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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Propionibacterium persists in the skin despite standard surgical preparation.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Propionibacterium acnes, which normally resides in the skin, is known to play a role in surgical site infection in orthopaedic surgery. Studies have suggested a persistence of propionibacteria on the skin surface, with rates of positive cultures ranging from 7% to 29% after surgical preparation. However, as Propionibacterium organisms normally reside in the dermal layer, these studies may underestimate the true prevalence of propionibacteria after surgical skin preparation. We hypothesized that, after surgical skin preparation, viable Propionibacterium remains in the dermis at a much higher rate than previously reported.
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Genome-Wide Association Studies of Virulent and Avirulent Haemophilus parasuis Serotype 4 Strains.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Haemophilus parasuis is a normal commensal of the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs. However, in conjunction with stress and/or viral infections, or in immunocompromised animals, H. parasuis can transform into a pathogen causing Glasser's disease, which is typically characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, meningitis, and sometimes acute pneumonia and septicemia. H. parasuis serotype 5 is highly virulent and more frequently isolated from respiratory and systemic infection in pigs. Recently Newport Laboratories isolated highly virulent H. parasuis serotype 4 strains from the tissues of diseased pigs. This study was undertaken to identify the genes responsible for H. parasuis serotype 4 virulence. To achieve this objective we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across two virulent and three avirulent H. parasuis serotype 4 strains.
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Genome sequences of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: in vivo and in vitro phenotypes.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Since the outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in May 2013, U.S. swine producers have lost almost five million baby pigs. In an attempt to understand the evolution of PEDV in the United States and possibly develop a control strategy, we compared the genome sequences of a PEDV strain isolated from an infected piglet against its in vitro adapted version. The original PEDV strain was grown in Vero cells and passed 10 times serially in a MARC145 cell line. The sequence analysis of the native PEDV strain and in vitro passaged virus shows that the cell culture adaptation specifically modifies PEDV spike protein whereas the open reading frame 1a/b (ORF1a/b)-encoded polyprotein, the nucleoprotein, NS3B (ORF3), and membrane and envelope proteins remain unchanged.
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Genome Sequences of Seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Strains Isolated from the Joint Tissue of Infected Swine (Sus scrofa).
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause debilitating arthritis in swine. Currently, there are no M. hyosynoviae genome sequences in the GenBank database, which makes it impossible to understand its pathogenesis, nutrition, or colonization characteristics, or to devise an effective strategy for its control. Here, we report the genome sequences of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae. Within each genome, several virulence factors were identified that may prove important in the pathogenesis of M. hyosynoviae-mediated arthritis and serve as potential virulence markers that may be critical in vaccine development.
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Validation of an oligonucleotide ligation assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug-resistant mutants by use of massively parallel sequencing.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Global HIV treatment programs need sensitive and affordable tests to monitor HIV drug resistance. We compared mutant detection by the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA), an economical and simple test, to massively parallel sequencing. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (K103N, V106M, Y181C, and G190A) and lamivudine (M184V) resistance mutations were quantified in blood-derived plasma RNA and cell DNA specimens by OLA and 454 pyrosequencing. A median of 1,000 HIV DNA or RNA templates (range, 163 to 1,874 templates) from blood specimens collected in Mozambique (n = 60) and Kenya (n = 51) were analyzed at 4 codons in each sample (n = 441 codons assessed). Mutations were detected at 75 (17%) codons by OLA sensitive to 2.0%, at 71 codons (16%; P = 0.78) by pyrosequencing using a cutoff value of ? 2.0%, and at 125 codons (28%; P < 0.0001) by pyrosequencing sensitive to 0.1%. Discrepancies between the assays included 15 codons with mutant concentrations of ?2%, one at 8.8% by pyrosequencing and not detected by OLA, and one at 69% by OLA and not detected by pyrosequencing. The latter two cases were associated with genetic polymorphisms in the regions critical for ligation of the OLA probes and pyrosequencing primers, respectively. Overall, mutant concentrations quantified by the two methods correlated well across the codons tested (R(2) > 0.8). Repeat pyrosequencing of 13 specimens showed reproducible detection of 5/24 mutations at <2% and 6/6 at ? 2%. In conclusion, the OLA and pyrosequencing performed similarly in the quantification of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and lamivudine mutations present at >2% of the viral population in clinical specimens. While pyrosequencing was more sensitive, detection of mutants below 2% was not reproducible.
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Genome Sequence of a Presumptive Mannheimia haemolytica Strain with an A1/A6-Cross-Reactive Serotype from a White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated mostly with bovine respiratory disease complex. However, we report here the sequence of a strain with the novel A1/A6-cross-reactive serotype, strain PKL10, isolated from white-tailed deer. PKL10 was isolated from the spleen of farmed white-tailed deer showing clinical signs of pneumonia. The genome structure of PKL10 is dramatically different from that of previously sequenced isolates, which was demonstrated by genome alignments. In addition, the coding sequences in PKL10 share approximately 86% sequence identity with the coding sequences in other fully sequenced M. haemolytica strains. This suggests that PKL10 is a novel Mannheimia species.
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Origin of propionibacterium in surgical wounds and evidence-based approach for culturing propionibacterium from surgical sites.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than apparent infection.
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Overview of DNA microarrays: types, applications, and their future.
Curr Protoc Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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This unit provides an overview of DNA microarrays. Microarrays are a technology in which thousands of nucleic acids are bound to a surface and are used to measure the relative concentration of nucleic acid sequences in a mixture via hybridization and subsequent detection of the hybridization events. This overview first discusses the history of microarrays and the antecedent technologies that led to their development. This is followed by discussion of the methods of manufacture of microarrays and the most common biological applications. The unit ends with a brief description of the limitations of microarrays and discusses how microarrays are being rapidly replaced by DNA sequencing technologies.
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Genomic Stability of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans during Persistent Oral Infection in Human.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The genome of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans exhibits substantial variations in gene content among unrelated strains primarily due to the presence or absence of genomic islands. This study examined the genomic stability of A. actinomycetemcomitans during its persistent infection in the same host. Four pairs of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, each pair isolated from an individual over time (0-10 years), were examined for their gains/losses of genes by whole genome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization by microarray and PCR analysis. Possible effects due to genomic changes were further assessed by comparative transcriptome analysis using microarrays. The results showed that each pair of strains was clonally identical based on phylogenetic analysis of 150 core genes. A novel 24.1-Kb plasmid found in strain S23A was apparently lost in the sibling strain I23C. A 353-bp inversion affecting two essential genes of the serotype-specific gene cluster was found in the serotype antigen-nonexpressing strain I23C, while the same gene cluster was intact in the serotype-expressing sibling strain S23A. A 2,293-bp deletion affecting a gene encoding oxaloacetate decarboxylase and its neighbor region was found in strain SCC2302 but not in the sibling strain AAS4a. However, no evidence of gains or losses of genomic islands was found in the paired strains. Transcriptome profiles showed little or no difference in the paired strains. In conclusion, the genome of A. actinomycetemcomitans appears to be relatively stable during short-term infection. Several types of genomic changes were observed in the paired strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans recovered from the same subjects, including a mutation in serotype-specific gene cluster that may allow the bacteria to evade host immune response.
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Construction of regulatory networks using expression time-series data of a genotyped population.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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The inference of regulatory and biochemical networks from large-scale genomics data is a basic problem in molecular biology. The goal is to generate testable hypotheses of gene-to-gene influences and subsequently to design bench experiments to confirm these network predictions. Coexpression of genes in large-scale gene-expression data implies coregulation and potential gene-gene interactions, but provide little information about the direction of influences. Here, we use both time-series data and genetics data to infer directionality of edges in regulatory networks: time-series data contain information about the chronological order of regulatory events and genetics data allow us to map DNA variations to variations at the RNA level. We generate microarray data measuring time-dependent gene-expression levels in 95 genotyped yeast segregants subjected to a drug perturbation. We develop a Bayesian model averaging regression algorithm that incorporates external information from diverse data types to infer regulatory networks from the time-series and genetics data. Our algorithm is capable of generating feedback loops. We show that our inferred network recovers existing and novel regulatory relationships. Following network construction, we generate independent microarray data on selected deletion mutants to prospectively test network predictions. We demonstrate the potential of our network to discover de novo transcription-factor binding sites. Applying our construction method to previously published data demonstrates that our method is competitive with leading network construction algorithms in the literature.
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Genome sequence of Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5T, a methylotrophic representative of the order Rhodocyclales.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Rhodocyclales are representative of versatile bacteria that are able to utilize a wide variety of organic compounds for growth, but only a few strains have been isolated in pure culture thus far. Here we present the genome sequence of Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5(T), the first cultivable methylotrophic member of the order.
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Genome sequence of a novel species, Propionibacterium humerusii.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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As part of a larger project to sequence multiple clinical isolates of Propionibacterium acnes, we have produced a draft genome sequence of a novel Propionibacterium species that is closely related to, yet distinct (by sequence) from P. acnes. We have tentatively named this new species Propionibacterium humerusii.
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Identification of the pangenome and its components in 14 distinct Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains by comparative genomic analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is genetically heterogeneous and comprises distinct clonal lineages that may have different virulence potentials. However, limited information of the strain-to-strain genomic variations is available.
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A prioritization analysis of disease association by data-mining of functional annotation of human genes.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Complex diseases result from contributions of multiple genes that act in concert through pathways. Here we present a method to prioritize novel candidates of disease-susceptibility genes depending on the biological similarities to the known disease-related genes. The extent of disease-susceptibility of a gene is prioritized by analyzing seven features of human genes captured in H-InvDB. Taking rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and prostate cancer (PC) as two examples, we evaluated the efficiency of our method. Highly scored genes obtained included TNFSF12 and OSM as candidate disease genes for RA and PC, respectively. Subsequent characterization of these genes based upon an extensive literature survey reinforced the validity of these highly scored genes as possible disease-susceptibility genes. Our approach, Prioritization ANalysis of Disease Association (PANDA), is an efficient and cost-effective method to narrow down a large set of genes into smaller subsets that are most likely to be involved in the disease pathogenesis.
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High-density lipoprotein suppresses the type I interferon response, a family of potent antiviral immunoregulators, in macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects the artery wall by removing cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages. However, recent evidence suggests that HDL might also inhibit atherogenesis by combating inflammation.
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The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica). We show that a relatively recent (>50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy of eudicots. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pyreae and the genus Malus, relative to major Rosaceae taxa, identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. Expansion of gene families reported to be involved in fruit development may explain formation of the pome, a Pyreae-specific false fruit that develops by proliferation of the basal part of the sepals, the receptacle. In apple, a subclade of MADS-box genes, normally involved in flower and fruit development, is expanded to include 15 members, as are other gene families involved in Rosaceae-specific metabolism, such as transport and assimilation of sorbitol.
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Markedly different genome arrangements between serotype a strains and serotypes b or c strains of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Bacterial phenotype may be profoundly affected by the physical arrangement of their genes in the genome. The Gram-negative species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a major etiologic agent of human periodontitis. Individual clonal types of A. actinomycetemcomitans may exhibit variable virulence and different patterns of disease association. This study examined the genome arrangement of A. actinomycetemcomitans using the genome sequences of serotypes a-c strains. The genome alignment and rearrangement were analyzed by the MAUVE and the GRIMM algorithms. The distribution patterns of genes along the leading/lagging strands were investigated. The occurrence and the location of repeat sequences relative to the genome rearrangement breakpoints were also determined.
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A three-way comparative genomic analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Mannhemia haemolytica is a Gram-negative bacterium and the principal etiological agent associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. They transform from a benign commensal to a deadly pathogen, during stress such as viral infection and transportation to feedlots and cause acute pleuropneumonia commonly known as shipping fever. The U.S beef industry alone loses more than one billion dollars annually due to shipping fever. Despite its enormous economic importance there are no specific and accurate genetic markers, which will aid in understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of M. haemolytica at molecular level and assist in devising an effective control strategy.
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Genome sequence of naturally competent Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype a strain D7S-1.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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The major clonal lineages of the Gram-negative periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans include serotype a, b, and c strains. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a naturally competent serotype a strain, D7S-1, isolated from a patient with aggressive periodontitis.
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Genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
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This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated ovine (O), and the other from Bos taurus, designated bovine (B).
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Genome sequence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype c strain D11S-1.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a major etiological agent of periodontitis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of serotype c strain D11S-1, which was recovered from the subgingival plaque of a patient diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis.
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Relationships between deficits in tissue mass and transcriptional programs after partial hepatectomy in mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (2/3 PH) results in synchronized proliferation of hepatocytes and rapid restoration of liver mass. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate this process has both biological and clinical importance. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we investigated whether gene activation after 2/3 PH is specifically related to liver growth and hepatocyte proliferation. We generated gene expression profiles at 4, 12, 20, and 30 hours after 2/3 PH and compared them with profiles obtained at the same time points after 1/3 PH, a procedure that causes minimal DNA replication. Surprisingly, a significant number of genes whose expression is altered after 2/3 PH are similarly up- or down-regulated after 1/3 PH, particularly at 4 hours. We identified a number of genes and transcription factors that are more highly expressed ("preferential expression") after 2/3 PH and show that a shift in transcriptional programs in the regenerating liver occurs between 4 and 12 hours after 2/3 PH, a time at which the decision to replicate appears to be made. These results show that the liver responds to PH with massive changes of gene expression, even in the absence of DNA replication. We suggest that the changes in gene expression during the first 4 to 6 hours after 2/3 PH may induce chromatin remodeling and facilitate the binding of new sets of transcription factors required for DNA replication.
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The derivation of diagnostic markers of chronic myeloid leukemia progression from microarray data.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Currently, limited molecular markers exist that can determine where in the spectrum of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progression an individual patient falls at diagnosis. Gene expression profiles can predict disease and prognosis, but most widely used microarray analytical methods yield lengthy gene candidate lists that are difficult to apply clinically. Consequently, we applied a probabilistic method called Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to a large CML microarray dataset. BMA, a supervised method, considers multiple genes simultaneously and identifies small gene sets. BMA identified 6 genes (NOB1, DDX47, IGSF2, LTB4R, SCARB1, and SLC25A3) that discriminated chronic phase (CP) from blast crisis (BC) CML. In CML, phase labels divide disease progression into discrete states. BMA, however, produces posterior probabilities between 0 and 1 and predicts patients in "intermediate" stages. In validation studies of 88 patients, the 6-gene signature discriminated early CP from late CP, accelerated phase, and BC. This distinction between early and late CP is not possible with current classifications, which are based on known duration of disease. BMA is a powerful tool for developing diagnostic tests from microarray data. Because therapeutic outcomes are so closely tied to disease phase, these probabilities can be used to determine a risk-based treatment strategy at diagnosis.
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Protinfo PPC: a web server for atomic level prediction of protein complexes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Protinfo PPC (Prediction of Protein Complex) is a web server that predicts atomic level structures of interacting proteins from their amino-acid sequences. It uses the interolog method to search for experimental protein complex structures that are homologous to the input sequences submitted by a user. These structures are then used as starting templates to generate protein complex models, which are returned to the user in Protein Data Bank format via email. The server supports modeling of both homo and hetero multimers and generally produces full atomic level models (including insertion/deletion regions) of protein complexes as long as at least one putative homologous template for the query sequences is found. The modeling pipeline behind Protinfo PPC has been rigorously benchmarked and proven to produce highly accurate protein complex models. The fully automated all atom comparative modeling service for protein complexes provided by Protinfo PPC server offers wide capabilities ranging from prediction of protein complex interactions to identification of possible interaction sites, which will be useful for researchers studying these topics. The Protinfo PPC web server is available at http://protinfo.compbio.washington.edu/ppc/.
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Methods for the inference of biological pathways and networks.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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In this chapter, we discuss a number of approaches to network inference from large-scale functional genomics data. Our goal is to describe current methods that can be used to infer predictive networks. At present, one of the most effective methods to produce networks with predictive value is the Bayesian network approach. This approach was initially instantiated by Friedman et al. and further refined by Eric Schadt and his research group. The Bayesian network approach has the virtue of identifying predictive relationships between genes from a combination of expression and eQTL data. However, the approach does not provide a mechanistic bases for predictive relationships and is ultimately hampered by an inability to model feedback. A challenge for the future is to produce networks that are both predictive and provide mechanistic understanding. To do so, the methods described in several chapters of this book will need to be integrated. Other chapters of this book describe a number of methods to identify or predict network components such as physical interactions. At the end of this chapter, we speculate that some of the approaches from other chapters could be integrated and used to "annotate" the edges of the Bayesian networks. This would take the Bayesian networks one step closer to providing mechanistic "explanations" for the relationships between the network nodes.
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Iterative Bayesian Model Averaging: a method for the application of survival analysis to high-dimensional microarray data.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Microarray technology is increasingly used to identify potential biomarkers for cancer prognostics and diagnostics. Previously, we have developed the iterative Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) algorithm for use in classification. Here, we extend the iterative BMA algorithm for application to survival analysis on high-dimensional microarray data. The main goal in applying survival analysis to microarray data is to determine a highly predictive model of patients time to event (such as death, relapse, or metastasis) using a small number of selected genes. Our multivariate procedure combines the effectiveness of multiple contending models by calculating the weighted average of their posterior probability distributions. Our results demonstrate that our iterative BMA algorithm for survival analysis achieves high prediction accuracy while consistently selecting a small and cost-effective number of predictor genes.
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Metagenomic analysis of subgingival microbiota following non-surgical periodontal therapy: a pilot study.
Open Dent J
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This study tested the feasibility of a high throughput metagenomic approach to analyze the pre- and posttreatment of subgingival plaque in two subjects with aggressive periodontitis. DNA was extracted from subgingival samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the c2-c4 regions of the 16S rDNA using primers with bar codes to identify individual samples. The PCR products were pooled and sequenced for the v4 region of the 16S rDNA using the 454 FLX standard platform. The results were analyzed for species/phylotypes in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) and Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database. The sequencing of the amplicons resulted in 24,673 reads and identified 208 species/phylotypes. Of those, 129 species/phylotypes were identified in both patients but their proportions varied. While >120 species/phylotypes were identified in all samples, 28-42 species/phylotypes cumulatively represent 90% of all subgingival bacteria in each sample. The remaining species/phylotypes each constituted ?0.2% of the total subgingival bacteria. In conclusion, the subgingival microbiota are characterized by high species richness dominated by a few species/ phylotypes. The microbiota changed after periodontal therapy. High throughput metagenomic analysis is applicable to assess the complexity and changes of the subgingival microbiota.
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Characterization of the effects of an rpoC mutation that confers resistance to the Fst peptide toxin-antitoxin system toxin.
J. Bacteriol.
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Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the ? subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters.
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Integrating external biological knowledge in the construction of regulatory networks from time-series expression data.
BMC Syst Biol
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Inference about regulatory networks from high-throughput genomics data is of great interest in systems biology. We present a Bayesian approach to infer gene regulatory networks from time series expression data by integrating various types of biological knowledge.
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Bacterial communities in women with bacterial vaginosis: high resolution phylogenetic analyses reveal relationships of microbiota to clinical criteria.
PLoS ONE
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV.
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Stitching together multiple data dimensions reveals interacting metabolomic and transcriptomic networks that modulate cell regulation.
PLoS Biol.
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Cells employ multiple levels of regulation, including transcriptional and translational regulation, that drive core biological processes and enable cells to respond to genetic and environmental changes. Small-molecule metabolites are one category of critical cellular intermediates that can influence as well as be a target of cellular regulations. Because metabolites represent the direct output of protein-mediated cellular processes, endogenous metabolite concentrations can closely reflect cellular physiological states, especially when integrated with other molecular-profiling data. Here we develop and apply a network reconstruction approach that simultaneously integrates six different types of data: endogenous metabolite concentration, RNA expression, DNA variation, DNA-protein binding, protein-metabolite interaction, and protein-protein interaction data, to construct probabilistic causal networks that elucidate the complexity of cell regulation in a segregating yeast population. Because many of the metabolites are found to be under strong genetic control, we were able to employ a causal regulator detection algorithm to identify causal regulators of the resulting network that elucidated the mechanisms by which variations in their sequence affect gene expression and metabolite concentrations. We examined all four expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) hot spots with colocalized metabolite QTLs, two of which recapitulated known biological processes, while the other two elucidated novel putative biological mechanisms for the eQTL hot spots.
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Laser capture microdissection enables cellular and molecular studies of tooth root development.
Int J Oral Sci
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Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are critical for tooth development. Molecular mechanisms mediating these interactions in root formation is not well understood. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and subsequent microarray analyses enable large scale in situ molecular and cellular studies of root formation but to date have been hindered by technical challenges of gaining intact histological sections of non-decalcified mineralized teeth or jaws with well-preserved RNA. Here,we describe a new method to overcome this obstacle that permits LCM of dental epithelia,adjacent mesenchyme,odontoblasts and cementoblasts from mouse incisors and molars during root development. Using this method,we obtained RNA samples of high quality and successfully performed microarray analyses. Robust differences in gene expression,as well as genes not previously associated with root formation,were identified. Comparison of gene expression data from microarray with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) supported our findings. These genes include known markers of dental epithelia,mesenchyme,cementoblasts and odontoblasts,as well as novel genes such as those in the fibulin family. In conclusion,our new approach in tissue preparation enables LCM collection of intact cells with well-preserved RNA allowing subsequent gene expression analyses using microarray and RT-PCR to define key regulators of tooth root development.
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Genome sequence of a serotype b non-JP2 aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strain, ANH9381, from a periodontally healthy individual.
J. Bacteriol.
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Gram-negative Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans can be distinguished (based on the promoter structure of the leukotoxin operon) into JP2 and non-JP2 genotypes, with the former found to be more pathogenic than the latter. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of a serotype b non-JP2 strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.