A greater supply of tendinous tissue can be obtained through tissue engineering technology with increasing application of adult stem cells. It is well known that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), found in abundance in adipose tissue, have the same differentiating capacity as mesenchymal stem cells yet have the advantage of being easily isolated. In the present study, we combined the great facility of ADSCs to differentiate with the application of an external mechanical stimulus to successfully create an in vitro reconstructed tendonlike structure with a microcapillary network.
Nociceptive pain is one of the most common types of pain that originates from an injury involving nociceptors. Approximately 60% of the knee joint innervations are classified as nociceptive. The specific biological mechanism underlying the regulation of nociceptors is relevant for the treatment of symptoms affecting the knee joint. Intra-articular administration of exogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) appears to be particularly effective in reducing pain and improving patient function.
The objective of this preliminary study was to develop a reabsorbable vascular patch that did not require in vitro cell or biochemical preconditioning for vascular wall repair. Patches were composed only of hyaluronic acid (HA). Twenty male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were used. The abdominal aorta was exposed and isolated. A rectangular breach (1 mm × 5 mm) was made on vessel wall and arterial defect was repaired with HA made patch. Performance was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after surgery by histology and immunohistochemistry. Extracellular matrix components were evaluated by molecular biological methods. After 16 weeks, the biomaterial was almost completely degraded and replaced by a neoartery wall composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, collagen, and elastin fibers organized in layers. In conclusion, HA patches provide a provisional three-dimensional support to interact with cells for the control of their function, guiding the spatially and temporally multicellular processes of artery regeneration.
In the last few years, adipose tissue, which has been largely ignored by anatomists and physicians for centuries, has found new brightness thanks to the stem cells contained within. These adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) have the same characteristics of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) residing in bone marrow. They have the same cell surface markers and are capable of differentiating into the same cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myoblasts, adipocytes, and neuron-like cells. Adipose tissue is ubiquitous and uniquely expandable. Most patients possess excess fat that can be harvested, making adipose tissue the ideal large-scale source for research on clinical applications. In this review focused on the neural potential of adipose-derived stem cells. Current strategies for their isolation, differentiation, and in vitro characterization, as well as their latest in vivo applications for neurological disorders or injury repair, were discussed.
The ideal bioartificial liver should be designed to reproduce as nearly as possible in vitro the habitat that hepatic cells find in vivo. In the present work, we investigated the in vitro perfusion condition with a view to improving the hepatic differentiation of pluripotent human liver stem cells (HLSCs) from adult liver. Tissue engineering strategies based on the cocultivation of HLSCs with hepatic stellate cells (ITO) and with several combinations of medium were applied to improve viability and differentiation. A mathematical model estimated the best flow rate for perfused cultures lasting up to 7 days. Morphological and functional assays were performed. Morphological analyses confirmed that a flow of perfusion medium (assured by the bioreactor system) enabled the in vitro organization of the cells into liver clusters even in the deeper levels of the sponge. Our results showed that, when cocultured with ITO using stem cell medium, HLSCs synthesized a large amount of albumin and the MTT test confirmed an improvement in cell proliferation. In conclusion, this study shows that our in vitro cell conditions promote the formation of clusters of HLSCs and enhance the functional differentiation into a mature hepatic population.
Small is beautiful - this should be the slogan of nanoscientists. Indeed, working with particles less than 100 nm in size, nanotechnology is on the verge of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing applied medicine. The obvious potential of nanotechnology has attracted considerable investment from governments and industry hoping to drive its economic development. Several areas of medical care already benefit from the advantages that nanotechnology provides and its application in wound healing will be reviewed in this article.
A significant amount of recent interest has been focused on the possibility that adult human stem cells are a realistic therapeutic alternative to embryonic stem cells. Multipotent stem cells that have characteristics reminiscent of embryonic neural crest stem cells have been isolated from several postnatal tissues, including skin, gut, dental pulp and the heart, and are potentially useful for research and therapeutic purposes. However, their neurogenic potential, including their ability to produce electrophysiologically active neurons, is largely unexplored. In the present work, we investigated this issue with regard to skin-derived precursors (SKPs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSc)
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, research on stem cells has been focused on the development of personalized cell-based therapies. Owing to their homing properties, adult human stem cells are a promising source of autologous cells to be used as therapeutic vehicles. Multiple potential sources for clinically useful stem and progenitor cells have been identified, including autologous and allogenic embryonic, fetal and adult somatic cells from neural, adipose and mesenchymal tissue. In the present report, we describe a simple protocol to obtain an enriched culture of adult stem cells organized in neurospheres from two post-natal tissues: skin and adipose tissue. METHODS: Adult stem cells isolated from skin and adipose tissue derived from the same adult donor were amplified under varying conditions related to the coating of the chamber slide and the presence of serum and/or growth factors, such as with EGF and FGF2. Neurospheres were then expanded and evaluated in terms of proliferation and gene expression. RESULTS: Adipose and skin derived neurospheres were comparable in size, quantity of cells and genes expressed. Cells from both types of tissue grew optimally without slide coating, in the presence of serum and with the combined addition of FGF2 and EGF. DISCUSSION: We describe a method for isolating and improving a population of multipotent adult precursor cells from the two most accessible adult tissue sources: skin and adipose tissue. This autologous adult stem cell population could be used for cell replacement or cell therapies.
Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field focused on in vitro reconstruction of mammalian tissues. In order to allow a similar three-dimensional organization of in vitro cultured cells, biocompatible scaffolds are needed. This need has provided immense momentum for research on "smart scaffolds" for use in cell culture. One of the most promising materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a hyaluronan derivative: a benzyl ester of hyaluronan (HYAFF). HYAFF can be processed to obtain several types of devices such as tubes, membranes, non-woven fabrics, gauzes, and sponges. All these scaffolds are highly biocompatible. In the human body they do not elicit any adverse reactions and are resorbed by the host tissues. Human hepatocytes, dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, chondrocytes, Schwann cells, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells have been successfully cultured in these meshes. The same scaffolds, in tube meshes, has been applied for vascular tissue engineering that has emerged as a promising technology for the design of an ideal, responsive, living conduit with properties similar to that of native tissue.
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