sibutramine produces thermogenesis; DAT inhibition and activation of dopamine D1 receptors are required for this effect.
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Chemical mixtures and children's health.
Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Humans are routinely exposed to multiple chemicals simultaneously or sequentially. There is evidence that the toxicity of individual chemicals may depend on the presence of other chemicals. Studies on chemical mixtures are limited, however, because of the lack of sufficient exposure data, limited statistical power, and difficulty in the interpretation of multidimensional interactions. This review summarizes the recent literature examining chemical mixtures and pediatric health outcomes, with an emphasis on metal mixtures.
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Neuroimaging is a novel tool to understand the impact of environmental chemicals on neurodevelopment.
Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The prevalence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders has been increasing over the last several decades. Prenatal and early childhood exposure to environmental toxicants is increasingly recognized as contributing to the growing rate of neurodevelopmental disorders. Very little information is known about the mechanistic processes by which environmental chemicals alter brain development. We review the recent advances in brain imaging modalities and discuss their application in epidemiologic studies of prenatal and early childhood exposure to environmental toxicants.
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Effect of prenatal arsenic exposure on DNA methylation and leukocyte subpopulations in cord blood.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Prenatal arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk of disease in adulthood. This has led to considerable interest in arsenic's ability to disrupt fetal programming. Many studies report that arsenic exposure alters DNA methylation in whole blood but these studies did not adjust for cell mixture. In this study, we examined the relationship between arsenic in maternal drinking water collected ? 16 weeks gestational age and DNA methylation in cord blood (n = 44) adjusting for leukocyte-tagged differentially methylated regions. DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip array. Recursively partitioned mixture modeling examined the relationship between arsenic and methylation at 473,844 CpG sites. Median arsenic concentration in water was 12 µg/L (range<1- 510 µg/L). Log 10 arsenic was associated with altered DNA methylation across the epigenome (P = 0.002); however, adjusting for leukocyte distributions attenuated this association (P = 0.013). We also observed that arsenic had a strong effect on the distribution of leukocytes in cord blood. In adjusted models, every log 10 increase in maternal drinking water arsenic exposure was estimated to increase CD8+ T cells by 7.4% (P = 0.0004) and decrease in CD4+ T cells by 9.2% (P = 0.0002). These results show that prenatal exposure to arsenic had an exposure-dependent effect on specific T cell subpopulations in cord blood and altered DNA methylation in cord blood. Future research is needed to determine if these small changes in DNA methylation alter gene expression or are associated with adverse health effects.
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Reliability and validity of the Home Care STAT (Safety Task Assessment Tool).
Appl Ergon
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Home care workers are a priority population for ergonomic assessment and intervention, but research on caregivers' exposures to hazards is limited. The current project evaluated the reliability and validity of an ergonomic self-assessment tool called Home Care STAT (Safety Task Assessment Tool). Participants (N = 23) completed a background survey followed by 10-14 days of self-monitoring with the STAT. Results showed that the most frequent task was house cleaning, and that participants regularly performed dangerous manual client moving and transferring tasks. Researcher in-home observations of 14 workers (duration ? 2 h) demonstrated that workers' self-assessments were moderately reliable. Correlational and multi-level analyses of daily self-assessment data revealed that several task exposures were significantly related to daily fatigue and/or pain. Other associations have implications for Total Worker Health™; for example, daily stress was positively associated with both pain and consumption of high calorie snacks. Findings support the STAT as a reliable and potentially valid tool for measuring home care workers' exposures to physically demanding tasks.
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Relationships between lead biomarkers and diurnal salivary cortisol indices in pregnant women from Mexico City: a cross-sectional study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Lead (Pb) exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse maternal, infant, or childhood health outcomes by interfering with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function. We examined relationships between maternal blood or bone Pb concentrations and features of diurnal cortisol profiles in 936 pregnant women from Mexico City.
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Racial/ethnic and sociodemographic factors associated with micronutrient intakes and inadequacies among pregnant women in an urban US population.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To assess sociodemographic correlates of micronutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women in the USA.
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Measurement of total occlusal convergence of 3 different tooth preparations in 4 different planes by dental students.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Total occlusal convergence of crown preparation is an important didactic and clinical concept in dental education.
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A systematic review of screw- versus cement-retained implant-supported fixed restorations.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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To systematically evaluate the survival and success of screw- versus cement-retained implant crowns.
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Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ?6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca) in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ??=?0.69; n?=?27; p<0.0001). The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ??=?0.48; n?=?59; p<0.0001) was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ??=?0.35; n?=?41; p<0.03). When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children's blood collected concurrently (Spearman ??=?0.64; n?=?55; p<0.0001). We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding) correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ??=?0.38; n?=?75; p<0.0007). Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed.
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A novel genetic score approach using instruments to investigate interactions between pathways and environment: application to air pollution.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Air pollution has been associated with increased systemic inflammation markers. We developed a new pathway analysis approach to investigate whether gene variants within relevant pathways (oxidative stress, endothelial function, and metal processing) modified the association between particulate air pollution and fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our study population consisted of 822 elderly participants of the Normative Aging Study (1999-2011). To investigate the role of biological mechanisms and to reduce the number of comparisons in the analysis, we created pathway-specific scores using gene variants related to each pathway. To select the most appropriate gene variants, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) to relate independent outcomes representative of each pathway (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine for oxidative stress, augmentation index for endothelial function, and patella lead for metal processing) to gene variants. A high genetic score corresponds to a higher allelic risk profile. We fit mixed-effects models to examine modification by the genetic score of the weekly air pollution association with the outcome. Among participants with higher genetic scores within the oxidative stress pathway, we observed significant associations between particle number and fibrinogen, while we did not find any association among participants with lower scores (p(interaction)?=?0.04). Compared to individuals with low genetic scores of metal processing gene variants, participants with higher scores had greater effects of particle number on fibrinogen (p(interaction)?=?0.12), CRP (p(interaction)?=?0.02), and ICAM-1 (pinteraction?=?0.08). This two-stage penalization method is easy to implement and can be used for large-scale genetic applications.
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Epigenetics and primary care.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Epigenetics, the study of functionally relevant chemical modifications to DNA that do not involve a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence, is at the interface between research and clinical medicine. Research on epigenetic marks, which regulate gene expression independently of the underlying genetic code, has dramatically changed our understanding of the interplay between genes and the environment. This interplay alters human biology and developmental trajectories, and can lead to programmed human disease years after the environmental exposure. In addition, epigenetic marks are potentially heritable. In this article, we discuss the underlying concepts of epigenetics and address its current and potential applicability for primary care providers.
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Associations between arrhythmia episodes and temporally and spatially resolved black carbon and particulate matter in elderly patients.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Ambient air pollution has been associated with sudden deaths, some of which are likely due to ventricular arrhythmias. Defibrillator discharge studies have examined the association of air pollution with arrhythmias in sensitive populations. No studies have assessed this association using residence-specific estimates of air pollution exposure.
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Elevated transferrin saturation, health-related quality of life and telomere length.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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We sought to examine the relationship between elevated transferrin saturation (TS) and measures of health status (telomere length and patient-reported health-related quality of life) to assess whether elevated TS is associated with negative patient outcomes beyond increased risk for morbidity and mortality, using a cross-sectional analysis of the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study supplemented with assays for leukocyte telomere length in adults ?25 years old (n = 669). Among individuals with elevated TS (?45 % for women and ?50 % for men), who also had a usual source of care, only 5.2 % reported ever being told by a doctor that they had an elevated iron condition. In a fully adjusted general linear regression model controlling for demographic characteristics as well as health conditions associated with iron overload, elevated TS versus non-elevated TS was associated with worse general health status (60.4 vs. 63.8, P < 0.05), mental health status (76.5 vs. 82.2, P < 0.0001) and shorter telomere length (241.4 vs. 261.3, P < 0.05). Increased surveillance of elevated TS may be in order as elevated TS is associated with decreased health status and very few patients with elevated TS are aware of their condition.
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Reduction in Chemotherapy Order Errors With Computerized Physician Order Entry.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To measure the number and type of errors associated with chemotherapy order composition associated with three sequential methods of ordering: handwritten orders, preprinted orders, and computerized physician order entry (CPOE) embedded in the electronic health record.
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Inpatient bariatric surgery among eligible black and white men and women in the United States, 1999-2010.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We examined national trends in bariatric surgery for adults, focusing on differences in utilization by race and access to health care.
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Assessment of dietary fish consumption in pregnancy: comparing one-, four- and thirty-six-item questionnaires.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Fish consumption influences a number of health outcomes. Few studies have directly compared dietary assessment methods to determine the best approach to estimating intakes of fish and its component nutrients, including DHA, and toxicants, including methylmercury. Our objective was to compare three methods of assessing fish intake.
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Alleles conferring improved fiber quality from EMS mutagenesis of elite cotton genotypes.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Genetic improvements for many fiber traits are obtained by mutagenesis of elite cottons, mitigating genetic uniformity in this inbred polyploid by contributing novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. The elite gene pool of cotton (Gossypium spp.) has less diversity than those of most other major crops, making identification of novel alleles important to ongoing crop improvement. A total of 3,164 M5 lines resulting from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of two G. hirsutum breeding lines, TAM 94L-25 and Acala 1517-99, were characterized for basic components of fiber quality and selected yield components. Across all measured traits, the ranges of phenotypic values among the mutant lines were consistently larger than could be explained by chance (5.27-10.1 for TAM 94 L-25 and 5.29-7.94 standard deviations for Acala 1517-99-derived lines). Multi-year replicated studies confirmed a genetic basis for these differences, showing significant correlations between lines across years and environments. A subset of 157 lines selected for superior fiber qualities, including fiber elongation (22 lines), length (22), lint percent (17), fineness (23), Rd value (21), strength (19), uniformity (21) and multiple attributes in a selection index (26) were compared to 55 control lines in replicated trials in both Texas and Georgia. For all traits, mutant lines showing substantial and statistically significant improvements over control lines were found, in most cases from each of the two genetic backgrounds. This indicates that genetic improvements for a wide range of fiber traits may be obtained from mutagenesis of elite cottons. Indeed, lines selected for one fiber trait sometimes conferred additional attributes, suggesting pleiotropic effects of some mutations and offering multiple benefits for the incorporation of some alleles into mainstream breeding programs.
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Association between birth weight and DNA methylation of IGF2, glucocorticoid receptor and repetitive elements LINE-1 and Alu.
Epigenomics
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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We examined the association between birth weight and methylation in the imprinted IGF/H19 loci, the nonimprinted gene NR3C1 and repetitive element DNA (LINE-1 and Alu).
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Modifying roles of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms on the association between cumulative lead exposure and cognitive function.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Glutathione-S-transferase gene (GST) polymorphisms can result in variable ability of these enzymes to remove electrophilic substrates. We investigated whether the GSTP1 Val105 and GSTM1 deletion polymorphisms modify the lead-cognitive function association.
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Daily mood-drinking slopes as predictors: A new take on drinking motives and related outcomes.
Psychol Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Motivational models of alcohol consumption have articulated the manner in which positive and negative experiences motivate drinking in unique social contexts (e.g., M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell & P. Mudar, 1995, Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 69, pp. 990-1005). Daily process methodology, in which daily events, moods, and drinking behaviors are reported daily or multiple times per day, has been used to examine behavioral patterns that are consistent with discrete motivations. We advance the notion that repeated patterns of drinking in various social contexts as a function of positive or negative mood increases can provide evidence of individual-level if-then drinking signatures, which in turn can predict drinking-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of slopes to predict longer term drinking motivations and alcohol problems by employing a daily-process study of nonclinical moderate alcohol drinkers (N = 47; 49% women). Participants responded to thrice daily interviews administered via handheld computer for 30 days, followed by a longitudinal telephone survey for 12 months. Participants daily mood-drinking relationships were extracted from hierarchical linear modeling and employed as predictors of 12-month outcomes in multiple regression analyses. Daily mood-drinking patterns demonstrated significant variability across persons, such that moderate drinkers could be reliably differentiated based on those patterns in terms of distinct drinking-related outcomes. Among the results, negative-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were associated with lower subsequent coping motives but positive-mood-solitary-drinking slopes were predictive of higher coping and lower social motives. Conversely, positive-mood-social-drinking associations were predictive of higher enhancement motives and brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test scores. Results are interpreted in light of motivational models of consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Childhood exposure to manganese and postural instability in children living near a ferromanganese refinery in Southeastern Ohio.
Neurotoxicol Teratol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Airborne manganese (Mn) exposure can result in neurotoxicity and postural instability in occupationally exposed workers, yet few studies have explored the association ambient exposure to Mn in children and postural stability. The goal of this study was to determine the association between Mn and lead (Pb) exposure, as measured by blood Pb, blood and hair Mn and time weighted distance (TWD) from a ferromanganese refinery, and postural stability in children. A subset of children ages 7-9years enrolled in the Marietta Community Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES) were invited to participate. Postural balance was conducted on 55 children residing in Marietta, Ohio and the surrounding area. Samples of blood were collected and analyzed for Mn and Pb, and samples of hair were analyzed for Mn. Neuromotor performance was assessed using postural balance testing with a computer force platform system. Pearson correlations were calculated to identify key covariates. Associations between postural balance testing conditions and Mn and Pb exposure were estimated with linear regression analyses adjusting for gender, age, parent IQ, and parent age. Mean blood Mn was 10?g/L (SEM=0.36), mean blood Pb was 0.85?g/dL (SEM=0.05), and mean hair Mn was 0.76?g/g (SEM=0.16). Mean residential distance from the refinery was 11.5km (SEM=0.46). All three measures of Mn exposure were significantly associated with poor postural balance. In addition, low-level blood Pb was also negatively associated with balance outcomes. We conclude that Mn exposure and low-level blood Pb are significantly associated with poor postural balance.
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Associations between traffic-related black carbon exposure and attention in a prospective birth cohort of urban children.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Ambient air pollution may have neurotoxic effects in children. Data examining associations between traffic-related air pollution and attention domains remain sparse.
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Disrupted prenatal maternal cortisol, maternal obesity, and childhood wheeze. Insights into prenatal programming.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Exploring prenatal factors influencing childhood wheeze may inform programming mechanisms.
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Relative importance of phosphorus, fish biomass, and watershed land use as drivers of phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes is potentially influenced by ambient phosphorus concentrations, nutrient loading accentuated by human activities in lake watersheds, and abundance of planktivorous and benthivorous fish. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed the relative importance of these factors influencing phytoplankton abundance over large spatial scales. We assessed relative influences of watershed characteristics, total phosphorus concentrations, and fish biomass on phytoplankton abundance in 70 shallow lakes in western Minnesota (USA) during summer 2005 and 2006. Our independent variables included total phosphorus (TP), benthivore biomass, planktivore biomass, summed planktivore and benthivore biomass (summed fish), areal extent of agriculture in the watershed, region (prairie versus parkland lakes), and year. Predictive models containing from one to three independent variables were compared using an information theoretic approach. The most parsimonious model consisted of TP and summed fish, and had over 10,000-fold greater support compared to models using just TP or summed fish, or models comprised of other variables. We also found no evidence that relative importance of predictor variables differed between regions or years, and parameter estimates of TP and summed fish were temporally and spatially consistent. TP and summed fish were only weakly correlated, and the model using both variables was a large improvement over using either variable alone. This indicates these two variables can independently increase phytoplankton abundance, which emphasizes the importance of managing both nutrients and fish when trying to control phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes.
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Association between blood pressure and DNA methylation of retrotransposons and pro-inflammatory genes.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Methylation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an epigenetic regulator of gene expression that changes with age, but its contribution to aging-related disorders, including high blood pressure (BP), is still largely unknown. We examined the relation of BP to the methylation of retrotransposon sequences of DNA and of selected candidate genes.
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Effect modification by transferrin C2 polymorphism on lead exposure, hemoglobin levels, and IQ.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Iron deficiency and lead exposure remain significant public health issues in many parts of the world and are both independently associated with neurocognitive deficits. Polymorphisms in iron transport pathways have been shown to modify the absorption and toxicity of lead.
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A pilot randomized controlled trial to promote healthful fish consumption during pregnancy: the Food for Thought Study.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Nutritionists advise pregnant women to eat fish to obtain adequate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential nutrient important for optimal brain development. However, concern exists that this advice will lead to excess intake of methylmercury, a developmental neurotoxicant.
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Bond Strength of the Porcelain Repair System to All-Ceramic Copings and Porcelain.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3) ) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 ?m alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3) ) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. RESULTS: When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded only onto the veneering ceramic surface were not statistically significant from those of 50% surface area of composite bonded onto all-ceramic cores. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant differences in the bond strength of a porcelain repair system to alumina and zirconia copings were observed. Increasing the surface of veneering ceramics to a porcelain repair system improved the repair materials bond strength.
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Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.
J Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area.
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Telomere length and elevated iron: the influence of phenotype and HFE genotype.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Elevated body iron stores are associated with morbidity and mortality due to oxidative stress. Hereditary hemochromatosis, a common condition caused by HFE gene mutations, can lead to excess iron storage and disease but clinical penetrance of HFE gene mutations is low and many people with elevated iron stores lack HFE mutations. We analyzed data from the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study to assess the relationship among HFE genotype (individuals with either homozygous or compound heterozygous status for C282Y and/or H63D HFE mutations were defined as genotype positive, or G+), elevated iron phenotype (individuals exceeding gender-specific transferrin saturation and serum ferritin threshold levels were considered phenotype positive, or P+), and leukocyte telomere length, a marker of biological aging and cumulative oxidative stress. In unadjusted analyses in comparison to individuals who were G-P-, G+P- were not significantly different (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.26-2.04), while the G+P+ (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.15-3.56), and G-P+ (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.5-3.29) had increased risk of short telomeres (<=25th percentile) rather than long telomeres (>=75th percentile). In analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, the effect of individuals with elevated iron phenotypes having short telomeres persisted with G+P+ individuals (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.02-3.72), and G-P+ individuals (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.39-3.39) being significantly different from the G-P- group. In conclusion, elevated iron phenotype, but not HFE genotype, was associated with shortened telomeres. Further studies will be needed to determine whether telomere length provides a marker for morbidities specifically associated with iron overload.
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Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
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Modification by hemochromatosis gene polymorphisms of the association between traffic-related air pollution and cognition in older men: a cohort study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Previous studies found effect modification of associations between traffic-related air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes by polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis gene (HFE). As traffic-related air pollution may impact cognition through effects on cardiovascular health or through mechanisms which may also influence cardiovascular outcomes, we hypothesized that HFE polymorphisms would also modify a previously observed association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and cognition in older men.
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Childhood and adult socioeconomic position, cumulative lead levels, and pessimism in later life: the VA Normative Aging Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Pessimism, a general tendency toward negative expectancies, is a risk factor for depression and also heart disease, stroke, and reduced cancer survival. There is evidence that individuals with higher lead exposure have poorer health. However, low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with higher lead levels and greater pessimism, and it is unclear whether lead influences psychological functioning independently of other social factors. The authors considered interrelations among childhood and adult SES, lead levels, and psychological functioning in data collected on 412 Boston area men between 1991 and 2002 in a subgroup of the VA Normative Aging Study. Pessimism was measured by using the Life Orientation Test. Cumulative (tibia) lead was measured by x-ray fluorescence. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the relations as mediated by childhood and adult SES, controlling for age, health behaviors, and health status. An interquartile range increase in lead quartile was associated with a 0.37 increase in pessimism score (P < 0.05). Low childhood and adult SES were related to higher tibia lead levels, and both were also independently associated with higher pessimism. Lead maintained an independent association with pessimism even after childhood and adult SES were considered. Results demonstrate an interrelated role of lead burden and SES over the life course in relation to psychological functioning in older age.
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Isolation, observation, and computational modeling of proposed intermediates in catalytic proton reductions with the hydrogenase mimic Fe2(CO)6S2C6H4.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Proposed electrocatalytic proton reduction intermediates of hydrogenase mimics were synthesized, observed, and studied computationally. A new mechanism for H(2) generation appears to involve Fe(2)(CO)(6)(1,2-S(2)C(6)H(4)) (3), the dianions {[1,2-S(2)C(6)H(4)][Fe(CO)(3)(?-CO)Fe(CO)(2)](2-) (3(2-)), the bridging hydride {[1,2-S(2)C(6)H(4)][Fe(CO)(3)(?-CO)(?-H)Fe(CO)(2)]}(-), 3H(-)(bridging), and the terminal hydride 3H(-)(term-stag), {[1,2-S(2)C(6)H(4)][HFe(CO)(3)Fe(CO)(3)]}(-), as intermediates. The dimeric sodium derivative of 3(2-), {[Na(2)(THF)(OEt(2))(3)][3(2-)]}(2) (4) was isolated from reaction of Fe(2)(CO)(6)(1,2-S(2)C(6)H(4)) (3) with excess sodium and was characterized by X-ray crystallography. It possesses a bridging CO and an unsymmetrically bridging dithiolate ligand. Complex 4 reacts with 4 equiv. of triflic or benzoic acid (2 equiv. per Fe center) to generate H(2) and 3 in 75% and 60% yields, respectively. Reaction of 4 with 2 equiv. of benzoic acid generated two hydrides in a 1.7 : 1 ratio (by (1)H NMR spectroscopy). Chemical shift calculations on geometry optimized structures of possible hydride isomers strongly suggest that the main product, 3H(-)(bridging), possesses a bridging hydride ligand, while the minor product is a terminal hydride, 3H(-)(term-stag). Computational studies support a catalytic proton reduction mechanism involving a two-electron reduction of 3 that severs an Fe-S bond to generate a dangling thiolate and an electron rich Fe center. The latter iron center is the initial site of protonation, and this event is followed by protonation at the dangling thiolate to give the thiol thiolate [Fe(2)H(CO)(6)(1,2-SHSC(6)H(4))]. This species then undergoes an intramolecular acid-base reaction to form a dihydrogen complex that loses H(2) and regenerates 3.
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Chylothorax caused by Paragonimus westermani in a native Californian.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection endemic in Asia but uncommon in the United States. It presents most frequently with cough and hemoptysis. Pleural effusions are common and can manifest occasionally as a pseudochylothorax, but a true chylothorax has, to our knowledge, never been reported. We report a case of a chylothorax from infection with Paragonimus westermani. The case is also unique because it occurred in a native Californian who had not traveled to Asia and was infected by eating raw crabs at a local sushi restaurant. The freshwater crabs had been imported from Asia.
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Increasing predoctoral dental students motivations to specialize in prosthodontics.
J Dent Educ
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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This study provides data about factors that influence dental students decision of which specialty to pursue and describes program changes in prosthodontics designed to expand student interest in a prosthodontics training program. Of 176 current and recently graduated students at Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 167 responded to the e-mail survey for a 94.9 percent response rate. Using the Pearson chi-square analysis, we analyzed nine factors to determine their contribution to these students choice of specialty. Two factors, lecture and faculty/mentoring, were highly significant (p<0.006) regarding impact on the students introductory experience with prosthodontics. When choosing a specialty, 44 percent of all students ranked "enjoyment of providing the specialty service" as the most important factor. Students wishing to specialize in prosthodontics, however, ranked four significant factors: enjoyment of providing the specialty service (p<0.037, p<0.057); faculty influence (p<0.0002, p<0.0001); length of program (p<0.039, p<0.006); and cost of program (p<0.023, p<0.004). Respondents also ranked the nine American Dental Association-recognized specialties regarding their perceptions of future salary and impact on the dental profession. They ranked prosthodontics fourth for future salary and fifth for impact on the profession. At the same time that this study was being conducted, key changes were being made in the graduate prosthodontics program; those appear to have had a positive impact on students interest in pursuing prosthodontics as a specialty.
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Associations of early childhood manganese and lead coexposure with neurodevelopment.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Most toxicologic studies focus on a single agent, although this does not reflect real-world scenarios in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals.
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A 10-year survey of US deans: trends, challenges, and mentoring in prosthodontics. Part 2.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Part 2 of this survey reports on the 2009 survey findings distributed to the deans of US dental schools. A national, electronic survey of 58 dental school deans was distributed by e-mail to evaluate an interest in specialty training, an interest in specialty training in prosthodontics, faculty shortage issues, predoctoral curriculum in prosthodontics, ideology regarding dental specialties, and the administrative position of prosthodontics within the schools.
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Associations of toenail arsenic, cadmium, mercury, manganese, and lead with blood pressure in the normative aging study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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Arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead are associated with cardiovascular disease in epidemiologic research. These associations may be mediated by direct effects of the metals on blood pressure (BP) elevation. Manganese is associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and hypotension in occupational cohorts.
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Longitudinal changes in bone lead levels: the VA Normative Aging Study.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Bone lead is a cumulative measure of lead exposure that can also be remobilized. We examined repeated measures of bone lead over 11 years to characterize long-term changes and identify predictors of tibia and patella lead stores in an elderly male population.
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Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism.
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Ten-year survey of program directors: trends, challenges, and mentoring in prosthodontics. Part 1.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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This study consisted of two parts. Part 1 was a survey of US program directors, and Part 2 reports on the survey findings distributed to the deans of US dental schools. Both surveys evaluated observations of trends in prosthodontic education. The first survey (2005) of program directors and deans was published in 2007. This second survey was conducted in 2009. The 2009 survey provided 10-year data on trends in prosthodontics as reported by program directors.
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Metal sources and exposures in the homes of young children living near a mining-impacted Superfund site.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Children living near hazardous waste sites may be exposed to environmental contaminants, yet few studies have conducted multi-media exposure assessments, including residential environments where children spend most of their time. We sampled yard soil, house dust, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 in 59 homes of young children near an abandoned mining area and analyzed samples for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and manganese (Mn). In over half of the homes, dust concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were higher than those in soil. Proximity to mine waste (chat) piles and the presence of chat in the driveway significantly predicted dust metals levels. Homes with both chat sources had Pb, Zn, Cd, and As dust levels two to three times higher than homes with no known chat sources after controlling for other sources. In contrast, Mn concentrations in dust were consistently lower than in soil and were not associated with chat sources. Mn dust concentrations were predicted by soil concentrations and occupant density. These findings suggest that nearby outdoor sources of metal contaminants from mine waste may migrate indoors. Populations farther away from the mining site may also be exposed if secondary uses of chat are in close proximity to the home.
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QTL alleles for improved fiber quality from a wild Hawaiian cotton, Gossypium tomentosum.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Seventeen backcross-self families from crosses between two Gossypium hirsutum recurrent parent lines (CA3084, CA3093) and G. tomentosum were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling fiber quality traits. A total of 28 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified (P < 0.001), including four for fiber elongation, eight for fiber fineness, four for fiber length, four for fiber strength, six for fiber uniformity, one for boll weight, and one for boll number. Three statistically significant marker-trait associations for lint yield were found in a single environment, but need further validation. Two-way analysis of variance revealed one locus with significant genotype × family interaction (P < 0.001) for fiber strength and a second locus with significant genotype × environment interaction (P < 0.001) in the CA3084 background, and two loci with significant genotype × background interaction (P < 0.001) for the 28 common markers segregating in both of the two recurrent backgrounds. Co-location of many QTLs for fiber quality traits partially explained correlations among these traits. Some G. tomentosum alleles were associated with multiple favorable effects, offering the possibility of rapid genetic gain by introgression. Many G. tomentosum alleles were recalcitrant to homozygosity, suggesting that they might be most effectively deployed in hybrid cottons. DNA markers linked to G. tomentosum QTLs identified in the present study promise to assist breeders in transferring and maintaining valuable traits from this exotic source during Upland cotton cultivar development. This study also adds further evidence to prior studies indicating that the majority of genetic variation associated with fiber quality in tetraploid cotton traces to the D-subgenome from a diploid ancestor that does not produce spinnable fiber.
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Association between prenatal lead exposure and blood pressure in children.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Lead exposure in adults is associated with hypertension. Altered prenatal nutrition is associated with subsequent risks of adult hypertension, but little is known about whether prenatal exposure to toxicants, such as lead, may also confer such risks.
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Highly stable binding proteins derived from the hyperthermophilic Sso7d scaffold.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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We have shown that highly stable binding proteins for a wide spectrum of targets can be generated through mutagenesis of the Sso7d protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Sso7d is a small (~7 kDa, 63 amino acids) DNA-binding protein that lacks cysteine residues and has a melting temperature of nearly 100 °C. We generated a library of 10(8) Sso7d mutants by randomizing 10 amino acid residues on the DNA-binding surface of Sso7d, using yeast surface display. Binding proteins for a diverse set of model targets could be isolated from this library; our chosen targets included a small organic molecule (fluorescein), a 12 amino acid peptide fragment from the C-terminus of ?-catenin, the model proteins hen egg lysozyme and streptavidin, and immunoglobulins from chicken and mouse. Without the application of any affinity maturation strategy, the binding proteins isolated had equilibrium dissociation constants in the nanomolar to micromolar range. Further, Sso7d-derived binding proteins could discriminate between closely related immunoglobulins. Mutant proteins based on Sso7d were expressed at high yields in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. Despite extensive mutagenesis, Sso7d mutants have high thermal stability; five of six mutants analyzed have melting temperatures >89 °C. They are also resistant to chemical denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride and retain their secondary structure after extended incubation at extreme pH values. Because of their favorable properties, such as ease of recombinant expression, and high thermal, chemical and pH stability, Sso7d-derived binding proteins will have wide applicability in several areas of biotechnology and medicine.
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Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older men.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking environmental exposures to disease. Exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and lower blood DNA methylation has been found in processes related to cardiovascular morbidity.
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Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth: clues from environmental exposures.
Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Despite advances in medical care, preterm birth and its associated racial/ethnic disparities remain major public health issues. Environmental exposures may contribute to racial disparities in preterm birth.
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A dopamine receptor (DRD2) but not dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphism is associated with neurocognitive development of Mexican preschool children with lead exposure.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and polymorphisms in dopamine metabolism genes on neurocognitive development of Mexican children at 24 months (n = 220) and 48 months (n = 186) of age.
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Lead concentrations in relation to multiple biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: the Normative Aging Study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Lead exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal and human studies. However, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. We therefore examined the relationship between lead and multiple biomarkers of CVD.
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Hemoglobin, lead exposure, and intelligence quotient: effect modification by the DRD2 Taq IA polymorphism.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Anemia and lead exposure remain significant public health issues in many parts of the world, often occurring together. Animal studies suggest that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) mediates the effects of both lead and iron on cognition and behavior.
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Disulfide passivation of the Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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Understanding the bonding of sulfur at the germanium surface is important to developing good passivation routes for germanium-based electronic devices. The adsorption behavior of ethyl disulfide (EDS) and 1,8-naphthalene disulfide (NDS) at the Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface has been studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to investigate both their fundamental reactivity and their effectiveness as passivants of this surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, multiple internal reflection-infrared spectroscopy, and density functional theory results indicate that both molecules adsorb via S-S dissociation at room temperature. Upon exposure to ambient air, the thiolate adlayer remains intact for both EDS- and NDS-functionalized surfaces, indicating the stability of this surface attachment. Although both systems resist oxidation compared to the bare Ge(100)-2 × 1 surface, the Ge substrate is significantly oxidized in all cases (17-57% relative to the control), with the NDS-passivated surface undergoing up to two times more oxidation than the EDS-passivated surface at the longest air exposure times studied. The difference in passivation capability is attributed to the difference in surface coverage on Ge(100)-2 × 1, where EDS adsorption leads to a saturation coverage 17% higher than that for NDS/Ge(100)-2 × 1.
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Critical windows of fetal lead exposure: adverse impacts on length of gestation and risk of premature delivery.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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Research on the role of environmental lead exposure in the complex etiology of premature birth has yielded inconsistent results. We assessed the trimester-specific effect of prenatal lead exposure on gestational age and risk of premature delivery.
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Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by ambient pollution in the Normative Aging Study.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Studies show that exposure to air pollution damages human health, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. One suggested pathway is via oxidative stress.
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National and international graduate migration flows.
Popul Trends
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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This article examines the nature of national and international graduate migration flows in the UK. Migration equations are estimated with microdata from a matched dataset of Students and Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education, information collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The probability of migrating is related to a set of observable characteristics using multinomial logit regression. The analysis suggests that migration is a selective process with graduates with certain characteristics having considerably higher probabilities of migrating, both to other regions of the UK and abroad.
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Examining the drought stress transcriptome in cotton leaf and root tissue.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Growth, yield, and yield quality of cotton are greatly affected by water-deficit stress. We have identified the genes and associated metabolic pathways involved in the water-deficit stress response in leaf and root. Gene expression profiles were developed for leaf and root tissues subjected to slow-onset water deficit under controlled, glasshouse conditions. The water-deficit stress was characterized by leaf water potential of -23.1 bars for stressed tissue compared to -8.7 bars for fully-irrigated control plants and a corresponding decrease in net carbon assimilation to approximately 60% of the rates seen in the irrigated controls (30.3 ± 4.7 ?mol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) compared to 17.8 ± 5.9 ?mol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1)). Profiling experiments revealed 2,106 stress-responsive transcripts, 879 classified as stress-induced, 1,163 stress-repressed, and 64 showed reciprocal expression patterns in root and leaf. The majority of stress-responsive transcripts had tissue-specific expression patterns and only 173 genes showed similar patterns of stress responsive expression in both tissues. A variety of putative metabolic and regulatory pathways were identified using MapMan software and the potential targets for candidate gene selection and ectopic expression to alter these pathways and responses are discussed.
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A qualitative study of fish consumption during pregnancy.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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Many pregnant women in the United States do not consume enough docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--an essential nutrient found in fish. Apparently conflicting findings that fish consumption is beneficial for the developing fetus, yet potentially toxic because of mercury contamination, have created uncertainty about the appropriate fish-consumption advice to provide to pregnant women.
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Ischemic heart disease and stroke in relation to blood DNA methylation.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Epigenetic features such as DNA hypomethylation have been associated with conditions related to cardiovascular risk. We evaluated whether lower blood DNA methylation in heavily methylated repetitive sequences predicts the risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.