JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A review of survival in mycosis fungoides.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objectives of this study are to review prior publications of survival for patients with mycosis fungoides (MF), to perform some analyses on the consolidated data, and then to consider the implications of the results.
Related JoVE Video
Revisiting overdiagnosis and fatality in thyroid cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the rates of incidence and fatality in cohorts of patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer from 1975 to 1999.
Related JoVE Video
A probabilistic analysis of mitotic counts in melanoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitotic counts in melanoma are important and have now become part of the staging of this tumor. Yet, this change was largely based on studies that evaluated the mitotic counts in a limited fashion. Because counts of things with a microscope are often distributed as a Poisson random variable, the major goal of this study was to uncover the probabilistic nature of mitotic counts in melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enterolactone and enterodiol, mammalian lignans derived from dietary sources such as flaxseed, sesame seeds, kale, broccoli, and apricots, may impede tumor proliferation by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We examined the associations between urinary enterolactone and enterodiol with prostatic tumor expression of NF?B, VEGF, and Ki67 among 147 patients with prostate cancer who participated in a presurgical trial of flaxseed supplementation (30 g/day) for ~30 days. Urinary enterolignans and tissue biomarkers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry, respectively. After supplementation, we observed significant correlations between intakes of plant lignan and urinary concentrations of total enterolignans (?=0.677, P<.0001), enterolactone (?=0.676, P<.0001), and enterodiol (?=0.628, P<.0001). Importantly, we observed that total urinary enterolignans and enterolactone were significantly and inversely correlated with Ki67 in the tumor tissue (?=-0.217, P=.011, and ?=-0.230, P=.007, respectively), and a near-significant inverse association was observed for enterodiol (?=-0.159, P=.064). An inverse association was observed between enterolactone and VEGF (?=-0.143, P=.141), although this did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe an association between enterolignans and NF?B. In conclusion, flaxseed-derived enterolignans may hinder cancer cell proliferation via VEGF-associated pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Intratumoral inflammation is associated with more aggressive prostate cancer.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation may play a role in the development and progression of many cancers, including prostate cancer. We sought to test whether histological inflammation within prostate cancer was associated with more aggressive disease.
Related JoVE Video
Cross-validation analysis of the prognostic significance of mucin expression in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: results from IALT, JBR.10 and ANITA.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CALGB 9633 was a randomized trial of observation versus adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage IB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In CALGB 9633, the presence of mucin in the primary tumor was associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.9, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; HR = 1.9, p = 0.004).
Related JoVE Video
Effect of low-fat diets on plasma levels of NF-?B-regulated inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in men with prostate cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diet, nutritional status, and certain dietary supplements are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Angiogenesis and inflammation are central to tumor growth and progression, but the effect of diet on these processes remains uncertain. We explored changes in 50 plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF) in 145 men with prostate cancer enrolled in a preoperative, randomized controlled phase II trial with four arms: control (usual diet), low-fat (LF) diet, flaxseed-supplemented (FS) diet, and FS+LS diet. The mean duration of dietary intervention was 30 to 31 days. Among the individual arms, the largest number of significant changes (baseline vs. preoperative follow-up) was observed in the LF arm, with 19 CAFs decreasing and one increasing (P < 0.05). Compared with the control arm, 6 CAFs-including proangiogenic factors (stromal-cell derived-1?) and myeloid factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-all decreased in the LF arm compared with controls; three and four CAFs changed in the FS and FS+LF arms, respectively. Weight loss occurred in the LF arms and significantly correlated with VEGF decreases (P < 0.001). The CAFs that changed in the LF arm are all known to be regulated by NF-?B, and a pathway analysis identified NF-?B as the most likely regulatory network associated with these changes in the LF arm but not in the FS-containing arms. These results suggest that a LF diet without flaxseed may reduce levels of specific inflammatory CAFs and suggests that the NF-?B pathway may be a mediator of these changes.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic significance of mucin and p53 expression in stage IB non-small cell lung cancer: a laboratory companion study to CALGB 9633.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9633 was a phase III trial that randomized patients with stage IB non-small cell lung cancer to observation or four cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel. A statistically significant effect in favor of adjuvant chemotherapy was seen for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in the subgroup of patients with tumors > or =4 cm. A laboratory companion study was conducted to see whether molecular and clinical factors could provide additional prognostic information.
Related JoVE Video
Osteosarcoma after radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postradiation sarcomas are long-term complications of radiation treatment of various forms of cancer. Osteosarcoma, specifically, occurring in patients with a history of prostate cancer is rare; but with high-dose radiotherapy now an accepted standard of care for localized prostate adenocarcinoma, it should be considered in the clinical setting of patients presenting with potential remote disease relapse. We describe an osteosarcoma of the pubic ramus in a patient previously treated 10 years prior with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Because of the long latency period, the appearance of lytic bone lesions with soft tissue components in pelvic bony structures may mimic recurrent/metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The prognosis of patients developing osteosarcoma after radiotherapy for prostate cancer is similar to other radiation-induced osteosarcomas occurring in the axial skeleton, with a 50% overall mortality within the first year after diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Association between statins and prostate tumor inflammatory infiltrate in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins have been reported to have significant anti-inflammatory properties. Given that inflammation may contribute to prostate cancer progression and that statins may reduce the risk for advanced prostate cancer, we investigated whether statin use was associated with reduced intratumoral inflammation in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens.
Related JoVE Video
Dissecting the dynamics of serum prostate-specific antigen.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
I have examined more than 800 values of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in 119 American Veterans during the time before their diagnosis of prostate cancer. These values appear to follow an exponential model with respect to time. Specifically, the model comprises a sum of 2 exponential functions: one for an early, slowly rising component of PSA and a second for a later, faster rising component. The parameters of each component comprise an amplitude and a relative velocity. Whereas the relative velocity of the slow component is significantly associated with the volume of benign tissue, both the amplitude and relative velocity of the fast component are significantly associated with the volume of tumor. The results suggest that at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer the level and velocity of PSA reflect the combination of slow and fast components. Thus, this model provides insight into how benign and malignant tissues in the prostate determine the dynamics of PSA.
Related JoVE Video
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma: a clinical-pathologic correlation of 326 cases.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common, but most aggressive of the three major histological types of mesotheliomas. This study comprises 326 cases of sarcomatoid mesotheliomas among 2000 consecutive malignant mesothelioma cases received in consultation (16%). Patients included 312 men (96%) and 14 women (4%), with a median age of 70 years (range 41-94 years). Most tumors were pleural (319; 98%), and 7 were peritoneal (2%). Some desmoplastic features were identified in 110 cases (34%), and 70 (21%) were classified as desmoplastic. Rare subtypes included two cases with a lymphohistiocytoid pattern (<1%) and eight heterologous mesotheliomas (2%). Labeling for cytokeratins (CKs) was observed in 261/280 cases (93%), and for calretinin and vimentin in 31 and 91%, respectively. Pleural plaques were present in 79% of cases for which information was available, and asbestosis was diagnosed in 34/127 cases (27%). Median survival was 3.5 months. Fiber analysis was performed in 61 cases. The median asbestos body count was 1640/g wet lung tissue (by light microscopy). Amosite fibers were the most commonly identified fibers using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and were significantly higher in the sarcomatoid cases, as were uncoated fibers using scanning electron microscopy. This study represents the largest series of sarcomatoid and desmoplastic malignant mesotheliomas to date and confirms the diagnostic usefulness of CK immunohistochemistry. The relationship with asbestos exposure--particularly amosite--and an association with pleural plaques and less often asbestosis is confirmed.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of 2004 and 1973 World Health Organization grading systems and their relationship to pathologic staging for predicting long-term prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the 1973 and 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) systems for the interval to tumor recurrence (TR), tumor progression (TP), and overall survival (OS) using either the superficial/muscle invasive or strict TMN pathologic staging in patients with urothelial carcinoma with ?10 years of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Syndecan-1 expression in prostate cancer and its value as biomarker for disease progression.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the association between syndecan-1 (CD138) expression and prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Accuracy of urine cytology and the significance of an atypical category.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The "atypical urothelial cell" cytologic category is nonstandardized. We subclassify atypical cases to "atypical, favor a reactive process" or "atypical, unclear if reactive or neoplastic." We evaluated the predictive significance of atypical cases by looking at their histologic follow-up. Among the 1,114 patients and 3,261 specimens included, 282 specimens had histologic follow-up. An atypical diagnosis did not carry a significant increased risk of urothelial neoplasia compared with the benign category. Although an "atypical unclear" diagnosis carried a higher rate of detection of high-grade cancer on follow-up biopsy in comparison with "atypical reactive" or "negative" diagnoses (26/58 [45%] vs 15/52 [29%] and 16/103 [15.5%], respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that dividing atypical cases into 2 categories based on the level of cytologic suspicion of cancer does not add clinically relevant information within the atypical category. They also raise the question of the significance of the atypical category altogether.
Related JoVE Video
Patterns of GRP78 and MTJ1 expression in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell surface expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) occurs in several types of cancer; however, its role in the behavior of primary cutaneous melanoma is not well studied. The association of cell surface GRP78 with other proteins such as MTJ1 stimulates cell proliferation. In this study, we characterized the pattern of expression of GRP78 and MTJ1 in invasive primary cutaneous melanomas and analyzed the relationships between the pattern of expression and various clinicopathological parameters. We found two patterns of GRP78 expression in invasive primary cutaneous melanoma. One pattern showed a gradual fading of protein expression from superficial to deeper levels within the same tumor. The second pattern of expression showed a similar fading with an abrupt regaining of expression at the deep invasive edge of the melanoma. These two distinct patterns of GRP78 expression correlated with both patient survival and depth of tumor invasion. A moderate MTJ1 expression was found to be associated with decreased patient survival; however, no significant associations were observed between patterns of GRP78 and MTJ1 expression. Our study (1) describes two distinct patterns of GRP78 in invasive primary cutaneous melanoma, (2) inversely correlates regain of GRP78 expression with patient survival, and (3) suggests a modifying effect of MTJ1 on GRP78 in enhancing tumor aggressiveness.
Related JoVE Video
Primary lung cancer vs metastatic breast cancer: a probabilistic approach.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, a mathematical and probabilistic model is used to study the probability that a lung tumor is a primary vs a metastasis from cancer of the breast. The model uses information from immunohistochemical stains for thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, mammaglobin, p63, and estrogen receptor and epidemiologic data about primary lung and metastatic breast cancers in women. The results demonstrate that these 4 stains can yield nearly certain diagnoses in approximately 80% of tumors falling into the pool of this differential diagnosis. Nevertheless, uncertainty of diagnosis remains for the 19% of tumors in the pool that are negative for TTF-1, mammaglobin, and p63.
Related JoVE Video
p16 Improves interobserver agreement in diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evaluation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is subjective. Previous studies have shown p16 and Ki-67 expressions to correlate with AIN grade. Biomarkers like p16 and Ki-67 may improve interobserver agreement. The objectives were (1) to determine the extent of interobserver agreement in evaluating AIN on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections and (2) to test whether p16 and/or Ki-67 staining improve interobserver diagnostic agreement.
Related JoVE Video
Paget disease of the vulva: a study of 56 cases.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To resolve controversial issues regarding vulvar Paget disease through analysis of a substantial number of cases.
Related JoVE Video
Personalized prediction of tumor response and cancer progression on prostate needle biopsy.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To our knowledge in patients with prostate cancer there are no available tests except clinical variables to determine the likelihood of disease progression. We developed a patient specific, biology driven tool to predict outcome at diagnosis. We also investigated whether biopsy androgen receptor levels predict a durable response to therapy after secondary treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Tumor volume, tumor percentage involvement, or prostate volume: which is predictive of prostate-specific antigen recurrence?
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effects of tumor volume (TV), tumor percentage involvement (TPI), and prostate volume (PV) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence (PSAR) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
Related JoVE Video
Differential diagnosis in immunohistochemistry with Bayes theorem.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
When immunohistochemical stains that are specific for specific tumor diagnoses do not yield diagnostic results, we often turn to less specific immunohistochemical stains and consider the resulting lists of possible tumor types. Typically, such lists are ordered according to tumor sensitivities for the stains. In probability terminology, sensitivity is the conditional probability of a positive stain given a specific tumor. Yet, the most useful probability to know is the probability of a specific tumor diagnosis, given a set of staining results. Bayes theorem provides this probability. To illustrate its use for differential diagnosis, I apply it here to the situation of carcinomas of uncertain primary site and use the information provided by stains for cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 20.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of androgen and estrogen related proteins in normal weight and obese prostate cancer patients.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is associated with an aggressive form of prostate cancer and with alterations in androgen and estrogen metabolism. We hypothesized that changes in components of the sex steroid receptor axis may contribute to the clinical aggressiveness of prostate cancer in obese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Fascin regulates prostate cancer cell invasion and is associated with metastasis and biochemical failure in prostate cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prostate cancer metastasis to secondary organs is considered an initial event in the development of hormone refractory disease and remains the major cause of death among prostate cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the role of fascin, a cytoskeleton actin-bundling protein involved in the formation of filopodia and cell migration, in prostate cancer progression.
Related JoVE Video
TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is frequently observed in Gleason pattern 3 prostate cancer in a Canadian cohort.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was recently reported as the most common gene rearrangement in prostate cancer (PCA).
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in localized non-small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression remains unestablished, although EGFR and COX-2 are frequently overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Considering the importance of EGFR activation after ligand binding, however, the expression of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR) may have more significance in predicting tumor aggressiveness in NSCLC than either EGFR or COX-2 expression.
Related JoVE Video
Percentage of tumor in prostatectomy specimens: a study of American Veterans.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, I have estimated the percentage of tumor by visual estimate in 447 prostatectomy specimens from American Veterans Affairs patients and related this measurement to overall survival. Although percentage of tumor was significantly related to the serum prostate-specific antigen level, tumor stage, and Gleason score-that is, it was not statistically independent from these-it was more closely associated with overall survival than any of them. Altogether, 2 variables available at the time of the prostatectomy related to survival: patient age (P = .0032; Cox proportional hazards model analysis) and percentage of tumor (P = .0013; Cox model). Patient age undoubtedly reflects the combination of comorbidities and general expected length of life. Percentage of tumor, by contrast, seems to efficiently reflect any undue hazard for early death due to prostate cancer. The results suggest that percentage of tumor is a useful prognostic variable for understanding risk of early death after prostatectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Blast counts in bone marrow aspirate smears: analysis using the poisson probability function, bayes theorem, and information theory.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Counts of cells or other phenomena observed through a microscope are numeric observations and, as such, are subject to mathematical and statistical analyses. For example, the Poisson probability function provides the probability of observing a particular number of blasts in a bone marrow aspirate, given an underlying true fraction of blasts present and a particular number of cells evaluated. Furthermore, using the Poisson function, Bayes theorem can provide the probabilities of specific categories of refractory anemia, given a number of observed blasts in a specific total of cells evaluated. Herein, I introduce and demonstrate these mathematical functions for the analysis of counts of blasts in marrow aspirates and explore the uncertainty that naturally arises when counts of blasts are near cut points used to separate the categories of refractory anemia without excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts, and acute leukemia.
Related JoVE Video
Prostatic alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer: a relationship which may depend on genetic variation in ALA metabolism.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous observational studies have reported associations between prostate cancer and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). However, few investigations have been able to study this relationship prospectively and in well-controlled settings. Moreover, no studies have determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence ALA metabolism are associated with this common cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between prostatic levels of ALA, SNPs and prostate cancer-specific biomarkers in samples collected from a previous randomized clinical trial conducted using a presurgical model and which tested the effects of flaxseed supplementation, a rich source of ALA, prior to prostatectomy (n?=?134). Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was determined and immunohistochemistry was used to assess tumor proliferation rate (Ki67). Prostatic ALA was determined with gas chromatography. Seven previously identified SNPs associated with delta-6 desaturase activity (rs99780, rs174537, rs174545, rs174572, rs498793, rs3834458 and rs968567) were tested for associations with prostatic ALA, PSA and Ki67. Despite consuming seven times more ALA per day, men in the flaxseed arm had similar amounts of prostatic ALA relative to men not consuming flaxseed. In unadjusted analysis, there were significant positive associations between prostatic ALA and PSA (??=?0.191, p?=?0.028) and Ki67 (??=?0.186, p?=?0.037). After adjusting for covariates (flaxseed, age, race, BMI and statin-use) the association between ALA and PSA remained (p?=?0.004) but was slightly attenuated for Ki67 (p?=?0.051). We did not observe associations between any of the SNPs studied and prostatic ALA; however, in models for PSA there was a significant interaction between rs498793 and ALA and for Ki67 there were significant interactions with ALA and rs99780 and rs174545. Independent and inverse associations were observed between rs174572 and Ki67. This study provides evidence that prostatic ALA, independent of the amount of ALA consumed, is positively associated with biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer and that genetic variation may modify this relationship.
Related JoVE Video
Dermatopathology of the foreskin: an institutional experience of over 400 cases.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diseases of the foreskin may manifest with an array of pathologic findings, including potentially under-recognized dermatologic conditions. Herein, we summarize an institutional experience in foreskin dermatopathology.
Related JoVE Video
The dynamics of death in melanoma.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Melanoma has been recently characterized as an over-diagnosed tumor, and some have suggested that the epidemic in melanoma is spurious. Nevertheless, a fraction of melanoma patients continue to die of this tumor. For any tumor, the hazard function provides information about the timing and intensity of fatalities, and to examine the details of fatality in melanoma, herein the hazard functions for melanoma are derived and examined.
Related JoVE Video
The dynamics of death in prostate cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The hazard function provides the instantaneous probability of death (or other key end point) at various times after diagnosis. Unlike the survival curve, the hazard function illustrates graphically or through calculations when deaths are common or uncommon. In this study, hazard functions were derived for prostate cancer by using survival data on large numbers of patients with prostate cancer with data in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. The results demonstrate a form of prostate cancer that rapidly evolves to cause death within 5 years, and this form of tumor is only partly identified by routine prognostic variables such as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, histologic grade, and quantity of tumor. The results also validate the presence of a reservoir of nonfatal prostate cancers that have increased rapidly during the PSA era, and they demonstrate that the incidence of fatal prostate cancers has declined.
Related JoVE Video
Usual and unusual histologic patterns of high Gleason score 8 to 10 adenocarcinoma of the prostate in needle biopsy tissue.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High Gleason score 8 to 10 adenocarcinoma is the most aggressive and potentially lethal form of prostate cancer. The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)-modified Gleason grading scheme defines several gland arrangements of high Gleason grade patterns 4 and 5. The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the frequency of the ISUP-defined high Gleason grade patterns in needle biopsy tissue, to determine the common admixtures and to characterize patterns not presented in the 2005 ISUP report. For patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, we analyzed for association of specific high-grade patterns in needle biopsy with extraprostatic extension in radical prostatectomy tissues. A total of 268 prostate needle biopsy cases with Gleason score of 8 to 10 were examined. A mean of 3.6 patterns (range, 1 to 8) were identified per case and only 12% of cases had a pure single pattern. Ill-defined glands with poorly formed lumina (at 57%) and fused microacinar glands (at 53%) comprised the predominant and most frequently admixed patterns. Single cells and single signet ring cells were present in 53% and 31% of cases, respectively. Additional patterns in order of frequency included cords (35%), cribriform glands (25%), sheets of cells (19%), chains (4%), glomeruloid (3%), comedonecrosis (2%), and hypernephromatoid (1 case=0.3%). Gleason score 8 to 10 carcinomas are typically extensive in needle core tissue, with a mean of 4.4 positive cores (range, 1 to 15 cores) per case. Only 14 cases (5%) had high-grade minimal carcinoma measuring <1 mm in needle core tissue. Gleason grade patterns not described in the 2005 ISUP report include single file growth, solid cylinders, and nested patterns. The single file pattern was present in 40% of cases, and the small solid nested pattern was detected in 24% of cases. One case displayed solid cylinders. Only the single file pattern was associated with extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy (P=0.005). These results show that the 2005 ISUP-defined patterns of high Gleason score 8 to 10 prostatic adenocarcinoma can be stratified on the basis of frequency of occurrence in needle biopsy tissue. Three patterns not defined in the 2005 ISUP scheme have been characterized, including single file, nested, and solid cylinder arrangements. As aggressive and potentially lethal prostate cancer is most often of Gleason score 8 to 10, it is important for diagnostic recognition purposes to be aware of the frequency of various patterns encountered in high Gleason score 8 to 10 adenocarcinomas, the types of pattern admixtures, and the histomorphologic presentation of unusual patterns. We propose that Gleason grade assignments should incorporate single file, solid nested, and solid cylinder arrangements as high-grade pattern 5 because of the absence of glandular luminal space formation.
Related JoVE Video
Foamy gland adenocarcinoma of the prostate: incidence, Gleason grade, and early clinical outcome.
Hum. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Foamy gland carcinoma is a variant of prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma characterized by abundant foamy cytoplasm and often pyknotic nuclei. Limited data exist regarding outcome and the clinicopathologic attributes of this variant. We screened 477 radical prostatectomies for foamy gland carcinoma to determine the incidence, amount, and Gleason grade/score of foamy gland carcinoma within the prostate. Time until prostate-specific antigen biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy was compared for both foamy and control/nonfoamy cases. For validation of incidence, Gleason grade, and pathologic stage, a second series of 100 consecutive radical prostatectomies was screened for foamy gland carcinoma. Foamy gland carcinoma was found in 69 (14.5%) of 477 cases. The median Gleason score of the foamy component was 7, which was not significantly different from the Gleason score of the nonfoamy component within those cases or the 408 nonfoamy cases. The most common Gleason score was 7 (44/69). There was no difference between foamy gland and nonfoamy gland cases in recurrence rate (23% versus 22%) or the average time to prostate-specific antigen recurrence (130 versus 151 months). In the second series, foamy gland carcinoma was found in 23% of cases and had a median Gleason score of 7; and the most common Gleason score was 7 (11/23). Foamy gland carcinoma exists in a significant subset of prostatic carcinomas. This variant does not appear to harbor a different prognosis compared with usual acinar adenocarcinoma, but diagnostic recognition of foamy gland carcinoma is important because there is a Gleason grade 4 element in the majority of cases.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal dynamics and patterns of intraepidermal melanoma.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dermatopathologists know that the epidermis represents a dynamic compartment and that its cells mature from the basal layer to the skin surface in approximately 45?days. What may seem intuitive - but not obvious - is that the dynamics of the epidermis can affect the patterns of melanoma cells within the epidermis. Here this conjecture is explored with an abstract, theoretical model.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.