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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Community Mobilization to Reduce Drug Use, Quang Ninh, Vietnam.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Objectives. We implemented an intervention to reduce drug use in an urban commune in northern Vietnam. Methods. We encouraged the intervention commune to accept responsibility for developing their own intervention strategies based on a community mobilization model used in southern, rural China. We selected a comparison commune, which had demographic characteristics and a drug history similar to the intervention commune. The 2-year incidence of new drug users was estimated retrospectively in the intervention and comparison communes between baseline (2003) and follow-up (2009). Results. Increased incidence of new (noninjecting) drug users between 2003 and 2009 in the intervention commune was lower than that in the comparison commune, and these participants expressed more positive attitudes toward local authority and people with drug use and HIV/AIDS. Increased condom use during last intercourse with female sex workers and with female casual partners was observed in the intervention commune. HIV prevalence and positive opioid tests decreased more in the intervention commune. Conclusions. Our results suggested that the community mobilization had a positive influence in the intervention commune. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302101).
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Level of Adherence and HIV RNA Suppression in the Current Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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The need to achieve ?95 % adherence to HAART for treatment effectiveness may be a barrier for universal initiation at early stages of HIV. Using longitudinal data collected from 2006 to 2011 from cohort studies of MSM (MACS) and IDUs (ALIVE study), we estimated the minimum adherence needed to achieve HIV RNA suppression (<50 copies/mL), defined as the level at which at least 80 % were virally suppressed, and the odds of suppression was not significantly different than that observed with ?95 % adherence. In the MACS, ?80 % suppression was observed with 80-84 % adherence and the odds ratio for suppression (vs. ?95 % adherence) was 1.43 (0.61, 3.33). In the ALIVE study where <35 % were on newer drugs, only 71.4 % were suppressed among those who reported ?95 % adherence. Although IDUs on older HAART regimens may need to be ?95 % adherent, concerns related to non-adherence may be less of a barrier to initiation of modern HAART regimens.
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The difference between HIV and syphilis prevalence and incidence cases: results from a cohort study in Nanjing, China, 2008-2010.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The available estimates of incidence and prevalence of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Mainland China are high. We used respondent driven sampling to recruit MSM in the study population. The participants were followed up to monitor the incidence and change of risk behaviors. A face-to-face interview was used to collect information about high-risk behaviors, demographics and recreational drug use. To test the difference between prevalent and incident cases, two nested matched case control studies were carried out. The cases were the HIV or syphilis positives found at baseline and during follow-up. We used density sampling to sample six controls for each case. Our results indicate that compared to incident cases, prevalent cases had higher proportion of reported unprotected anal intercourse for both HIV and syphilis. Regression analysis indicated that unprotected anal intercourse was the main risk factor among HIV-prevalent cases but not in HIV-incident cases. These differences could possibly be explained by the implementation of the risk reduction interventions. Syphilis was not a risk factor for HIV-prevalent cases but were highly associated with HIV-incident cases. Tailored interventions addressing unprotected anal intercourse and other risk factors can help to reduce the prevalence and incidence of HIV and syphilis.
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV: A right way to go or a long way to go?
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Antiretroviral drugs are being tried as candidates for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV for a considerable period, due to their potential for immediate inhibition of viral replication. Discrepancies in the findings called for a critical review of the relevant efforts and their outcomes. A systematic literature search identified 143 eligible articles of which only 5 reported complete findings while another 11 were still on-going. Observed moderate efficacy and good safety profile seemed to identify PrEP as a promising step for minimizing the spread of HIV to relatively unaffected population and controlling the epidemic among high risk population groups. But the duration of this efficacy was found to depend heavily on the availability, adherence and other related issues like cost, political commitment, ethical consideration etc. To prevent potential cultural and behavioral modifications, proper pre-administration counseling also seemed critical for the success of PrEP as a cost-effective intervention with adequate coverage.
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Prevalence and correlates of cryptococcal antigen positivity among AIDS patients--United States, 1986-2012.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the leading opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The worldwide burden of CM among persons living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was estimated in 2009 to be 957,900 cases, with approximately 624,700 deaths annually. The high burden of CM globally comes despite the fact that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable weeks before the onset of symptoms, allowing screening for cryptococcal infection and early treatment to prevent CM and CM-related mortality (2). However, few studies have been conducted in the United States to assess the prevalence of cryptococcal infection. To quantify the prevalence of undiagnosed cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected persons in the United States during 1986-2012, stored sera from 1,872 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study with CD4 T-cell counts <100 cells/µL were screened for CrAg, using the CrAg Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) (Immy, Inc.). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated the overall prevalence of CrAg positivity in this population to be 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2%-3.7%).
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Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.
Postgrad Med J
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Job strain results from a combination of high workload and few decision-making opportunities in the workplace. There is inconsistent evidence regarding the association between job strain and hypertension, and methodological shortcomings preclude firm conclusions. Thus, a meta-analysis of observational studies on hypertension among occupational groups was conducted to determine whether job strain was associated with hypertension. In January 2012, we carried out a comprehensive, topic-specific electronic literature search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychoINFO databases complemented by individual help from non-communicable disease experts. Experimental/interventional studies and studies on personality disorders were excluded. Nine of 894 identified studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of the nine studies was 1.3 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.48; p<0.001), of case-control studies 3.17 (95% CI 1.79 to 5.60; p<0.001) and of cohort studies 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41; p<0.001), all of which indicated statistically significant positive associations between job strain and hypertension. In a subgroup analysis, cohort studies of good methodological quality showed significant associations between job strain and hypertension, while those of poor methodological quality showed no association or subgroup differences. We conclude that despite methodological differences, case-control and cohort studies of good methodological quality showed positive associations between hypertension and job strain.
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Sexual Behaviors and Partner-Specific Correlates of Heterosexual Anal Intercourse Among Truck Drivers and Their Wives in South India.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers ("truckers") and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18-49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2-24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9-12.5]), husband's sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0-3.5]), and husband's high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2-5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2-13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI.
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Regulatory Variation in HIV-1 Dependency Factor ZNRD1 Associates with Host Resistance to HIV-1 Acquisition.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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ZNRD1 was identified as a host protein required for the completion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) lifecycle in a genome-wide screen using small interfering RNA gene silencing. Subsequently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of host determinants for HIV-1 disease identified an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ZNRD1 region with CD4(+) T-cell depletion.
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Pulmonary symptoms and diagnoses are associated with HIV in the MACS and WIHS cohorts.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Several lung diseases are increasingly recognized as comorbidities with HIV; however, few data exist related to the spectrum of respiratory symptoms, diagnostic testing, and diagnoses in the current HIV era. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of HIV on prevalence and incidence of respiratory disease in the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment.
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Factors associated with HIV and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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HIV-syphilis co-infection is often cited as a major reason behind recent resurgence in syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men in China. Most published literatures explore factors associated with either HIV or syphilis, but not their co-infection. We analysed data from a cross-sectional survey on men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants for the survey. Socio-demographic and behavioral predictors for HIV-syphilis mono/co-infection were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Factor scores were used to summarise (1) HIV-related knowledge and (2) access to HIV preventive services. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and their co-infection, among 2936 self-identified men who have sex with men, were 7.7%, 14.3%, and 2.6%, respectively. In the adjusted analysis, the significant positive correlates of poorer diagnoses (co-infection vs mono- and no infection or co- and mono-infection vs no infection) were -30 to 39 years and ?40 years age, education up to senior high school, unprotected anal intercourse, recent sexually transmitted disease symptoms, incorrect knowledge about routes of transmission, and access to preventive or counselling/testing services for HIV. For effective control of this dual epidemic, integrated HIV and syphilis surveillance and targeted intervention strategies for Chinese men who have sex with men are need of the hour.
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Serum microRNAs in HIV-infected individuals as pre-diagnosis biomarkers for AIDS-NHL.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To determine if changes in levels of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) were seen preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL).
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Continued drug use during methadone treatment in China: a retrospective analysis of 19,026 service users.
J Subst Abuse Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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This study examined nation-wide data from China to assess client outcomes after 6-months of methadone treatment. Data on 19,026 clients enrolled between April 2008 and March 2010 were reviewed for changes in HIV-risk behaviours and emergence of new HIV cases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with illicit drug use while in MMT. Clients reported reduced drug use and related risk behaviours and improved social functioning. There were 24 newly-identified cases of HIV. Continued drug use was associated with low attendance (OR=5.98, 95% CI=4.69-7.63), frequently seeing drug using friends (OR=3.72 for daily vs. never, 95% CI=3.18-4.34) and having a difficult family relationship (OR=2.03 for difficult vs. good, 95% CI=1.63-2.52). Methadone dose was not associated with continued drug use while in treatment. The Chinese MMT programme appears to be having a positive influence on those clients who remain in treatment, but needs to explore strategies to increase accessibility.
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Baseline CD4 cell counts of newly diagnosed HIV cases in China: 2006-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Late diagnosis of HIV infection is common. We aim to assess the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV cases receiving timely baseline CD4 count testing and the associated factors in China.
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Serum Levels of Cytokines, and Biomarkers for Inflammation and Immune Activation, and HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin B cell Lymphoma Risk.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Background: HIV infection is associated with a marked increase in risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL). However, the mechanisms that promote the development of AIDS-NHL are not fully understood. Methods: In this study serum levels of several cytokines and other molecules associated with immune activation were measured in specimens collected longitudinally during 1-to-5 years preceding AIDS-NHL diagnosis, in 176 AIDS-NHL cases and 176 HIV+ controls from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Results: Multivariate analyses revealed that serum levels of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC), IL-6, IL-10, IP-10/CXCL10, neopterin, and TNF? were elevated in those HIV+ individuals who went on to develop AIDS-NHL. Additionally, the fraction of specimens with detectable IL-2 was increased, and the fraction with detectable IL-4 was decreased, in these subjects. Conclusions: These results suggest that long term, chronic immune activation, possibly driven by macrophage-produced cytokines, precedes development of NHL in HIV+ individuals. Impact: FLC, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10/CXCL10, neopterin, and TNF? may serve as biomarkers for AIDS-NHL.
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Long-term predictive value of the Framingham Risk Score for Stroke in HIV-positive vs HIV-negative men.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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To test the predictive accuracy of the Framingham Risk Score for Stroke (FRS-S) in HIV-infected (HIV+) vs HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men.
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Age, Comorbidities, and AIDS Predict a Frailty Phenotype in Men Who Have Sex With Men.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Adults aging with HIV infection are at risk for age-related comorbidities and syndromes, such as frailty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression and predictors of the frailty phenotype (FP) among HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men who have sex with men.
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An Intervention to Improve Mental Health and Family Well-Being of Injecting Drug Users and Family Members in Vietnam.
Psychol Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Family plays an important role in the lives of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Vietnam. This study examined the preliminary outcomes of an intervention targeting IDUs and their family members in Vietnam. Eighty-three families, including 83 IDUs and 83 family members, were recruited from 4 communes in Phú T?o Province, Vietnam. The 4 communes were randomized to either an intervention condition or a standard care condition. The IDUs and their family members in the intervention condition completed 4 group sessions, with the aims to improve their mental health and family relations and to promote positive behavioral change. The intervention effect was evaluated at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. A significant reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in family functioning were reported for IDUs in the intervention group compared with those in the standard care group. The family members in the intervention group reported better coping skills at 3 months, fewer depressive symptoms at 6 months, and improved family function at both 3 and 6 months compared with those in the standard care group. However, no significant intervention effect was observed for IDUs in terms of drug-using behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of an intervention that simultaneously targets IDUs and their family members in Vietnam. Study findings highlight the importance of including family members and enhancing their role in drug use intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Job strain results from a combination of high workload and few decision-making opportunities in the workplace. There is inconsistent evidence regarding the association between job strain and hypertension, and methodological shortcomings preclude firm conclusions. Thus, a meta-analysis of observational studies on hypertension among occupational groups was conducted to determine whether job strain was associated with hypertension. In January 2012, we carried out a comprehensive, topic-specific electronic literature search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychoINFO databases complemented by individual help from non-communicable disease experts. Experimental/interventional studies and studies on personality disorders were excluded. Nine of 894 identified studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of the nine studies was 1.3 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.48; p<0.001), of case-control studies 3.17 (95% CI 1.79 to 5.60; p<0.001) and of cohort studies 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41; p<0.001), all of which indicated statistically significant positive associations between job strain and hypertension. In a subgroup analysis, cohort studies of good methodological quality showed significant associations between job strain and hypertension, while those of poor methodological quality showed no association or subgroup differences. We conclude that despite methodological differences, case-control and cohort studies of good methodological quality showed positive associations between hypertension and job strain.
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Sexual risk behaviors among club drug users in Shanghai, China: prevalence and correlates.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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We surveyed 276 club drug users in Shanghai, China. Overall, 43.8 % reported ?2 sex partners in the past 30 days, and 48.9 % reported having sex with non-regular partners, 67.4 % of whom had unprotected sex. Having ?2 recent sex partners was associated with being 35 years or older, male, living with friends or others, introduced to club drug use by non-regular sex partners, using methamphetamine recently, self-identified as gay/lesbian or bisexual, had sexual debut before 20 years old, and recently had sex under the influence of drugs. Having unprotected sex with non-regular partners in the past 30 days was associated with lower education levels, having sex to obtain drugs, and lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Club drug users should be targeted for intervention programs. Future research needs to identify other protective and risk factors for sexual risk behaviors and design interventions to reduce club drug use and associated sexual risk behaviors.
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Acute HIV-1 seroconversion with an unusual plasma biomarker profile.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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An unusual case of acute primary HIV-1 infection in a man with a high plasma viral load, a 51-fold increase in C-reactive protein, and antibodies against only gp160 is described. Numerous serum cytokine concentrations were elevated during HIV-1 seroconversion.
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HIV infection is associated with reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Prior studies comparing abnormalities in pulmonary function between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons in the current era are limited.
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Temporal stability of serum concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors measured across two years in low-risk HIV-seronegative men.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Prospective cohort studies often quantify serum immune biomarkers at a single time point to determine risk of cancer and other chronic diseases that develop years later. Estimates of the within-person temporal stability of serum markers partly assess the utility of single biomarker measurements and may have important implications for the design of prospective studies of chronic disease risk.
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Epidemiologic correlates of willingness to be tested for HIV and prior testing among married men in India.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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There has been limited research in India on determinants of seeking HIV testing by Indian married couples. We analyzed data obtained from husbands of married couples participating in the National Family Health Survey 2005-06. Socio-demographic and behavioural predictors for willingness to be tested and self-reported prior testing were explored, using multivariate logistic regression. Factor scores were used to summarize knowledge variables related to HIV prevention and places of testing. Sixty-nine percent of the husbands were willing to be tested as part of National Family Health Survey 2005-06, and 7% reported some form of prior testing. Our results indicate that knowledge about HIV testing in hospitals and other health/welfare centres, knowledge about transmission of HIV, poor education, religion, economic status, occupation, early sexual debut, and use of contraceptives other than barrier methods were significant predictors for reported willingness to be tested. Knowledge about routes of transmission of HIV, younger age, educational level, religion other than Hindu or Muslim, economic status, occupation, history of blood transfusion, and condom use were significant correlates of previously being tested. Strategies to improve knowledge about HIV testing sites and HIV prevention may encourage married men to be tested and reduce the spread of infection from them to their wives.
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Time to first treatment interruption in the Chinese methadone maintenance treatment programme.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China was established in 2004. The purpose of the present study was to estimate client retention and identify client factors associated with longer times in treatment.
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TLR2-activated B cells are phenotypically similar to the abnormal circulating B cells seen preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-related NHL diagnosis.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) is a common AIDS-defining cancer. Prior studies suggest that chronic B-cell activation precedes AIDS-NHL diagnosis. Activation of B cells by multiple factors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, leads to the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a DNA mutating molecule that can contribute to oncogene translocations/mutations, leading to NHL. The goal of this study was to determine whether surface markers expressed on activated and/or germinal center B cells, and AID expression, were elevated on circulating B cells preceding AIDS-NHL and to determine if TLR signaling contributes to this activated B-cell phenotype.
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Comparison of 2 anal cytology protocols to predict high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Nylon-flocked and Dacron swab anal cytology collection procedures were evaluated for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
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Factors associated with mortality of HIV-positive clients receiving methadone maintenance treatment in China.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Little is known about mortality of opiate users attending methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics. We sought to investigate mortality and its predictors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive MMT clients.
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Incident hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort analysis, 1984-2011.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Prospective characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) over the entire HIV epidemic has not been comprehensively conducted.
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Addressing injecting drug use in Asia and Eastern Europe.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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While the global HIV incidence dropped about 20% in the past 10 years, HIV incidences among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Asia and Europe continue to increase and to account for high proportions of new HIV infections among PWID globally. Great changes have been observed in this region, such as progressing from rejection to acceptance of harm reduction strategies in Asian countries, but no such change has occurred in Eastern European countries. China has quickly scaled up harm reduction activities nationwide, resulting in the decline of HIV incidence and HIV prevalence among PWID since 2006. However, insufficient scaling up of harm reduction programs in other countries has failed to slow down their HIV epidemics. In Eastern European countries where the spread of HIV among PWID is the most severe, only about 15% of funding for harm reduction programs are from domestic sources. Strong political and financial commitment from countries in this region is urgently needed to quickly scale up evidence-based harm reduction strategies in order to prevent the HIV epidemic from spreading rapidly from PWID to the heterosexual general population.
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Value of a quality assessment program in optimizing cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a multicenter study.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) allows assays of cellular function and phenotype to be performed in batches at a later time on PBMC at a central laboratory to minimize assay variability. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that stores cryopreserved PBMC from participants two times a year at four study sites. In order to ensure consistent recovery of viable PBMC after cryopreservation, a quality assessment program was implemented and conducted in the MACS over a 6-year period. Every 4 months, recently cryopreserved PBMC from HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected participants at each MACS site were thawed and evaluated. The median recoveries of viable PBMC for HIV-1-infected and -uninfected participants were 80% and 83%, respectively. Thawed PBMC from both HIV-1-infected and -uninfected participants mounted a strong proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin, with median stimulation indices of 84 and 120, respectively. Expression of the lymphocyte surface markers CD3, CD4, and CD8 by thawed PBMC was virtually identical to what was observed on cells measured in real time using whole blood from the same participants. Furthermore, despite overall excellent performance of the four participating laboratories, problems were identified that intermittently compromised the quality of cryopreserved PBMC, which could be corrected and monitored for improvement over time. Ongoing quality assessment helps laboratories improve protocols and performance on a real-time basis to ensure optimal cryopreservation of PBMC for future studies.
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The impact of HAART on the respiratory complications of HIV infection: longitudinal trends in the MACS and WIHS cohorts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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Color-coded audio computer-assisted self-interviews (C-ACASI) for poorly educated men and women in a semi-rural area of South India: "good, scary and thrilling".
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10% of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75% did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98% of participants. Overall, 87% of wives and 73% of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97%) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation.
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Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men: results from a respondent driven sampling survey in Nanjing, China, 2008.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is a well-documented risk factor for acquiring HIV, but not well-studied in China. We studied demographic and behavioral correlates for UAI among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a respondent-driven-sampling (RDS) survey in Nanjing, China. Four hundred and thirty MSM (including ten seeds) participated in this study, rendering an adjusted rate of UAI as 62.3 % (95 % CI 56.4-68.4 %). Adjusted HIV and syphilis prevalence rates were 6.6 % (95 % CI 3.0-10.4) and 12.6 % (95 % CI 8.1-18.3), respectively. HIV- and syphilis-positive cases were more likely to have engaged in UAI. Being unwilling to use condoms, meeting partners in non-conventional venues, having multiple male sex-partners in the past 6 months, having sex with regular and casual male partners in the past 6 months, and consumption of alcohol before sex were all positively associated with UAI. Based on the observed high prevalence of UAI among MSM in Nanjing, we can conclude that implementation of strategies to motivate MSM with high-risk behaviors to use condoms is urgently required in Nanjing.
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Severity of club drug dependence and perceived need for treatment among a sample of adult club drug users in Shanghai, China.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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PURPOSE: Examine the severity of club drug dependence and perceived need for treatment, and further identify their determinants among a sample of club drug users in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-six club drug users were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Severity of dependence on club drugs was measured using the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). RESULTS: 69.9 % reported dependence on club drugs (i.e., SDS ? 4) and 36.6 % reported severe dependence (i.e., SDS ? 6). One-eighth (12.7 %) perceived need for drug treatment. Severe dependence on club drugs was more likely among those who reported recent use of ecstasy and those who had more depressive symptoms, but less likely among those reporting recent use of methamphetamine. Perceived need for treatment was more likely among those who lived with a spouse or boy/girlfriend, but less likely among those had prior drug treatment experience and more severe club drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that educational activities should be implemented to raise public awareness about the powerful addictive properties of club drugs, along with efforts to reduce stigma towards drug abuse and psychiatric disorders. Programs to motivate drug users to seek treatment and encourage treatment linkage are urgently needed.
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Circumstances of initiation into new-type drug use among adults in Shanghai: are there differences by types of first new-type drug used?
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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This study investigated circumstances of initiating new-type drug use among adult new-type drug users and differences among those who first used methamphetamine, ecstasy and ketamine.
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Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Strongly and Weakly Carcinogenic and Lower-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Anal Specimens in a Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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MSM are at higher risk for invasive anal cancer. Twelve human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer in women (Group 1 high-risk HPVs (hrHPVs)) and 13 HPVs are probable/possible causes (Group 2 hrHPVs) of cervical malignancy. HPVs rarely associated with malignancy are classified as lower-risk HPVs (lrHPVs).
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Feasibility of recruiting a diverse sample of men who have sex with men: observation from nanjing, china.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Respondent-driven-sampling (RDS) has well been recognized as a method for sampling from most hard-to-reach populations like commercial sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men. However the feasibility of this sampling strategy in terms of recruiting a diverse spectrum of these hidden populations has not been understood well yet in developing countries.
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HIV risk-reduction counseling and testing on behavior change of MSM.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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HIV and AIDS incidence in China is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) and ours was one of few studies in China to evaluate the role of HIV risk reduction counseling and testing. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 430 MSM. Participants were followed up at 6, 12 and 18 months to evaluate behavioral changes after counseling to reduce risk behaviors. At baseline, HIV prevalence was 4.7%, whereas HIV incidence was 5.2 per 100 person-years. The incidence was 3.8 during six to 12 months, and 1.1 during 12 to 18 months. During the study period, the reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) significantly decreased from 60.9% to 42.9%. The proportion of participants who had one or no partner significantly increased from 40.9% to 48.0%. The study also found that some risk behaviors decreased between baseline and 12 months, followed by a slight increase between 12 and 18 months. Reductions in UAI can be achieved through counseling and testing, but may wane over time. Future programs should consider HIV risk-reduction counseling and testing for interventions in MSM in China.
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The incidence and correlates of symptomatic and asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in selected populations in five countries.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) infections pose diagnostic and control problems in developing countries.
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Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships: an egocentric network study in Yunnan, China.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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To investigate the patterns of concurrent sexual partnerships among young opiate users and sexual transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in concurrent sexual partnerships in drug-use and sexual networks.
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Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on biomarkers of B-lymphocyte activation and inflammation.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Chronic inflammation and B-cell hyperactivation are seen in HIV infection, contributing to an increased risk for the accrual of genetic errors that may result in B-cell lymphoma. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on serum levels of molecules that are associated with immune activation and/or inflammation, including several that are associated with B-cell activation, specifically IL-6, sCD30, sCD27, IgG, IgA, CXCL13 (B lymphocyte chemoattractant, BLC), a B-lymphocyte chemokine involved in B-cell trafficking, as well as C-reactive protein, an acute-phase protein.
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Serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 is not associated with risk of HIV infection: a case-control study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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adenoviruses are among the most promising vectors for the development of an HIV vaccine. The results of the phase IIB study of the adenovirus serotype 5-based Merck Trivalent HIV vaccine have raised the concern that serological immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) could be linked to HIV acquisition risk in high-risk individuals. We examined the association between adenovirus serostatus and the rate of incident HIV infection in populations at elevated risk of HIV acquisition.
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B-cell stimulatory cytokines and markers of immune activation are elevated several years prior to the diagnosis of systemic AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is greatly increased in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether elevated serum levels of molecules associated with B-cell activation precede the diagnosis of AIDS-associated NHL (AIDS-NHL).
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Opiate users perceived barriers against attending methadone maintenance therapy: a qualitative study in China.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in China is facing challenges such as high relapse rates and low coverage. The study assessed factors influencing MMT utilization among opiate users. In-depth interviews were conducted among 30 opiate users in 2008 to ascertain the barriers against seeking MMT. Data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Barriers to the treatment included requirement of registration with police, perceived discrimination, logistic difficulties, side effects, fear of being addicted to another drug, lack of additional services, and economic burden. The result suggests the need for structural changes such as improving comprehensive services, simplifying application procedure, and enhancing referral system. The studys limitations are noted.
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Knowledge, attitudes and practices of voluntary HIV counselling and testing among rural migrants in central China: a cross-sectional study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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To document knowledge, attitudes and practices of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants in central China.
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Reductions in sexually transmitted infections associated with popular opinion leaders in China in a randomised controlled trial.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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A community level randomised controlled trial of a Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) intervention to reduce bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unprotected extramarital sex was carried out over 2 years in five countries. The main study results did not find significant intervention effects. This paper presents a sub-analysis examining the differential intervention impacts among high-risk and low-risk participants in the China site.
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The dual impact of HIV-1 infection and aging on naïve CD4 T-cells: additive and distinct patterns of impairment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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HIV-1-infected adults over the age of 50 years progress to AIDS more rapidly than adults in their twenties or thirties. In addition, HIV-1-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) present with clinical diseases, such as various cancers and liver disease, more commonly seen in older uninfected adults. These observations suggest that HIV-1 infection in older persons can have detrimental immunological effects that are not completely reversed by ART. As naïve T-cells are critically important in responses to neoantigens, we first analyzed two subsets (CD45RA(+)CD31(+) and CD45RA(+)CD31(-)) within the naïve CD4(+) T-cell compartment in young (20-32 years old) and older (39-58 years old), ART-naïve, HIV-1 seropositive individuals within 1-3 years of infection and in age-matched seronegative controls. HIV-1 infection in the young cohort was associated with lower absolute numbers of, and shorter telomere lengths within, both CD45RA(+)CD31(+)CD4(+) and CD45RA(+)CD31(-)CD4(+) T-cell subsets in comparison to age-matched seronegative controls, changes that resembled seronegative individuals who were decades older. Longitudinal analysis provided evidence of thymic emigration and reconstitution of CD45RA(+)CD31(+)CD4(+) T-cells two years post-ART, but minimal reconstitution of the CD45RA(+)CD31(-)CD4(+) subset, which could impair de novo immune responses. For both ART-naïve and ART-treated HIV-1-infected adults, a renewable pool of thymic emigrants is necessary to maintain CD4(+) T-cell homeostasis. Overall, these results offer a partial explanation both for the faster disease progression of older adults and the observation that viral responders to ART present with clinical diseases associated with older adults.
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Possession of HLA class II DRB1*1303 associates with reduced viral loads in chronic HIV-1 clade C and B infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The HLA class II molecules play a central role in the generation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells, which are critical for the induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses. However, little is known about the impact of HLA class II alleles on HIV disease progression.
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A qualitative study exploring the reason for low dosage of methadone prescribed in the MMT clinics in China.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Dosage of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is an important factor influencing retention in methadone treatment. MMT clients in China received lower dosages of methadone compared with those provided in other countries. The objective of this study is to elucidate the reason for the low methadone dosage prescribed in MMT clinics in China.
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Stigma against HIV-infected persons among migrant women living in Shanghai, China.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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We examined the characteristics of 601 female migrants in Shanghai regarding stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted July and August 2008, using an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants (88%) were married, 9.2% reported multiple sexual partners, 19.1% knew about voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and 3.7% had been tested for HIV. About half (56.4%) agreed that people who acquire HIV/AIDS through sex or drug use deserve it. About 80% admitted that they were afraid of PLWHA. Low knowledge of HIV/AIDS, being older, low levels of education, and longer duration in Shanghai were correlates for having stigmatizing attitudes, while having premarital sex and/or multiple sex partners correlated with less stigma. HIV-related stigma among female migrants in Shanghai is common. Future stigma reduction prevention and intervention programs among female migrants should target those who are older, less educated, and have lived in Shanghai relatively longer.
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Development of a culturally appropriate health-related quality of life measure for human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Thailand.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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Aim:? Develop a reliable and valid self-report health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Thailand. Methods:? The Thai Quality of Life for HIV-infected Children instrument, the ThQLHC (an HRQOL measure that uses the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory as a generic core and a 17-item HIV-targeted scale), was developed and administered cross-sectionally to 292 HIV-infected children in Thailand. The disease-targeted scale included HIV-related symptoms, ability to adhere with their treatment regimens and self-image. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbachs ?) and construct validity of the ThQLHC scales were then evaluated. Results:? Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.57 to 0.82, with four of five scales reaching the minimal acceptable level (>0.70). Significant associations were found between poor HRQOL and poor self-rated disease severity, care givers rated overall quality of life, cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 percent and plasma HIV ribonucleic acid level. Conclusion:? Reliable and valid disease-targeted HRQOL measures for HIV-infected children are essential in the assessment of therapeutic effectiveness. The findings of this cross-sectional survey provide support for the reliability and validity of the ThQLHC as an HRQOL outcome measure for HIV-infected Thai children.
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Health-related Quality of Life of Thai children with HIV infection: a comparison of the Thai Quality of Life in Children (ThQLC) with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ version 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0) Generic Core Scales.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Thai Quality of Life in Children (ThQLC) and compare it with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™ 4.0) in a sample of children receiving long-term HIV care in Thailand.
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[Impact of methadone maintenance treatment on HIV risk behaviors of heroin drug users].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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To evaluate HIV risk behaviors among heroin drug users who were treated in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics.
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Evolution of men who have sex with men community and experienced stigma among men who have sex with men in Chengdu, China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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To understand the stigma and discrimination experienced by men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu, and to evaluate their impact on effective HIV prevention.
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HIV/STD prevalence among men who have sex with men in Chengdu, China and associated risk factors for HIV infection.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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To assess the prevalence of HIV and selected sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu, China, and the risk factors associated with HIV infection.
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Prevalence of HIV and STIs and associated risk factors among female sex workers in Guangdong Province, China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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To assess the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated factors among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangdong, China.
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Safety of the blood supply in a rural area of China.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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To determine the sensitivity and specificity of tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis conducted by laboratories of 3 blood collection organizations in a rural area of China.
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Multistage genomewide association study identifies a locus at 1q41 associated with rate of HIV-1 disease progression to clinical AIDS.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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A mean of 9-10 years of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection elapse before clinical AIDS develops in untreated persons, but this rate of disease progression varies substantially among individuals. To investigate host genetic determinants of the rate of progression to clinical AIDS, we performed a multistage genomewide association study.
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Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of voluntary HIV counseling and testing among rural migrants in Shanghai, China.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2009
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A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2% having had multiple sex partners in the past year, only 19% of the participants always using condoms whereas 61.6% did not use in their sexual acts in the past month, 80% knew HIV infection was diagnosed through a blood test, 46.5% had heard of VCT ever before, but only 3.5% felt that they were likely to be HIV-infected now or in the future and only 62 (2.3%) had ever had HIV testing with 19 of them getting tested at a VCT site. Gender, working venue, multiple sex partnerships and knowledge of VCT were independently correlated with having had HIV testing. This study suggests that a much greater effort is needed to promote safer sex and to improve VCT knowledge and services among rural migrants particularly those who are engaging in risky behaviors.
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Correlation between HIV and sexual behavior, drug use, trichomoniasis and candidiasis among female sex workers in a Mekong Delta province of Vietnam.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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To determine the prevalence of HIV and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam, a survey of 406 FSWs in Soc Trang province was conducted between May and August, 2003. The participants were interviewed, using a standardized interview, to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, and gynecologic and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history. The prevalence of HIV was 3.3%. An increased risk for HIV was associated with ever using illicit drugs, direct sex work, early sexual debut, age of FSWs, and infection with candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Reduced likelihood of HIV was only associated with withdrawal as a contraceptive method. A strong association of HIV with drug use and candidiasis and trichomoniasis infection among FSWs was found. Needle/syringe exchange, STI treatment, and methadone programs targeting FSWs should be implemented, and should include 100% condom use promotion.
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Clients of female sex workers as a bridging population in Vietnam.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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Understanding bridging behaviors of clients of female sex workers (FSWs) is important for projecting and intervening in the spread of sexually transmitted infections in Vietnam. The goals of the study were to determine HIV/STI prevalence amongst different bridging groups, identify factors associated with being potential and active bridgers, and assess the association of drug use and unsafe sex with HIV and/or STI prevalence. In April, 2007, 292 clients were anonymously interviewed at sex venues in a two-stage time-location cluster sampling survey, followed by HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 testing. Based on condom use with both high-risk (FSWs) and low-risk (wives/girlfriends) sexual partners, clients were classified as unlikely, potential, or active bridgers. The majority of clients were potential or active bridgers (55.8%) who had a significantly higher prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) (21% and 33%, respectively) than unlikely bridgers (8.7%). HIV seropositivity was 4.4-fold (95% CI 1.1-17.1) higher among those who were HSV-2-positive. Clients of FSWs may be playing a major bridging role in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam. An observed synergistic interaction between drug use and condom slippage/breakage emphasizes the importance of proper condom use, particularly among drug users.
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Visiting entertainment venues and sexual health in China.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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Entertainment venues in China are associated with risky sexual behavior. Most previous studies related to entertainment venues in China have focused on sex workers and commercial sex, but this study addressed sexual health in a sample of the general urban population. A randomly selected sample of market vendors (n = 4,510) from an eastern city was recruited and assessed to examine relationships between entertainment venue visits and sexual risk. Both behavioral (self-reports of unprotected sex) and biomedical (STD test results) measures were used. About 18% of the sample (26.8% of men and 9% of women) reported visiting entertainment venues in the past 30 days. Those who visited entertainment venues were more likely to be male, younger, single, with higher education, and to have more discretionary income. For both men and women, visiting entertainment venues was a significant predictor for unprotected sex and STD infection. Gender differences were observed in predicting unprotected sex and STD infections. Entertainment venues could be potential sites for place-based intervention programs and outreach for the general population.
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Improving reproductive health knowledge in rural China--a web-based strategy.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2009
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In China, one of the major problems in upgrading rural health services is the difficulty of communicating between the rural and urban areas. Enabling local agencies to access the Internet in resource-poor areas can provide an efficient means of diffusing current training and information and will have far-reaching policy implications. To test the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver needed health information to the countryside, the UCLA School of Public Health and the Institute of Health Studies of Kunming Medical College (IHS-KMC) collaborated in an experimental website project to improve the quality of reproductive health services to promote womens health in three rural counties of Yunnan. The project involved the county government and the Bureau of Public Health, the Bureau of Family Planning; the Bureau of Education, Womens Federation, and the Maternal and Child Health Station targeting village health workers and teachers; womens cadres. Three counties, matched on socioeconomic status, participated in the study and were randomized to receive three programs. Nanhua County received computer skill training and logistic support including a planning workshop for information diffusion. Mouding County received computers only. Dayao, the control county, did not receive the full program until the conclusion of the project. The study demonstrated that the use of a website to disseminate health information in remote rural areas is not only feasible but that it also will be enthusiastically adopted by local health workers and interested parties. Moreover, the knowledge was diffused from the primary population of village doctors, family planning workers, womens cadres, and teachers to the secondary population of villagers and students.
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Sociocultural contexts and communication about sex in China: informing HIV/STD prevention programs.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each themes relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication.
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Recreational amphetamine use and risk of HIV-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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The results of many laboratory studies suggest that amphetamine use may lead to altered immune function and cytokine expression, both of which are implicated in HIV-related lymphomagenesis. We examined the hypothesis that use of amphetamines modifies risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Data on amphetamine use were collected every six months during the follow-up period between 1984 and 2002. A total of 171 NHL cases were diagnosed from the 19,250 person-years accrued. Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate the effects of baseline exposures, time-varying recent exposures, and three years lagged exposures on risk of NHL adjusting for potential confounders such as demographics, use of other substances, and risky sexual behaviors. We found that weekly or more frequent use of amphetamines was associated with an increased risk of NHL, with hazard ratios of 1.75 (95% CI = 0.81-3.77) for use at baseline, 4.73 (1.41-15.81) for recent use, and 3.05 (1.19-7.82) for three years prior use. Similar associations were observed when we separately examined systemic NHL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Given these observations, the impact of amphetamines on lymphomagenesis among HIV-infected populations should be assessed more thoroughly.
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Correlates of methadone client retention: a prospective cohort study in Guizhou province, China.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Methadone client retention levels and treatment doses of patients vary widely in methadone clinics across China. Because methadone clinics have been available in China only recently, this study explored the relationship between methadone dosage and client retention in methadone maintenance programmes in Guizhou province.
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Challenges in providing services in methadone maintenance therapy clinics in China: service providers perceptions.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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The Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) program has been initiated in China since 2004. As of the end of November, 2008, 558 MMT clinics had been established countrywide. The objective of this study was to elucidate the difficulties and challenges as perceived by service providers working in MMT clinics.
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Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We provide overwhelming confirmation of three associations previously reported in a genome-wide study and show further independent effects of both common and rare variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex region (MHC). We also examined the polymorphisms reported in previous candidate gene studies and fail to support a role for any variant outside of the MHC or the chemokine receptor cluster on chromosome 3. In addition, we evaluated functional variants, copy-number polymorphisms, epistatic interactions, and biological pathways. This study thus represents a comprehensive assessment of common human genetic variation in HIV-1 control in Caucasians.
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Evaluation of adherence and factors affecting adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among White, Hispanic, and Black men in the MACS Cohort.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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This study investigated levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in white, Hispanic, and black men and isolated factors associated with adherence among each racial group.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.