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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proteomics analysis suggests broad functional changes in potato leaves triggered by phosphites and a complex indirect mode of action against Phytophthora infestans.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Phosphite (salts of phosphorous acid; Phi)-based fungicides are increasingly used in controlling oomycete pathogens, such as the late blight agent Phytophthora infestans. In plants, low amounts of Phi induce pathogen resistance through an indirect mode of action. We used iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics to investigate the effects of phosphite on potato plants before and after infection with P. infestans. Ninety-three (62 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated) differentially regulated proteins, from a total of 1172 reproducibly identified proteins, were identified in the leaf proteome of Phi-treated potato plants. Four days post-inoculation with P. infestans, 16 of the 31 down-regulated proteins remained down-regulated and 42 of the 62 up-regulated proteins remained up-regulated, including 90% of the defense proteins. This group includes pathogenesis-related, stress-responsive, and detoxification-related proteins. Callose deposition and ultrastructural analyses of leaf tissues after infection were used to complement the proteomics approach. This study represents the first comprehensive proteomics analysis of the indirect mode of action of Phi, demonstrating broad effects on plant defense and plant metabolism. The proteomics data and the microscopy study suggest that Phi triggers a hypersensitive response that is responsible for induced resistance of potato leaves against P. infestans.
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A soluble high molecular weight copolymer of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene and benzoxadiazole for efficient organic photovoltaics.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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The synthesis and characterization of a soluble high molecular weight copolymer based on 4,8-bis(1-pentylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene and 2,1,3-benzoxadiazole is presented. High efficiency organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices comprised of this polymer and phenyl-C(71) -butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71) BM) were fabricated by additive processing with 1-chloronapthalene (CN). When the active layer is cast from pristine chlorobenzene (CB), power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) average 1.41%. Our best condition-using 2% chloronapthalene as a solvent additive in CB-results in an average PCE of 5.65%, with a champion efficiency of 6.05%.
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Binuclear initiators for the telechelic synthesis of elastomeric polyolefins.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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Novel binuclear complexes, 4,4-bis{[N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2-(2,6-diisopropylphenylimino)propanamidato-?(2)-N,O-(trimethylphosphine)nickel(II)]methyl}-1,1-biphenyl (2a) and 4,4-bis{[N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2-(2,6-diisopropylphenylimino)-4-methylpentamidato-?(2)-N,O-(trimethylphosphine)nickel(II)]methyl}-1,1-biphenyl (2b), were synthesized by linking two nickel centers through a bis(benzyl) fragment. When activated with nickel bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene) (Ni(COD)(2)), 2a and 2b are capable of polymerizing ethylene in a quasi-living fashion, producing polymers with approximately twice the molecular weights relative to those obtained by using a structurally related mononuclear system. In addition, 2b/Ni(COD)(2) was utilized to synthesize a series of pseudo-triblock polyethylene (PE) macroinitiating copolymers, bearing atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiators. Pseudo-pentablock copolymers were also prepared by taking advantage of a pressure-pulsing technique, wherein the ethylene pressure was increased from 100 to 500 psi in order to produce semicrystalline ethylene-rich end-blocks. Copolymers with elastomeric properties were synthesized by grafting n-butyl acrylate from the PE macroinitiators via ATRP. Examination using monotonic and step-cyclic stress-strain tests demonstrates that the materials exhibit large strains at break (1600-2000%) and excellent elastic recoveries at large strains (?80%). That materials with such desirable properties could not be attained using a mononuclear initiator demonstrates the clear advantage of growing the polymer via a telechelic mechanism.
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Expression of RNA interference triggers from an oncolytic herpes simplex virus results in specific silencing in tumour cells in vitro and tumours in vivo.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumours remains a major obstacle for the development of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. Following the promising pre-clinical and clinical results with the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) OncoVEX GM-CSF, we aimed to express RNAi triggers from oncolytic HSV, which although has the potential to improve treatment by silencing tumour-related genes, was not considered possible due to the highly oncolytic properties of HSV.
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Effect of processing additive on the nanomorphology of a bulk heterojunction material.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) material Si-PDTBT:PC(70)BM is sensitive to the use of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as a processing additive; CN as a cosolvent (e.g., 4% in chlorobenzene) causes in a factor of 2 increase in the power conversion efficiency of BHJ solar cells. The morphology of the BHJ material, prepared with and without the CN additive is studied with top-down transmission electron microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The improved performance is the result of changes in the nanoscale morphology. Field-effect transistor measurements are consistent with the observed changes in morphology.
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Phase I/II study of oncolytic HSV GM-CSF in combination with radiotherapy and cisplatin in untreated stage III/IV squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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This study sought to define the recommended dose of JS1/34.5-/47-/GM-CSF, an oncolytic herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV-1) encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), for future studies in combination with chemoradiotherapy in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN).
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Delivery of RNA interference triggers to sensory neurons in vivo using herpes simplex virus.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Pain is a hugely important area of research attracting considerable academic and commercial interest. However, the application of RNA interference (RNAi) to the study of nociceptive processes and the development of new analgesics has been limited by the specific challenges associated with the delivery of RNAi triggers to the cell bodies of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG).
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Oncolysis using herpes simplex virus type 1 engineered to express cytosine deaminase and a fusogenic glycoprotein for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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To determine if prodrug conversion of fluorocytosine to fluorouracil by an engineered herpes virus, OncoVEX(GALV/CD), enhances oncolytic therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
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A third-generation herpesvirus is effective against gastroesophageal cancer.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Gastroesophageal cancer remains a leading cause of cancer deaths and is uniformly fatal in patients presenting with metastases and recurrence. This study sets out to determine the effect of a third-generation, replication-competent, oncolytic herpes simplex type 1 virus containing transgenes encoding for a fusogenic membrane glycoprotein and Fcy::Fur, against gastroesophageal cancer.
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Phase II clinical trial of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-encoding, second-generation oncolytic herpesvirus in patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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Treatment options for metastatic melanoma are limited. We conducted this phase II trial to assess the efficacy of JS1/34.5-/47-/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in stages IIIc and IV disease.
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Streamlined microwave-assisted preparation of narrow-bandgap conjugated polymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells.
Nat Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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The most efficient plastic solar cells comprise a blend of conjugated polymer and a suitable electron acceptor, typically a fullerene derivative. Therefore narrow-bandgap conjugated polymers are currently sought for the fabrication of such devices. A significant challenge is being able to predict device function and performance from consideration of the molecular connectivity and dimensions of the partners within the active layer. Improved chemical syntheses are therefore required to make structurally varied polymers and enable the delineation of structure-function relationships with the aim of improving power conversion efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate that microwave heating in combination with the screening of comonomer reactant ratios can be used to obtain donor-acceptor copolymers with high average molecular weights and properties that make them suitable for solar cell incorporation. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of high molecular weight and the contribution of solubilizing side groups in determining the final device properties.
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Band gap control in conjugated oligomers via Lewis acids.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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A simple and effective strategy for optical band gap control is demonstrated through the use of a novel small acceptor/donor/acceptor molecule, 1, and group-13 Lewis acids. Chromophore 1 contains a dithienolesilole donor unit end-capped with benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole (BT) acceptor units. Addition to 1 of stoichiometeric quantities of Lewis acids of varying strength resulted in the formation of Lewis adducts with progressively red-shifted primary charge-transfer absorption bands. These complexes have absorption spectra that approach those of known conjugated copolymers containing related units. NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that 1 binds 2 equiv of Lewis acid via the nitrogen at the 3-position of BT.
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Construction and characterization of an oncolytic HSV vector containing a fusogenic glycoprotein and prodrug activation for enhanced local tumor control.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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A large number of oncolytic viral vectors are currently under clinical development for cancer therapy. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has demonstrated particular promise in this field, showing genetically engineered selective tumor replication and cytotoxicity in a wide variety of tumor types, without damaging healthy tissues. Enhanced activity has been observed when a range of therapeutic genes has been inserted into various oncolytic HSV genomes. Here, we discuss methods used to develop and characterize an oncolytic HSV virus that combines expression of a highly potent prodrug activating gene (yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion [Fcy::Fur]) and the fusogenic glycoprotein from gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) for enhanced local tumor control.
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Low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated polymer nanoparticles and their NIR-mediated thermal ablation of cancer cells.
Macromol Biosci
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Low band gap D-A conjugated PNs consisting of 2-ethylhexyl cyclopentadithiophene co-polymerized with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (for nano-PCPDTBT) or 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole (for nano-PCPDTBSe) have been developed. The PNs are stable in aqueous media and showed no significant toxicity up to 1 mg?·?mL(-1) . Upon exposure to 808?nm light, the PNs generated temperatures above 50?°C. Photothermal ablation studies of the PNs with RKO and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were performed. At concentrations above 100?µg?·?mL(-1) for nano-PCPDTBSe, cell viability was less than 20%, while at concentrations above 62?µg?·?mL(-1) for nano-PCPDTBT, cell viability was less than 10%. The results of this work demonstrate that low band gap D-A conjugated polymers 1) can be formed into nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous media; 2) are non-toxic until stimulated by IR light and 3) have a high photothermal efficiency.
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Protein profiling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf tissues by differential centrifugation.
J. Proteome Res.
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Foliar diseases, such as late blight, result in serious threats to potato production. As such, potato leaf tissue becomes an important substrate to study biological processes, such as plant defense responses to infection. Nonetheless, the potato leaf proteome remains poorly characterized. Here, we report protein profiling of potato leaf tissues using a modified differential centrifugation approach to separate the leaf tissues into cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. This method helps to increase the number of identified proteins, including targeted putative cell wall proteins. The method allowed for the identification of 1484 nonredundant potato leaf proteins, of which 364 and 447 were reproducibly identified proteins in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. Reproducibly identified proteins corresponded to over 70% of proteins identified in each replicate. A diverse range of proteins was identified based on their theoretical pI values, molecular masses, functional classification, and biological processes. Such a protein extraction method is effective for the establishment of a highly qualified proteome profile.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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