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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin to induction chemotherapy in adult patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised controlled trials.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin was the first example of antibody-directed chemotherapy in cancer, and was developed for acute myeloid leukaemia. However, randomised trials in which it was combined with standard induction chemotherapy in adults have produced conflicting results. We did a meta-analysis of individual patient data to assess the efficacy of adding gemtuzumab ozogamicin to induction chemotherapy in adult patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.
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Impact of FLT3(ITD) mutant allele level on relapse risk in intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Some studies have suggested that cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with low levels of FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3(ITD)) do not have a worse prognosis if there is a concomitant NPM1 mutation, although this is controversial. To clarify this therapeutically important issue, we have analyzed FLT3(ITD) and NPM1(MUT) levels in 1609 younger adult cases of cytogenetically intermediate-risk AML. The cumulative incidence of relapse was increased in NPM1(MUT) cases by the presence of a FLT3(ITD), but did not differ markedly according to FLT3(ITD) level. This remained true when allowance was made for poor leukemic cell purity by adjustment of the FLT3(ITD) level to the measured NPM1(MUT) level. If consolidation therapies are to be determined by relapse risk, then NPM1(MUT) cases with low-level FLT3(ITD) should not be considered as good risk without further studies. AML 12 and AML 15 are registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com under ISRCTN17833622 and ISRCTN17161961, respectively.
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International randomized phase III study of elacytarabine versus investigator choice in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) eventually experience relapse. Relapsed/refractory AML has a dismal prognosis and currently available treatment options are generally ineffective. The objective of this large, international, randomized clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy of elacytarabine, a novel elaidic acid ester of cytarabine, versus the investigator's choice of one of seven commonly used AML salvage regimens, including high-dose cytarabine, multiagent chemotherapy, hypomethylating agents, hydroxyurea, and supportive care.
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Can we say farewell to monitoring minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukaemia?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Molecularly targeted therapies have transformed the management of PML-RARA+ acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), with survival rates now exceeding 80% in clinical trials. This raises questions about the relevance of post-remission monitoring for PML-RARA transcripts, which has been widely used to predict relapse, guiding early intervention to prevent disease progression and the inherent risk of fatal bleeding. Given the treatability of haematological relapse, survival benefits would only be seen if monitoring could identify patients who could be salvaged if treated early but not later on, although it could be argued that early deployment of arsenic trioxide (ATO) can avoid inducing hyperleucocytosis and the associated differentiation syndrome, which frequently complicate treatment of frank relapse. However, given the low rates of relapse now observed in patients presenting with standard risk disease (i.e. presenting WBC<10×10(9)/l) who achieve early molecular remission, subsequent sequential minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring confers only a marginal benefit, so could be avoided in this group. However, sequential MRD monitoring may still be of value in patients with high risk APL, although evidence tends to come from historically controlled studies. Therefore, there may remain a role for MRD monitoring in the most clinically challenging subsets of APL, but the continuing debate highlights the need for robust evidence in developing a more individualized approach to management of other subtypes of acute leukaemia.
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Telomere dysfunction accurately predicts clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, even in patients with early stage disease.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Defining the prognosis of individual cancer sufferers remains a significant clinical challenge. Here we assessed the ability of high-resolution single telomere length analysis (STELA), combined with an experimentally derived definition of telomere dysfunction, to predict the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We defined the upper telomere length threshold at which telomere fusions occur and then used the mean of the telomere 'fusogenic' range as a prognostic tool. Patients with telomeres within the fusogenic range had a significantly shorter overall survival (P < 0·0001; Hazard ratio [HR] = 13·2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11·6-106·4) and this was preserved in early-stage disease patients (P < 0·0001, HR=19·3, 95% CI = 17·8-802·5). Indeed, our assay allowed the accurate stratification of Binet stage A patients into those with indolent disease (91% survival at 10 years) and those with poor prognosis (13% survival at 10 years). Furthermore, patients with telomeres above the fusogenic mean showed superior prognosis regardless of their IGHV mutation status or cytogenetic risk group. In keeping with this finding, telomere dysfunction was the dominant variable in multivariate analysis. Taken together, this study provides compelling evidence for the use of high-resolution telomere length analysis coupled with a definition of telomere dysfunction in the prognostic assessment of CLL.
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The PDK1 master kinase is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia and promotes PKC-mediated survival of leukemic blasts.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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PDK1 is a master kinase that activates at least six protein kinase groups including AKT, PKC and S6K and is a potential target in the treatment of a range of malignancies. Here we show overexpression of PDK1 in over 40% of myelomonocytic acute leukaemia patients. Overexpression of PDK1 occurred uniformly throughout the leukaemic population, including putative leukaemia initiating cells. Clinical outcome analysis revealed PDK1 overexpression was associated with poorer treatment outcome. Primary acute myeloid leukaemia blasts overexpressing PDK1 showed improved in vitro survival and ectopic expression of PDK1 promoted the survival of myeloid cell lines. Analysis of PDK1 target kinases revealed that PDK1 overexpression was most closely associated with increased phosphorylation of PKC isoenzymes and inhibition of PKC strongly inhibited the survival advantage of PDK1 overexpressing cells. Membrane localization studies implicated PKC? as a major target for PDK1 in this disease. PDK1 overexpressing blasts showed differential sensitivity to PDK1 inhibition (in the low micromolar range) suggesting oncogene addiction, whilst normal bone marrow progenitors were refractory to PDK1 inhibition at effective inhibitor concentrations. PDK1 inhibition also targeted subpopulations of leukaemic blasts with a putative leukaemia initiating cell phenotype. Together these data show that overexpression of PDK1 is common in acute myelomonocytic leukaemia and is associated with poorer treatment outcome, probably arising from the cytoprotective function of PDK1. We also show that therapeutic targeting of PDK1 has the potential to be both an effective and selective treatment for these patients and is also compatible with current treatment regimes.
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ASXL1 mutations are infrequent in young patients with primary acute myeloid leukemia and their detection has a limited role in therapeutic risk stratification.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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ASXL1 mutations are recurrent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but it is unclear whether ASXL1 genotype might influence patient management. We analyzed frequency and impact in younger (15-59 years) and older (? 60 years) patients with primary or secondary disease. Overall, 9% had truncating mutations. Incidence was significantly lower in younger patients with primary than with secondary disease (4%, 12%; p = 0.03). In older patients it did not differ significantly (11%, 15%; p = 0.5). In univariate analysis, ASXL1-mutated patients had a worse outcome (5-year relapse 83% vs. 56%, p = 0.01; overall survival [OS] 6% vs. 22%, p = 0.02). However in multivariate analysis, ASXL1 mutations had no prognostic significance (for OS, p = 0.3), because age was a major confounding factor. The low incidence of mutations in younger patients with primary disease and the lack of significance in multivariate analysis indicate that there is a limited role for screening at diagnosis for ASXL1 mutations for the purpose of prognostic stratification.
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Overproduction of NOX-derived ROS in AML promotes proliferation and is associated with defective oxidative stress signaling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is frequently observed in cancer and is known to strongly influence hematopoietic cell function. Here we report that extracellular ROS production is strongly elevated (mean >10-fold) in >60% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and that this increase is attributable to constitutive activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX). In contrast, overproduction of mitochondrial ROS was rarely observed. Elevated ROS was found to be associated with lowered glutathione levels and depletion of antioxidant defense proteins. We also show for the first time that the levels of ROS generated were able to strongly promote the proliferation of AML cell lines, primary AML blasts, and, to a lesser extent, normal CD34(+) cells, and that the response to ROS is limited by the activation of the oxidative stress pathway mediated though p38(MAPK). Consistent with this, we observed that p38(MAPK) responses were attenuated in patients expressing high levels of ROS. These data show that overproduction of NOX-derived ROS can promote the proliferation of AML blasts and that they also develop mechanisms to suppress the stress signaling that would normally limit this response. Together these adaptations would be predicted to confer a competitive advantage to the leukemic clone.
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Prognostic relevance of treatment response measured by flow cytometric residual disease detection in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a high relapse rate after standard chemotherapy. We investigated whether measuring chemotherapy sensitivity by multiparameter flow cytometric minimal residual disease (MFC-MRD) detection has prognostic value in patients older than age 60 years or is simply a surrogate for known age-related risk factors.
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EZH2 mutations are frequent and represent an early event in follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Gain of function mutations in the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 represent a promising therapeutic target in germinal center lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the frequency and distribution of EZH2 mutations in a large cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 366) and performed a longitudinal analysis of mutation during the disease progression from FL to transformed FL (tFL) (n = 33). Mutations were detected at 3 recurrent mutation hot spots (Y646, A682, and A692) in 27% of FL cases with variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 2% to 61%. By comparing VAF of EZH2 with other mutation targets (CREBBP, MLL2, TNFRSF14, and MEF2B), we were able to distinguish patients harboring clonal EZH2 mutation from rarer cases with subclonal mutations. Overall, the high incidence of EZH2 mutations in FL and their stability during disease progression makes FL an appropriate disease to evaluate EZH2 targeted therapy.
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Optimization of chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results of the medical research council AML15 trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Treatment outcomes in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have improved, but optimization and new combinations are needed. We assess three combinations in induction and consolidation.
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Clofarabine doubles the response rate in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia but does not improve survival.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Better treatment is required for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) not considered fit for intensive chemotherapy. We report a randomized comparison of low-dose Ara-C (LDAC) vs the novel nucleoside, clofarabine, in untreated older patients with AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A total of 406 patients with de novo (62%), secondary disease (24%), or high-risk MDS (>10% marrow blasts) (15%), median age 74 years, were randomized to LDAC 20 mg twice daily for 10 days every 6 weeks or clofarabine 20 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 5, both for up to 4 courses. These patients had more adverse demographics than contemporaneous intensively treated patients. The overall remission rate was 28%, and 2-year survival was 13%. Clofarabine significantly improved complete remission (22% vs 12%; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47 [0.28-0.79]; P = .005) and overall response (38% vs 19%; HR = 0.41 [0.26-0.62]; P < .0001), but there was no difference in overall survival, explained by poorer survival in the clofarabine patients who did not gain complete remission and also following relapse. Clofarabine was more myelosuppressive and required more supportive care. Although clofarabine doubled remission rates, overall survival was not improved overall or in any subgroup. The treatment of patients of the type treated here remains a major unmet need.
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The paradox of NKp46+ natural killer cells: drivers of severe hepatitis C virus-induced pathology but in-vivo resistance to interferon ? treatment.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that natural killer (NK) cells help control persistent viral infections including hepatitis C virus (HCV). The phenotype and function of blood and intrahepatic NK cells, in steady state and after interferon (IFN) ? treatment has not been fully elucidated. DESIGN: We performed a comparison of NK cells derived from blood and intrahepatic compartments in multiple paired samples from patients with a variety of chronic liver diseases. Furthermore, we obtained serial paired samples from an average of five time points in HCV patients treated with IFN?. RESULTS: Liver NK cells demonstrate a distinct activated phenotype compared to blood manifested as downregulation of the NK cell activation receptors CD16, NKG2D, and NKp30; with increased spontaneous degranulation and IFN production. In contrast, NKp46 expression was not downregulated. Indeed, NKp46-rich NK populations were the most activated, correlating closely with the severity of liver inflammation. Following initiation of IFN? treatment there was a significant increase in the proportion of intrahepatic NK cells at days 1 and 3. NKp46-rich NK populations demonstrated no reserve activation capacity with IFN? treatment and were associated with poor viral control on treatment and treatment failure. CONCLUSIONS: NKp46 marks out pathologically activated NK cells, which may result from a loss of homeostatic control of activating receptor expression in HCV. Paradoxically these pathological NK cells do not appear to be involved in viral control in IFN?-treated individuals and, indeed, predict slower rates of viral clearance.
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GATA2 mutations in sporadic and familial acute myeloid leukaemia patients with CEBPA mutations.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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GATA2 mutations have recently been reported in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with CEBPA-double mutations. To explore their impact on this favourable-risk disease, we determined GATA2 status in 153 sporadic AML patients and three members of a germ-line CEBPA-mutant family at AML presentation. Overall, 27% (15/55) CEBPA-double, 16% (7/43) CEBPA-single and 0% (0/55) normal karyotype/CEBPA-wild-type patients were GATA2-mutant. All familial AML patients acquired both a second CEBPA and a GATA2 mutation. CEBPA and GATA2 mutant levels indicated that both mutations were likely to be early events in leukaemogenesis. GATA2 status did not impact on the favourable outcome of CEBPA-double/FLT3-inernal tandem duplication-negative patients.
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Curability of patients with acute myeloid leukemia who did not undergo transplantation in first remission.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The aims of this study were to quantify the prospects of salvage treatment of patients who did not undergo transplantation in first complete remission (CR1) and to assess the contribution of allograft in second complete remission (CR2) with respect to major risk groups. This evaluation can inform the decision whether to offer a transplant in CR1.
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Does BCR/ABL1 positive acute myeloid leukaemia exist?
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The BCR/ABL1 fusion gene, usually carried by the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) resulting from t(9;22)(q34;q11) or variants, is pathognomonic for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). It is also occasionally found in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) mostly in adults and rarely in de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) was used to study six Ph(+)AML, three bi-lineage and four Ph(+)ALL searching for specific genomic profiles. Surprisingly, loss of the IKZF1 and/or CDKN2A genes, the hallmark of Ph(+)ALL, were recurrent findings in Ph(+)AML and accompanied cryptic deletions within the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes. The latter two losses have been shown to be part of hot spot genome imbalances associated with BCR/ABL1 positive pre-B lymphoid phenotype in CML and Ph(+)ALL. We applied Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) to data from the hot spot regions to the Ph(+)AML and a further 40 BCR/ABL1(+) samples looking for differentiating features. After exclusion of the most dominant markers, SAM identified aberrations unique to de novo Ph(+)AML that involved relevant genes. While the biological and clinical significance of this specific genome signature remains to be uncovered, the unique loss within the immunoglobulin genes provides a simple test to enable the differentiation of clinically similar de novo Ph(+) AML and myeloid blast crisis of CML.
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Significance of FAB subclassification of "acute myeloid leukemia, NOS" in the 2008 WHO classification: analysis of 5848 newly diagnosed patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies acute myeloid leukemia (AML) via genetic, immunophenotypic, biological, and clinical features. Still, "AML, not otherwise specified (NOS)" is further subdivided based on morphologic criteria similar to those of the French-American-British (FAB) classification. We analyzed the relevance of this practice in patients with newly diagnosed "AML, NOS" with available FAB information undergoing curative-intent therapy in trials of 3 cooperative study groups (Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology/Oncology [HOVON], UK Medical Research Council/National Cancer Research Institute [MRC/NCRI], and the US cooperative group Southwest Oncology Group [SWOG]) or at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Ignoring information on NPM1 and CEBPA, 5848 patients met criteria for "AML, NOS." After multivariate adjustment, FAB M0 was independently associated with significantly lower likelihood of achieving complete remission and inferior relapse-free and overall survival as compared with FAB M1, M2, M4, M5, and M6, with inconclusive data regarding M7. However, restricting attention to known NPM1(neg) patients, FAB M0 was no longer associated with worse outcomes; restricting attention to patients known to be NPM1(neg)/CEPBA(neg) (ie, honoring the provisional entities of "AML with mutated NPM1" and "AML with mutated CEBPA") did not affect this result. In conclusion, in the 2008 WHO classification scheme, FAB subclassification does not provide prognostic information for "AML, NOS" cases if data on NPM1 and CEBPA mutations are available.
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Defining the prognosis of early stage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Approximately 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients present with early stage disease, therefore defining which patients will progress and require treatment is a major clinical challenge. Here, we present the largest study of prognostic markers ever carried out in Binet stage A patients (n?=?1154) with a median follow-up of 8?years. We assessed the prognostic impact of lymphocyte doubling time (LDT), immunoglobulin gene (IGHV) mutation status, CD38 expression, ZAP-70 expression and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) cytogenetics with regards to time to first treatment (TTFT) and overall survival (OS). Univariate analysis revealed LDT as the most prognostic parameter for TTFT, with IGHV mutation status most prognostic for OS. CD38 expression, ZAP-70 expression and FISH were also prognostic variables; combinations of these markers increased prognostic power in concordant cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that only LDT, IGHV mutation status, CD38 and age at diagnosis were independent prognostic variables for TTFT and OS. Therefore, IGHV mutation status and CD38 expression have independent prognostic value in early stage CLL and should be performed as part of the routine diagnostic workup. ZAP-70 expression and FISH were not independent prognostic markers in early stage disease and can be omitted at diagnosis but FISH analysis should be undertaken at disease progression to direct treatment strategy.
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A functional variant in the core promoter of the CD95 cell death receptor gene predicts prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Up to 15% of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients fail to achieve or maintain remission. We investigated a common G > A polymorphism at position -1377 (rs2234767) in the core promoter of the CD95 cell death receptor gene in 708 subjects with acute myeloid leukemia, including 231 patients with APL. Compared with the GG genotype, carrier status for the -1377A variant was associated with a significantly worse prognosis in APL patients. Carriers were more likely to fail remission induction (odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-12.6, P = .01), were more likely to die during the first 8 weeks of remission induction therapy (hazard ratio = 7.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.39-22.9, P = .0005), and had a significantly worse 5-year overall survival (odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-4.15, P = .03). The -1377A variant destroys a binding site for the SP1 transcriptional regulator and is associated with lower transcriptional activity of the CD95 promoter. Identifying patients at high risk of life-threatening events, such as remission induction failure, is a high priority in APL, especially because such events represent a major cause of death despite the introduction of differentiation therapy.
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Who should be transplanted in first remission of acute myeloid leukaemia?
Curr Treat Options Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Patients under 40 years with other than high risk disease do not benefit from an allograft in CR1, particularly if they have received gemtuzumab ozogamicin in induction. High risk can be defined by cytogenetics (Complex; abnormalities of chromosome 5 and 7; 3q-; Ph(1)) in addition, adverse features could include presentation with high white cell count or secondary disease, or a failure to have a satisfactory blast cell reduction to induction course 1 (to <15% marrow blasts), an EVI-1 mutation, although the risk with that mutation is frequently primary resistance. While there is an increasing list of molecular characteristics that could indicate a higher risk, there is in general an absence of clear evidence that they are predictive of a benefit from transplant. This does not mean that they should not be transplanted, just that it is uncertain. Some of the newer markers like minimal residual disease fall into the same category. The decision to allograft is also influenced by the estimated transplant risk. This can be minimised by high quality molecular matching techniques, the availability of a non-parous donor who is CMV seronegative and a patient with a favourable co-morbidity score. Patients who do fail first-line chemotherapy require an allograft unless the duration of first remission, which is a major determinant of outcome, is long e.g. >2 years. The possible exception to this could be core binding factor leukaemias who may have durable survival after relapse with transplant alone.
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Applicability of a "Pick a Winner" trial design to acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Randomized clinical trials remain the gold standard to establish efficacy and safety of new treatments. In acute myeloid leukemia, large trials have been associated with gradual improvement in outcome over 2 decades in younger patients without major differences emerging between treatments. By contrast, in older patients, improvement has been minimal, which justifies a new approach to identifying effective treatments. Given the urgent unmet need, and with the emergence of several novel agents or combinations that are likely to be expensive, large benefits are probably required to change clinical practice. To address this issue, we have evolved a "Pick a Winner" randomized progressive design with a rolling incorporation of novel treatments (drug X), which has been tested in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The rationale, operational characteristics, and initial experience of such an approach in the context of the United Kingdom National Cancer Research Institute AML16 trial are presented.
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The prognostic significance of IDH2 mutations in AML depends on the location of the mutation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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We have investigated the prognostic significance of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) mutations in 1473 younger adult acute myeloid leukemia patients treated in 2 United Kingdom Medical Research Council trials. An IDH2 mutation was present in 148 cases (10%), 80% at R140 and 20% at R172. Patient characteristics and outcome differed markedly between the 2 mutations. IDH2(R140) significantly correlated with nucleophosmin mutations (NPM1(MUT)), whereas IDH2(R172) cases generally lacked other molecular mutations. An IDH2(R140) mutation was an independent favorable prognostic factor for relapse (P = .004) and overall survival (P = .008), and there was no significant heterogeneity with regard to NPM1 or FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) genotype. Relapse in FLT3/ITD(WT)NPM1(MUT)IDH2(R140) patients was lower than in favorable-risk cytogenetics patients in the same cohort (20% and 38% at 5 years, respectively). The presence of an IDH2(R172) mutation was associated with a significantly worse outcome than IDH2(R140), and relapse in FLT3/ITD(WT)NPM1(WT)IDH2(R172) patients was comparable with adverse-risk cytogenetics patients (76% and 72%, respectively).
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Age-related EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in the Western population: a spectrum of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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We investigated age-related EBV(+) B-cell lymphoproliferations in the Western population. The clinical features, histology, immunophenotype, EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization, and clonality by PCR of T-cell receptor gamma and immunoglobulin genes were categorized in 122 EBV(+) lesions as follows: (1) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia; (2) polymorphic extranodal or (3) polymorphic nodal lymphoproliferative disease (LPD); and (4) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Interphase FISH for IG and PAX5 gene rearrangements was performed on 17 cases of DLBCL. The overall median age was 75 years (range, 45-101 years; 67 men, 55 women), and 67, 79, 73, and 77 years, respectively, for groups 1 through 4. Sixteen of 21 cases of polymorphic extranodal LPD were classified as EBV(+) mucocutaneous ulcer. PCR for immunoglobulin genes was polyclonal in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (84%) and monoclonal in 33%, 63%, and 56% of polymorphic extranodal and nodal LPD cases and DLBCL, respectively. All groups showed restricted/clonal T-cell receptor responses (27%-70%). By FISH, 19% of DLBCLs showed IGH@ rearrangements, but PAX5 was unaffected. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100%, 93%, 57%, and 25% for groups 1-4, respectively, and 100% for patients with EBV(+) mucocutaneous ulcer. Disease volume was predictive of therapy response (P = .0002), and pathologic subtype was predictive of overall outcome (P = .001). Age-related EBV(+) B-cell LPD encompasses a wider disease spectrum than previously recognized and includes both reactive and neoplastic conditions. Reduction in the T-cell repertoire may contribute to decreased immune surveillance.
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Identification of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia who benefit from the addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: results of the MRC AML15 trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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Antibody-directed chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may permit more treatment to be administered without escalating toxicity. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an immunoconjugate between CD33 and calicheamicin that is internalized when binding to the epitope. We previously established that it is feasible to combine GO with conventional chemotherapy. We now report a large randomized trial testing the addition of GO to induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy in untreated younger patients.
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Independent prognostic variables in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Blood Rev.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2010
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Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is one of the most common haematological malignancies and is increasing in frequency due to an ageing population. Whilst remission will be achieved in up to 80% of those receiving intensive chemotherapy, the main variables precluding cure are the treatment-related mortality and relapse rates. Decisions on intensification, de-escalation and allografting rely on the ability to divide an apparently homogeneous group according to risk. A wide range of clinical, cytogenetic and molecular variables may be used to inform this task. Cytogenetic and molecular characterisation has already identified subgroups, such as acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) with t(15;17)/PML-RARA and AML with FLT3 mutation for which targeted therapies are available, and further molecularly defined groups who may be potential candidates for this approach are likely to be identified in the future. This review examines the range of established clinical and diagnostic parameters that should be used in assessing prognosis for a patient with AML and looks ahead to an expanding repertoire of potential variables that are currently under evaluation.
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CD49d is an independent prognostic marker that is associated with CXCR4 expression in CLL.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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The world of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) research is awash with prognostic markers. However, very few of the current group play a clearly defined role in the pathology of this disease and even fewer represent a tractable therapeutic target. One such marker that fulfils both of these criteria is the integrin CD49d. This molecule been implicated in the capacity of CLL cells to migrate into lymphoid tissues and there is a CD49d blocking antibody, Natalizumab, currently in clinical trials. Here we carried out the largest multi-centre evaluation of CD49d as a prognostic marker in 652 primary CLL samples. We confirm that CD49d is predictive for time to first treatment (P<0.0001) and overall survival (P<0.0001) and increases the prognostic power of CD38, ZAP-70 and IGHV gene mutation status in concordant cases. Furthermore, CD49d retained independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we showed no correlation between CD49d expression and in vitro resistance to fludarabine in liquid cultures (P=0.28) but CD49d(hi) cells were significantly more resistant than CD49d(lo) cells when assays were carried out on fibronectin-coated plates (P=0.03). Furthermore, we showed for the first time that the expression of CD49d is strongly associated with expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 suggesting a co-ordinated role for these molecules in the trafficking of CLL cells to the lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our data support the introduction of CD49d into routine immunophenotyping panels for CLL and indicate that the therapeutic targeting of this molecule may prove useful in this disease.
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The prognostic significance of IDH1 mutations in younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia is dependent on FLT3/ITD status.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH1) were recently described in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To investigate their prognostic significance we determined IDH1 status in 1333 young adult patients, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia, treated in the United Kingdom MRC AML10 and 12 trials. A mutation was detected in 107 patients (8%). Most IDH1(+) patients (91%) had intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Mutations correlated significantly with an NPM1 mutation (P < .0001) but not a FLT3/ITD (P = .9). No difference in outcome between IDH1(+) and IDH1(-) patients was found in univariate or multivariate analysis, or if the results were stratified by NPM1 mutation status. However, when stratified by FLT3/ITD status, an IDH1 mutation was an independent adverse factor for relapse in FLT3/ITD(-) patients (P = .008) and a favorable factor in FLT3/ITD(+) patients (P = .02). These results suggest that metabolic changes induced by an IDH1 mutation may influence chemoresistance in a manner that is context-dependent.
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Prognostic significance of CEBPA mutations in a large cohort of younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia: impact of double CEBPA mutations and the interaction with FLT3 and NPM1 mutations.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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To determine the clinical relevance of mutations in the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to examine factors that might modify prognostic impact.
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Cytogenetics of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: United Kingdom Medical Research Council Treatment trials AML 10 and 12.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Karyotype is an independent indicator of prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is widely applied to risk-adapted therapy. Because AML is rare in children, the true prognostic significance of individual chromosomal abnormalities in this age group remains unclear.
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European development of clofarabine as treatment for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia considered unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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Treatment options for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not considered suitable for intensive chemotherapy are limited. We assessed the second-generation purine nucleoside analog, clofarabine, in two similar phase II studies in this group of patients.
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Refinement of cytogenetic classification in acute myeloid leukemia: determination of prognostic significance of rare recurring chromosomal abnormalities among 5876 younger adult patients treated in the United Kingdom Medical Research Council trials.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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Diagnostic karyotype provides the framework for risk-stratification schemes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the prognostic significance of many rare recurring cytogenetic abnormalities remains uncertain. We studied the outcomes of 5876 patients (16-59 years of age) who were classified into 54 cytogenetic subgroups and treated in the Medical Research Council trials. In multivariable analysis, t(15;17)(q22;q21), t(8;21)(q22;q22), and inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22) were the only abnormalities found to predict a relatively favorable prognosis (P < .001). In patients with t(15;17) treated with extended all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy, additional cytogenetic changes did not have an impact on prognosis. Similarly, additional abnormalities did not have a significant adverse effect in t(8;21) AML; whereas in patients with inv(16), the presence of additional changes, particularly +22, predicted a better outcome (P = .004). In multivariable analyses, various abnormalities predicted a significantly poorer outcome, namely abn(3q) (excluding t(3;5)(q25;q34)), inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26), add(5q)/del(5q), -5, -7, add(7q)/del(7q), t(6;11)(q27;q23), t(10;11)(p11 approximately 13;q23), other t(11q23) (excluding t(9;11)(p21 approximately 22;q23) and t(11;19)(q23;p13)), t(9;22)(q34;q11), -17, and abn(17p). Patients lacking the aforementioned favorable or adverse aberrations but with 4 or more unrelated abnormalities also exhibited a significantly poorer prognosis (designated "complex" karyotype group). These data allow more reliable prediction of outcome for patients with rarer abnormalities and may facilitate the development of consensus in reporting of karyotypic information in clinical trials involving younger adults with AML. This study is registered at http://www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN55678797 and ISRCTN17161961.
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PErineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS): protocol for a matched pair cluster trial.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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The Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS) is a national clinical quality improvement initiative designed to improve the assessment and management of perineal trauma. Perineal trauma affects around 85% of women who have a vaginal birth in the UK each year and millions more world-wide. Continuous suturing techniques compared with traditional interrupted methods are more effective in reducing pain and postnatal morbidity, however they are not widely used by clinicians despite recommendations of evidence based national clinical guidelines. Perineal suturing skills and postnatal management of trauma remain highly variable within and between maternity units in the UK as well as worldwide. Implementation of a standardised training package to support effective perineal management practices could reduce perineal pain and other related postnatal morbidity for a substantial number of women.
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Attempts to optimize induction and consolidation treatment in acute myeloid leukemia: results of the MRC AML12 trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2009
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To optimize treatment for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome by comparing induction options and the number of consolidation courses and whether consolidation should include transplantation.
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Independent prognostic factors for AML outcome.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Over the last three decades there have been dramatic advances in deciphering the cytogenetic and molecular lesions underlying the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). These have not only afforded greater insights into disease biology, but also provided useful information predicting the likelihood of any given patient achieving and maintaining remission following conventional chemotherapy, leading to the development of risk-stratified treatment approaches. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that AML is highly heterogeneous at the molecular level. Defining the individual genetic abnormalities or combinations of markers that provide significant independent prognostic information and establishing their respective relationships to other pre-treatment characteristics that impact on outcome, such as age and presenting white blood cell count, presents a major ongoing challenge. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that risk of relapse and overall survival can be predicted by assessment of kinetics and depth of response following front-line therapy and monitoring of the leukemic burden using molecular or immunological approaches to minimal residual disease (MRD) detection. These advances present the exciting prospect that panels of pre-treatment parameters affording independent prognostic information can be integrated with precise measurement of treatment response using MRD technologies to provide greater refinement in risk-adapted management of AML. This could lead to further improvements in outcome and serve to identify in a more reliable fashion those patients most likely to benefit from allogeneic transplant in first remission.
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The impact on outcome of the addition of all-trans retinoic acid to intensive chemotherapy in younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia: overall results and results in genotypic subgroups defined by mutations in NPM1, FLT3, and C
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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We investigated the benefit of adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to chemotherapy for younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and considered interactions between treatment and molecular markers. Overall, 1075 patients less than 60 years of age were randomized to receive or not receive ATRA in addition to daunorubicin/Ara-C/thioguanine chemotherapy with Ara-C at standard or double standard dose. There were data on FLT3 internal tandem duplications and NPM1 mutations (n = 592), CEBPA mutations (n = 423), and MN1 expression (n = 195). The complete remission rate was 68% with complete remission with incomplete count recovery in an additional 16%; 8-year overall survival was 32%. There was no significant treatment effect for any outcome, with no significant interactions between treatment and demographics, or cytarabine randomization. Importantly, there were no interactions by FLT3/internal tandem duplications, NPM1, or CEBPA mutation. There was a suggestion that ATRA reduced relapse in patients with lower MN1 levels, but no significant effect on overall survival. Results were consistent when restricted to patients with normal karyotype. ATRA has no overall effect on treatment outcomes in this group of patients. The study did not identify any subgroup of patients likely to derive a significant survival benefit from the addition of ATRA to chemotherapy.
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Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of minimal residual disease by standardized WT1 assay to enhance risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia: a European LeukemiaNet study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is currently based on pretreatment characteristics. It remains to be established whether relapse risk can be better predicted through assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). One proposed marker is the Wilms tumor gene WT1, which is overexpressed in most patients with AML, thus providing a putative target for immunotherapy, although in the absence of a standardized assay, its utility for MRD monitoring remains controversial.
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Laparoscopic uterosacral nerve ablation for alleviating chronic pelvic pain: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition with a major effect on health-related quality of life, work productivity, and health care use. Operative interruption of nerve trunks in the uterosacral ligaments by laparoscopic uterosacral nerve ablation (LUNA) is a treatment option for patients with chronic pelvic pain.
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ADAM-8 isolated from human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cleaves fibronectin at Ala(271).
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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Fibronectin fragments are thought to play a critical role in the initiation and progression of cartilage degradation in arthritis. In a recent study, fibronectin neoepitopes resulting from cleavage of intact fibronectin at the Ala(271)/Val(272) scissile bond, generating an approximately 30-kd fragment with the new C-terminus VRAA(271) and an approximately 50-85-kd fragment with the new N-terminus (272)VYQP, were identified in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. The present study was undertaken to isolate the enzymes responsible for this cleavage from human OA chondrocytes.
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Balancing treatment allocations by clinician or center in randomized trials allows unacceptable levels of treatment prediction.
J Evid Based Med
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Randomized controlled trials are the standard method for comparing treatments because they avoid the selection bias that might arise if clinicians were free to choose which treatment a patient would receive. In practice, allocation of treatments in randomized controlled trials is often not wholly random with various pseudo-randomization methods, such as minimization or balanced blocks, used to ensure good balance between treatments within potentially important prognostic or predictive subgroups. These methods avoid selection bias so long as full concealment of the next treatment allocation is maintained. There is concern, however, that pseudo-random methods may allow clinicians to predict future treatment allocations from previous allocation history, particularly if allocations are balanced by clinician or center. We investigate here to what extent treatment prediction is possible.
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Prospective minimal residual disease monitoring to predict relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia and to direct pre-emptive arsenic trioxide therapy.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Molecular diagnostics and early assessment of treatment response that use methodologies capable of detecting submicroscopic disease can distinguish subgroups of patients with leukemia at differing relapse risk. Such information is being incorporated into risk-stratified protocols; however, there are few data concerning prospective use of sequential minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring to identify more precisely those patients destined to experience relapse, which would allow more tailored therapies.
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The impact of dose escalation and resistance modulation in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and high risk myelodysplastic syndrome: the results of the LRF AML14 trial.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2009
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The acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)14 trial addressed four therapeutic questions in patients predominantly aged over 60 years with AML and High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome: (i) Daunorubicin 50 mg/m(2) vs. 35 mg/m(2); (ii) Cytarabine 200 mg/m(2) vs. 400 mg/m(2) in two courses of DA induction; (iii) for part of the trial, patients allocated Daunorubicin 35 mg/m(2) were also randomized to receive, or not, the multidrug resistance modulator PSC-833 in a 1:1:1 randomization; and (iv) a total of three versus four courses of treatment. A total of 1273 patients were recruited. The response rate was 62% (complete remission 54%, complete remission without platelet/neutrophil recovery 8%); 5-year survival was 12%. No benefits were observed in either dose escalation randomization, or from a fourth course of treatment. There was a trend for inferior response in the PSC-833 arm due to deaths in induction. Multivariable analysis identified cytogenetics, presenting white blood count, age and secondary disease as the main predictors of outcome. Although patients with high Pgp expression and function had worse response and survival, this was not an independent prognostic factor, and was not modified by PSC-833. In conclusion, these four interventions have not improved outcomes in older patients. New agents need to be explored and novel trial designs are required to maximise prospects of achieving timely progress.
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Rel a is an independent biomarker of clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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We recently demonstrated the biologic importance of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) subunit Rel A in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hypothesized that Rel A DNA binding would have prognostic significance in this disease.
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Prognostic and therapeutic relevance of c-FLIP in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Chemoresistance is a major contributor to the aggressiveness of AML and is often due to insufficient apoptosis. The CFLAR gene is expressed as long and short splice forms encoding the anti-apoptotic proteins c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S) (CFLAR(L) and CFLAR(S) , respectively) that play important roles in drug resistance. In univariate analyses of CFLAR mRNA expression in adult AML patients, those individuals with higher than median mRNA expression of the long splice form CFLAR(L) (but not the short splice form) had significantly lower 3 year overall survival (P = 0·04) compared to those with low expression. In cell line studies, simultaneous down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) and c-FLIP(S) proteins using siRNA induced apoptosis in U937 and NB-4 AML cells, but not K562 or OCI-AML3 cells. However, dual c-FLIP(L/S) downregulation sensitized all four cell lines to apoptosis induced by recombinant tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rTRAIL). Moreover, specific downregulation of c-FLIP(L) was found to recapitulate the phenotypic effects of dual c-FLIP(L/S) downregulation. The histone deacetylase (HDAC)1/2/3/6 inhibitor Vorinostat was found to potently down-regulate c-FLIP(L) expression by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms and to sensitize AML cells to rTRAIL. Further analyses using more selective HDAC inhibitors revealed that HDAC6 inhibition was not required for c-FLIP(L) down-regulation. These results suggest that c-FLIP(L) may have clinical relevance both as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for HDAC inhibitors in AML although this requires further study.
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Minimal residual disease monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR in core binding factor AML allows risk stratification and predicts relapse: results of the United Kingdom MRC AML-15 trial.
Blood
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The clinical value of serial minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by quantitative RT-PCR was prospectively assessed in 278 patients [163 with t(8;21) and 115 with inv(16)] entered in the United Kingdom MRC AML 15 trial. CBF transcripts were normalized to 10(5) ABL copies. At remission, after course 1 induction chemotherapy, a > 3 log reduction in RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts in BM in t(8;21) patients and a > 10 CBFB-MYH11 copy number in peripheral blood (PB) in inv(16) patients were the most useful prognostic variables for relapse risk on multivariate analysis. MRD levels after consolidation (course 3) were also informative. During follow-up, cut-off MRD thresholds in BM and PB associated with a 100% relapse rate were identified: for t(8;21) patients BM > 500 copies, PB > 100 copies; for inv(16) patients, BM > 50 copies and PB > 10 copies. Rising MRD levels on serial monitoring accurately predicted hematologic relapse. During follow-up, PB sampling was equally informative as BM for MRD detection. We conclude that MRD monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR at specific time points in CBF AML allows identification of patients at high risk of relapse and could now be incorporated in clinical trials to evaluate the role of risk directed/preemptive therapy.
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Beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R anti-sense oligonucleotide treatment in diet-induced obese AKR/J mice.
PLoS ONE
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An increasing amount of evidence supports pleiotropic metabolic roles of the cannibinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) in peripheral tissues such as adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas. To further understand the metabolic consequences of specific blockade of CB1R function in peripheral tissues, we performed a 10-week-study with an anti-sense oligonucleotide directed against the CB1R in diet-induced obese (DIO) AKR/J mice. DIO AKR/J mice were treated with CB1R ASO Isis-414930 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/week) or control ASO Isis-141923 (25 mg/kg/week) via intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, CB1R mRNA from the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group in the epididymal fat and kidney was decreased by 81% and 63%, respectively. Body weight gain was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly different in the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group (46.1±1.0 g vs veh, 51.2±0.9 g, p<0.05). Body fat mass was reduced in parallel with attenuated body weight gain. CB1R ASO treatment led to decreased fed glucose level (at week 8, 25 mg/kg/week group, 145±4 mg/dL vs veh, 195±10 mg/dL, p<0.05). Moreover, CB1R ASO treatment dose-dependently improved glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, whereas control ASO exerted no effect. Liver steatosis was also decreased upon CB1R ASO treatment. At the end of the study, plasma insulin and leptin levels were significantly reduced by 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO treatment. SREBP1 mRNA expression was decreased in both epididymal fat and liver. G6PC and fatty acid translocase/CD36 mRNA levels were also reduced in the liver. In summary, CB1R ASO treatment in DIO AKR/J mice led to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The beneficial effects of CB1R ASO treatment strongly support the notion that selective inhibition of the peripheral CB1R, without blockade of central CB1R, may serve as an effective approach for treating type II diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
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Addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin to induction chemotherapy improves survival in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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There has been little survival improvement in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the last two decades. Improving induction treatment may improve the rate and quality of remission and consequently survival. In our previous trial, in younger patients, we showed improved survival for the majority of patients when adding gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) to induction chemotherapy.
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The contribution of randomized trials to the cure of haematological disorders from Bradford Hill onwards.
Br. J. Haematol.
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It is now 75 years since the publication of Sir Austin Bradford Hills classic textbook on Medical Statistics, and half a century since the formation of the Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia. In the intervening period, trials in haematological malignancies have been at the forefront of cancer research, both in the proportion of patients recruited, and in the adoption of novel trial designs. In this paper, the principles propounded by Hill for reliable evaluation of new treatments are considered and placed in the context of the development and evaluation of novel treatments in the 21st century. Many of the original principles espoused are still highly relevant today, while the emerging heterogeneity of the conditions, both in aetiology and outcome provide their own newer challenges, which are discussed here.
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The addition of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, to low dose cytarabine does not improve outcome for older patients with AML.
Br. J. Haematol.
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The AML16 trial evaluated the combination of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, and low dose cytarabine (LDAC) in older acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients in a Pick a Winner design. The aim was to double remission rates compared to LDAC, with initial evaluation after 100 patients. Failure to improve remission would result in discontinuation. A total of 65 patients, median age 74 years (range 62-86), were randomized. After reviewing the first 45 patients, the Data Monitoring Committee concluded that the overall aspirations would not be met and recommended closure. The addition of tipifarnib had no effect on response, toxicity or survival.
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Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimers disease.
N. Engl. J. Med.
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Clinical trials have shown the benefits of cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimers disease. It is not known whether treatment benefits continue after the progression to moderate-to-severe disease.
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