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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Prognostic Role of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Chemoradiotherapy.
Clin Med Insights Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of the study is to investigate the prognostic role of pre-treatment of markers of the systemic inflammatory response (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and albumin) in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
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Neuroendocrine tumours of the head and neck: anatomical, functional and molecular imaging and contemporary management.
Cancer Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the head and neck are rare neoplasms and can be of epithelial or non-epithelial differentiation. Although the natural history of NETs is variable, it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis of these tumours as they can be potentially curable. Conventional anatomical imaging and functional imaging using radionuclide scintigraphy and positron emission tomography/computed tomography can be complementary for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of treatment response. This article describes and illustrates the imaging features of head and neck NETs, discusses the potential future role of novel positron-emitting tracers that are emerging into clinical practice and reviews contemporary management of these tumours. Familiarity with the choice of imaging techniques and the variety of imaging patterns and treatment options should help guide radiologists in the management of this rare but important subgroup of head and neck neoplasms.
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Functional imaging for radiation treatment planning, response assessment, and adaptive therapy in head and neck cancer.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck are increasingly treated nonsurgically. Imaging plays a critical role in helping define the targets for radiation therapy, especially intensity-modulated radiation therapy, in which the dose gradients are steep. Anatomic imaging with conventional modalities, particularly computed tomography (CT), has been used in patients with head and neck SCCs, but this approach has limitations. Functional imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer complementary information and can be used noninvasively to assess a range of biomarkers in patients with head and neck SCCs, including hypoxia, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and epidermal growth factor receptor status. These biologic markers can be monitored before, during, and after treatment to improve patient selection for specific therapeutic strategies, guide adaptation of therapy, and potentially facilitate more accurate assessment of disease response. This article discusses the practical aspects of integrating functional imaging into head-and-neck radiation therapy planning and reviews the potential of molecular imaging biomarkers for response assessment and therapy adaptation. The uses of PET tracers for imaging cellular processes such as metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia, and cell membrane synthesis are explored, and applications for MR techniques such as dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging, and MR spectroscopy are reviewed. The potential of integrated PET/CT perfusion imaging and hybrid PET/MR imaging also is highlighted. These developments may allow more individualized treatment planning in patients with head and neck SCCs in the emerging era of personalized medicine.
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Blocking oncogenic RAS enhances tumour cell surface MHC class I expression but does not alter susceptibility to cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Mutations in the RAS family of oncogenes are highly prevalent in human cancer and, amongst its manifold effects, oncogenic RAS impairs the expression of components of the antigen presentation pathway. This allows evasion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). CTL and natural killer (NK) cells are reciprocally regulated by MHC class I molecules and any gain in CTL recognition obtained by therapeutic inactivation of oncogenic RAS may be offset by reduced NK cell activation. We have investigated the consequences of targeted inactivation of oncogenic RAS on the recognition by both CTL and NK cells. Inactivation of oncogenic RAS, either by genetic deletion or inactivation with an inducible intracellular domain antibody (iDAb), increased MHC class I expression in human colorectal cell lines. The common RAS mutations, at codons 12, 13 and 61, all inhibited antigen presentation. Although MHC class I modulates the activity of both CTL and NK cells, the enhanced MHC class I expression resulting from inactivation of mutant KRAS did not significantly affect the in vitro recognition of these cell lines by either class of cytotoxic lymphocyte. These results show that oncogenic RAS and its downstream signalling pathways modulate the antigen presentation pathway and that this inhibition is reversible. However, the magnitude of these effects was not sufficient to alter the in vitro recognition of tumour cell lines by either CTL or NK cells.
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Enteral feeding outcomes after chemoradiotherapy for oropharynx cancer: a role for a prophylactic gastrostomy?
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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To determine the outcomes of patients managed with different routes of enteral feeding during chemoradiotherapy for oropharynx cancer. The hospital and dietetic records of consecutive patients with oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma treated between January 2007 and June 2009 with concurrent chemoradiotherapy were reviewed retrospectively. One hundred and four patients were analysed. Seventy-one received a prophylactic gastrostomy, 21 were managed with a strategy of NG tube as required and 12 received a therapeutic gastrostomy. Patients with a prophylactic gastrostomy commenced enteral feeding a median of 24 days after commencing radiotherapy, compared with a median of 41 days (p<0.001) for the NG as required group. Comparing prophylactic gastrostomy, NG as required and therapeutic gastrostomy, median number of unplanned inpatient days were 6, 14 and 7, respectively (p<0.01 for prophylactic gastrostomy vs. NG as required). Mean percentage weight loss at the end of treatment (6.1% vs. 7.1% vs. 5.2%, respectively) and at 6 months post-radiotherapy (11.7%, 14.3% and 8.9%) were similar in all groups (p=0.23). There was no significant difference in type of diet post-radiotherapy between prophylactic gastrostomy and NG as required groups (p=0.22). Median duration of enteral feeding was 181, 64 and 644 days, respectively (p<0.01 for prophylactic gastrostomy vs. NG as required). Use of a prophylactic gastrostomy (p<0.01) and higher T stage (p<0.01) were associated with increased duration of enteral feeding on a multivariate analysis. These data reinforce concerns regarding the detrimental impact of prophylactic gastrostomy placement upon long-term enteral feed dependence.
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Synergistic effects of oncolytic reovirus and docetaxel chemotherapy in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D) has demonstrated oncolytic activity in vitro, in in vivo murine models and in early clinical trials. However the true potential of oncolytic viruses may only be realized fully in combination with other modalities such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we examine the oncolytic activity of reovirus T3D and chemotherapeutic agents against human prostate cancer cell lines, with particular focus on the highly metastatic cell line PC3 and the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel. Docetaxel is the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer and acts by disrupting the normal process of microtubule assembly and disassembly. Reoviruses have been shown to associate with microtubules and may require this association for efficient viral replication.
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Recurrence patterns of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma after 3D conformal (chemo)-radiotherapy.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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To establish recurrence patterns among locally advanced head and neck non-nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with radical (chemo-) radiotherapy and to correlate the sites of loco-regional recurrence with radiotherapy doses and target volumes
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Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-?B mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses.
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Feasibility and efficacy of induction docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy combined with cisplatin concurrent chemoradiotherapy for nonmetastatic Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2011
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To report the experience of treating selected fit patients with locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma with three cycles of induction TPF (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), cisplatin 75 mg/m(2), 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m(2), Days 2-5) followed by concurrent three-weekly bolus cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) chemoradiotherapy.
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A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Chemo-radiotherapy offers an alternative to primary surgery and adjuvant therapy for the management of locally advanced stage IV squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil.
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The effect of cell cycle synchronization on tumor sensitivity to reovirus oncolysis.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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The potential for increased sensitivity of tumor cells to oncolytic reovirus by altering the normal cell cycle using clinically available pharmacological agents was investigated. B16.F10 mouse melanoma cells were partially synchronized with hydroxyurea, thymidine, or by mitotic shake-off. Cell survival was determined using MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)- 2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium)] survival assay and virus yield in tumors by plaque assay. An enhanced sensitivity to reovirus was observed following the removal of either hydroxyurea or thymidine from the culture medium (P < 0.0001). The greatest survival difference compared to normal cycling cells was noted when the majority of cells were in S and G2/M phases, and was associated with increased viral replication. Cells collected by mitotic shake-off were nearly devoid of cells in S phase and were less susceptible to reovirus-induced cell kill than their nonsynchronized counterparts (P < 0.0001). In vivo combination of hydroxyurea followed by intratumoral reovirus resulted in reduced tumor growth and increased survival compared to monotherapy (P = 0.0041) at 15 days. Increased amounts of virus were retrieved from tumors from mice treated with sequential hydroxyurea/reovirus compared to concomitant treatment or reovirus monotherapy. These data justify clinical evaluation of this approach supported by the extensive experience, low cost, simple administration, and availability of hydroxyurea.
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Two-stage phase I dose-escalation study of intratumoral reovirus type 3 dearing and palliative radiotherapy in patients with advanced cancers.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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To determine the safety and feasibility of combining intratumoral reovirus and radiotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and to assess viral biodistribution, reoviral replication in tumors, and antiviral immune responses.
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Synergistic effects of oncolytic reovirus and cisplatin chemotherapy in murine malignant melanoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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To test combination treatment schedules of reovirus and cisplatin chemotherapy in human and murine melanoma cell lines and murine models of melanoma and to investigate the possible mechanisms of synergistic antitumor effects.
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Reciprocal human dendritic cell-natural killer cell interactions induce antitumor activity following tumor cell infection by oncolytic reovirus.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Oncolytic virotherapy may mediate antitumor effects via direct oncolysis or immune-mediated tumor regression. Although the ability of oncolytic viruses to generate adaptive antitumor immunity has been characterized, their interactions with the innate immune system are relatively unclear. Using a human in vitro system, this study investigates the innate immunological consequences of reovirus therapy and its potential to activate NK cell-mediated antitumor activity. Dendritic cells (DC) loaded with reovirus-infected human melanoma Mel888 cells (DC-MelReo), but not reovirus-infected tumor cells alone, induced IFN-gamma production within the NK cell population upon coculture with PBMC, in a cell-to-cell contact-dependent manner. DC-MelReo secreted the chemokines CCL2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, and CXCL10; these culture supernatants induced NK cell chemotaxis. Coculture of DC-MelReo with purified NK cells induced reciprocal contact-dependent phenotypic DC maturation, while DC-MelReo elicited up-regulation of the activation marker CD69 on NK cells, in a partially contact and partially IL-12 dependent manner. Significantly, DC-MelReo induced NK cell cytotoxicity toward tumor cells by a type I IFN dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that tumor infection by reovirus can act via DC to induce NK cell recruitment, activation, and cytotoxicity, along with reciprocal DC maturation. These findings suggest that reciprocal DC-NK cell interactions, following reovirus therapy, may play an important role in altering the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment and mediating tumor regression.
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Cell carriers for oncolytic viruses: Fed Ex for cancer therapy.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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Oncolytic viruses delivered directly into the circulation face many hazards that impede their localization to, and infection of, metastatic tumors. Such barriers to systemic delivery could be overcome if couriers, which confer both protection, and tumor localization, to their viral cargoes, could be found. Several preclincal studies have shown that viruses can be loaded into, or onto, different types of cells without losing the biological activity of either virus or cell carrier. Importantly, such loading can significantly protect the viruses from immune-mediated virus-neutralizing activities, including antiviral antibody. Moreover, an impressive portfolio of cellular vehicles, which have some degree of tropism for tumor cells themselves, or for the biological properties associated with the tumor stroma, is already available. Therefore, it will soon be possible to initiate clinical protocols to test the hypopthesis that cell-mediated delivery can permit efficient shipping of oncolytic viruses from the loading bay (the production laboratory) directly to the tumor in immune-competent patients with metastatic disease.
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The case of oncolytic viruses versus the immune system: waiting on the judgment of Solomon.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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The three-way interaction between oncolytic viruses, the tumor microenvironment, and the immune system is critical to the outcome of antitumor therapy. Classically, the immune system is thought to limit the efficacy of therapy, leading to viral clearance. However, preclinical and clinical data suggest that in some cases virotherapy may in fact act as cancer immunotherapy. In this review we discuss the ability of oncolytic viruses to alter the immunogenic milieu of the tumor microenvironment, and the role of innate and adaptive immunity in both restricting and augmenting therapy. Strategies to improve virotherapy by immunomodulation, including suppression or enhancement of the innate and adaptive responses, are discussed.
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Immune-mediated antitumor activity of reovirus is required for therapy and is independent of direct viral oncolysis and replication.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Reovirus is a naturally occurring oncolytic virus in clinical trials. Although tumor infection by reovirus can generate adaptive antitumor immunity, its therapeutic importance versus direct viral oncolysis is undefined. This study addresses the requirement for viral oncolysis and replication, and the relative importance of antitumor immunity and direct oncolysis in therapy.
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The feasibility of establishing a programme of adjuvant autologous vaccination for renal cell carcinoma.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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To report the results of a programme aimed at determining the feasibility of autologous renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue collection and vaccine preparation within the setting of a UK National Health Service Cancer Centre.
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Clinical grade OK432-activated dendritic cells: in vitro characterization and tracking during intralymphatic delivery.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Dendritic cells (DC) are under intense preclinical and early clinical evaluation for the immunotherapy of cancer. However, the optimal culture conditions and route of delivery for DC vaccination have not been established. Here we describe the first human application of DC matured with the bacterial agent OK432 (OK-DC), using a short-term serum-free culture protocol, which generates mature DC from CD14+ precursors after 5 days. These cells were prepared within the framework of a National Blood Service facility, demonstrating that DC represent a product which is potentially deliverable alongside current standardized cell therapies within the UK National Health Service. In vitro analysis confirmed that OK-DC were mature, secreted tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12, and stimulated both T cell and natural killer cell function. To explore effective delivery of OK-DC to lymph nodes, we performed an initial clinical tracking study of radioactively labeled, unpulsed OK-DC after intralymphatic injection into the dorsum of the foot. We showed that injected DC rapidly localized to ipsilateral pelvic lymph nodes, but did not disseminate to more distant nodes over a 48-hour period. There was no significant toxicity associated with OK-DC delivery. These results show that OK-DC are suitable for clinical use, and that intralymphatic delivery is feasible for localizing cells to sites where optimal priming of innate and adaptive antitumor immunity is likely to occur.
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Outcomes following chemoradiotherapy for N3 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma without a planned neck dissection.
Oral Oncol.
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The optimal management of the N3 neck in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains controversial. We report the outcomes of patients with N3 disease treated with a strategy of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CRT)±induction chemotherapy (ICT) without a planned neck dissection.
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Cell carriage, delivery, and selective replication of an oncolytic virus in tumor in patients.
Sci Transl Med
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Oncolytic viruses, which preferentially lyse cancer cells and stimulate an antitumor immune response, represent a promising approach to the treatment of cancer. However, how they evade the antiviral immune response and their selective delivery to, and replication in, tumor over normal tissue has not been investigated in humans. Here, we treated patients with a single cycle of intravenous reovirus before planned surgery to resect colorectal cancer metastases in the liver. Tracking the viral genome in the circulation showed that reovirus could be detected in plasma and blood mononuclear, granulocyte, and platelet cell compartments after infusion. Despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies before viral infusion in all patients, replication-competent reovirus that retained cytotoxicity was recovered from blood cells but not plasma, suggesting that transport by cells could protect virus for potential delivery to tumors. Analysis of surgical specimens demonstrated greater, preferential expression of reovirus protein in malignant cells compared to either tumor stroma or surrounding normal liver tissue. There was evidence of viral factories within tumor, and recovery of replicating virus from tumor (but not normal liver) was achieved in all four patients from whom fresh tissue was available. Hence, reovirus could be protected from neutralizing antibodies after systemic administration by immune cell carriage, which delivered reovirus to tumor. These findings suggest new preclinical and clinical scheduling and treatment combination strategies to enhance in vivo immune evasion and effective intravenous delivery of oncolytic viruses to patients in vivo.
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The Impact of (18)F-FDG PET CT Prior to Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
ISRN Oncol
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Introduction. To determine the value of a FDG-PET-CT scan in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prior to chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods. Consecutive patients with stage III or IV HNSCC who had undergone a staging FDG-PET-CT scan prior to chemoradiotherapy between August 2008 and April 2011 were included. Clinical details and conventional imaging (CT and/or MRI) were, retrospectively, reviewed, a TNM stage was assigned, and levels of cervical lymph node involvement were documented. This process was repeated with the addition of FDG-PET-CT. Radiotherapy plans were reviewed for patients with an alteration identified on TNM staging and/or nodal level identification with FDG-PET-CT and potential alterations in radiotherapy planning were documented. Results. 55 patients were included in the analysis. FDG-PET-CT altered the TNM stage in 17/55 (31%) of patients, upstaging disease in 11 (20%) and downstaging in 6 (11%); distant metastases were identified by FDG-PET-CT in 1 (2%) patient. FDG-PET-CT altered the lymph node levels identified in 22 patients (40%), upclassifying disease in 16 (29%) and downclassifying in 6 (11%). Radiotherapy plans were judged retrospectively to have been altered by FDG-PET-CT in 10 patients (18%). Conclusions. The use of FDG-PET-CT potentially impacts upon both treatment decisions and radiotherapy planning.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.