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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reduced Effect of Percutaneous Renal Denervation on Blood Pressure in Patients With Isolated Systolic Hypertension.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension. The effect in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, ?140/<90 mm Hg) is unknown. This study investigated the effects of renal denervation in 126 patients divided into 63 patients with ISH and 63 patients with combined hypertension (CH, ?140/?90 mm Hg) defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140 mm Hg despite treatment with ?3 antihypertensive agents. Renal denervation significantly reduced office SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 3, 6, and 12 months by 17/18/17 and 5/4/4 mm Hg in ISH and by 28/27/30 and 13/16/18 mm Hg in CH, respectively. The reduction in SBP and DBP in ISH was lower compared with patients with CH at all observed time points (P<0.05 for SBP/DBP intergroup comparison). The nonresponder rate (change in office SBP <10 mm Hg) after 6 months was 37% in ISH and 21% in CH (P<0.001). Mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP after 3, 6, and 12 months were significantly reduced by 10/13/15 and 6/6/9 mm Hg in CH, respectively. In patients with ISH the reduction in systolic ambulatory blood pressure was 4/8/7 mm Hg (P=0.032/P<0.001/P=0.009) and 3/4/2 mm Hg (P=0.08/P<0.001/P=0.130) in diastolic ambulatory blood pressure after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. The ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly lower after 3 and 12 months in SBP and after 12 months in ambulatory DBP, respectively. In conclusion, renal denervation reduces office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with ISH. However, this reduction is less pronounced compared with patients with CH.
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Prevention of electrocardiographic left ventricular remodeling by the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan in patients with type 2 diabetes.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To assess the ability of olmesartan (OLM) to prevent or delay left ventricular remodeling and hypertrophy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Invasive treatment of resistant hypertension: present and future.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The underlying pathophysiologic concept of diverse invasive devices to treat resistant hypertension (e.g., sympathetic denervation, carotid sinus nerve stimulation) is known for a long time. Since the pioneering work in the 1940s in humans, innovative techniques have been developed resulting in less invasive treatment procedures and, hence, overcoming serious side effects, which in turn improved safety and lead to more widespread use. Recently, new experimental technologies have been or are under evaluation in experiments and first-in-man studies have been conducted. Data with interventional techniques are rapidly expanding and have to be interpreted with caution. Additional data from randomized potentially sham-controlled studies are urgently needed. This article focuses on the increasing work of different invasive approaches for the treatment of resistant hypertension.
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First experience in analysing pulsatile retinal capillary flow and arteriolar structural parameters measured noninvasively in hypertensive patients.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Increased pulsatile pressure induces as well as aggravates microvascular damage. Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry allows the noninvasive assessment of both retinal capillary flow (RCF) and arteriolar structural parameters of the retinal circulation. Moreover, pulsatile characteristics of the retinal arterioles can be assessed.
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Disproportional decrease in office blood pressure compared with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment: dependency on pretreatment blood pressure levels.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The long-term relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP in patients on therapy is not well documented. From a registry we included all patients in whom antihypertensive therapy needed to be uptitrated. Drug treatment included the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or drugs not blocking the renin-angiotensin system, alone or on top of an existing drug regimen. In all patients, office BP and 24-hour ABP were obtained at baseline and after 1 year with validated devices. In the study population of 2722 patients, there was a good correlation between the change in office BP and 24-hour ABP (systolic: r=0.39; P<0.001; diastolic: r=0.34; P<0.001). However, the numeric decrease in office BP did not correspond to the decrease in ABP in a 1:1 fashion, for example, a decrease of 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg corresponded to a decrease of ?7.2, 10.5, and 13.9 mm Hg in systolic ABP, respectively. The disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP compared with ABP was dependent on the level of the pretreatment BP, which was consistently higher for office BP than ABP. The white coat effect (difference between office BP and ABP) was on average 10/5 mm Hg lower 1 year after intensifying treatment and the magnitude of that was also dependent on pretreatment BP. There was a disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP than in ABP, which for both office BP and ABP seemed to depend on the pretreatment BP level.
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Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design.
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Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering for prevention of strokes and cognitive decline: a review of available trial evidence.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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It is well established by a large number of randomized controlled trials that lowering blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by drugs are powerful means to reduce stroke incidence, but the optimal BP and LDL-C levels to be achieved are largely uncertain. Concerning BP targets, two hypotheses are being confronted: first, the lower the BP, the better the treatment outcome, and second, the hypothesis that too low BP values are accompanied by a lower benefit and even higher risk. It is also unknown whether BP lowering and LDL-C lowering have additive beneficial effects for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and whether these treatments can prevent cognitive decline after stroke.
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Catheter-based renal denervation for treatment of patients with treatment-resistant hypertension: 36 month results from the SYMPLICITY HTN-2 randomized clinical trial.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine long-term results of renal artery denervation for treatment of treatment-resistant hypertension in the SYMPLICITY HTN-2 study.
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1-Year outcomes of hypertension management in 13,000 outpatients under practice conditions: Prospective 3A registry.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Current data on characteristics and outcomes of patients with high blood pressure (BP) managed under clinical practice conditions are limited.
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Renal denervation--implications for chronic kidney disease.
Nat Rev Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Catheter-based renal denervation to treat patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has generated considerable interest. Data from the majority of, but not all, observational studies and randomized controlled trials suggest that the procedure does not impair renal function and can effectively reduce office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with primary hypertension. The putative beneficial effects of renal denervation seem to result from the interruption of renal efferent and afferent nerves. In patients with resistant hypertension and CKD, interruption of afferent reflexes might lead to a reduction in global sympathetic tone. The subsequent sustained reduction in blood pressure is expected to slow the progression of renal disease. However, renal denervation might also improve glucose metabolism, increase insulin sensitivity and reduce renal inflammation, with renoprotective effects in patients with CKD. Additional large randomized controlled trials of renal denervation in hypertensive and normotensive patients with CKD are required to precisely define the clinical value of the procedure in this population.
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Effects of folic acid on renal endothelial function in patients with diabetic nephropathy: results from a randomized trial.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction has been shown to promote podocyte injury and albuminuria in diabetes, highlighting the importance of the interaction between renal endothelial cells and podocytes. Folic acid (FA) improves nitric oxide synthase (NOS) function and reduces progression of diabetic nephropathy in animal models. We tested whether high-dose FA treatment improves renal endothelial function and albuminuria in human subjects with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Following a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, 28 patients with Type 2 diabetes and albuminuria were allocated to 4 weeks' treatment with placebo and high-dose FA (5 mg/day). Renal nitric oxide (NO) production determined as the response of renal plasma flow (RPF) to NOS inhibition with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (4.25 mg/kg intravenously), renal oxidant stress as response of RPF to vitamin C infusion (3 mg/kg) and albuminuria were determined after each treatment phase. Neither the reduction in RPF to L-NMMA nor the increase in RPF to vitamin C infusion differed between treatment phases (?RPF to
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Clinical impact of patient adherence to a fixed-dose combination of olmesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Recent findings from randomized clinical trials indicate an improved patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control by using fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to verify those data in a large real-world sample of hypertensive patients and to cross-check adherence evaluation performed by physicians and patients self-assessment.
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Impact of telmisartan on cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients at high risk: a Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease subanalysis.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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In the Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease, all patients were at high cardiovascular risk, and a substantial proportion were hypertensive. We performed a post-hoc analysis to explore the hypothesis that telmisartan has a differential action in hypertensive vs. nonhypertensive patients.
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Urinary albumin excretion from spot urine samples predict all-cause and stroke mortality in Africans.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Increased urinary albumin excretion reflects general vascular damage and predicts adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Albuminuria can be determined from easily collected spot urine samples, especially in low-resource settings. However, no prognostic evidence exists for Africans.
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Improvement of albuminuria after renal denervation.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The primary objective of this study was the effect of renal denervation (RDN) on elevated urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. In addition, patients were stratified according their UACR at baseline into micro- (30-300 mg/g, n=37) and macroalbuminuria (? 300 mg/g, <2,200 mg/g, n=22).
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What the interventionalist should know about renal denervation in hypertensive patients: a position paper by the ESH WG on the interventional treatment of hypertension.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Percutaneous catheter-based transluminal renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as a new approach to achieve sustained blood pressure reduction in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Experts from ESH and ESC in their recently released position papers and consensus document have summarised the current evidence, unmet needs and practical recommendations for the application of this therapeutic strategy in clinical practice. Experts of the ESH Working Group for the interventional treatment of hypertension prepared this position paper in order to provide interventionalists with guidance through the procedure of RDN. Given that there is no established intraprocedural control of ablation success, interventionalists have to be familiar with the aspects related to the anatomy and imaging of the renal arteries, the distribution of renal sympathetic fibres, the special equipment necessary for RDN and the procedural details in order to maximise the success and minimise potential complications.
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The International Society of Hypertension and World Hypertension League call on governments, nongovernmental organizations and the food industry to work to reduce dietary sodium.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League have developed a policy statement calling for reducing dietary salt. The policy supports the WHO and the United Nations recommendations, which are based on a comprehensive and up-to-date review of relevant research. The policy statement calls for broad societal action to reduce dietary salt, thus reducing blood pressure and preventing hypertension and its related burden of cardiovascular disease. The hypertension organizations and experts need to become more engaged in the efforts to prevent hypertension and to advocate strongly to have dietary salt reduction policies implemented. The statement is being circulated to national hypertension organizations and to international nongovernmental health organizations for consideration of endorsement. Member organizations of the International Society of Hypertension and the World Hypertension League are urged to support this effort.
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Daytime systolic ambulatory blood pressure with a two-step switch from candesartan to olmesartan monotherapy and the fixed-dose combination of olmesartan/amlodipine in patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension (SEVICONTROL-2).
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the fixed-dose combination olmesartan/amlodipine 40/10 mg in patients with moderate essential hypertension not controlled on candesartan 32 mg. This was a prospective, single-arm, phase IV study. The primary endpoint was the change in mean daytime systolic blood pressure (BP). A total of 77 of 89 screened patients started candesartan 32 mg, 62 olmesartan 40 mg, and 57 olmesartan 40 mg/amlodipine 10 mg. Mean daytime systolic BP was reduced by 9.8±15.2 mm Hg (P<.001) vs candesartan monotherapy. Office BP reduction was 9.2±18.8/5.0±8.9 mm Hg (P<0.001). Treatment goals (<140/90 mm Hg for office and <135/85 mm Hg for ambulatory BP) were achieved in 58.2% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. There was one drug-related adverse event (edema) and no serious adverse events. Patients of Caucasian ethnicity with moderate essential hypertension uncontrolled on candesartan experienced a further drop in BP using olmesartan and amlodipine.
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Mortality and morbidity in relation to changes in albuminuria, glucose status and systolic blood pressure: an analysis of the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Urinary albumin excretion is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. It is uncertain whether improvement from microalbuminuria or deterioration from normoalbuminuria over time in patients with differing changes in glucose and BP change their cardiovascular risk.
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Effects of saxagliptin on early microvascular changes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for microvascular complications. Early changes in microcirculation are characterized by hyperperfusion (e.g. in the retina and kidney) and increased pulse wave reflection leading to increased aortic pressure. We investigated the effects of the DPP-4-inhibitor saxagliptin on early retinal microvascular changes.
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Renal protection by low dose irbesartan in diabetic nephropathy is paralleled by a reduction of inflammation, not of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Diabetes can disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis which leads to ER stress. ER stress-induced renal apoptosis seems to be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of reduced ER stress to the beneficial effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin injections to hypertensive mRen2-transgenic rats. After 2weeks animals were treated with 0.7mg/kg/day irbesartan. Blood glucose, blood pressure and protein excretion were assessed. Expression of ER stress markers was measured by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect markers of ER stress, renal damage and infiltrating cells. Glomerulosclerosis and apoptosis were evaluated. Diabetic mRen2-transgenic rats developed renal injury with proteinuria, tubulointerstitial cell proliferation as well as glomerulosclerosis and podocyte injury. Moreover, an increase in inflammation, podocyte ER stress and apoptosis was detected. Irbesartan somewhat lowered blood pressure and reduced proteinuria, tubulointerstitial cell proliferation and glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte damage was ameliorated but markers of ER stress (calnexin, grp78) and apoptosis were not reduced by irbesartan. On the other hand, inflammatory cell infiltration in the tubulointerstitium and the glomerulus was significantly attenuated. We conclude that irbesartan reduced renal damage even in a very low dose. The beneficial effects of low dose irbesartan were paralleled by a reduction of blood pressure and inflammation but not by a reduction of ER stress and apoptosis. Thus, sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress in the kidney does not necessarily lead to increased inflammation and tubulointerstitial or glomerular injury.
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A guide for easy- and difficult-to-treat hypertension.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Although the blood pressure (BP) of many patients can be controlled using standard combinations, treatment of hypertension frequently represents a clinical challenge to the primary care physician. This article will review best practices for managing patients with easy- and difficult-to-treat hypertension, including preferred antihypertensive combinations, optimizing adherence and persistence, recognizing white-coat hypertension, and intensifying therapy for treatment-resistant patients. Each physician must decide based on his or her own level of experience at what point a patient becomes too challenging and would benefit from referral to a hypertension specialist for more intensive management and to complete the exclusion of secondary forms of arterial hypertension. With intensive pharmacotherapy, many patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension can achieve BP control. If it fails, interventional strategies (e.g., renal denervation) are a valid option to get BP controlled.
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Diagnosis and treatment of resistant hypertension.
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Hypertension resistant to lifestyle interventions and antihypertensive medications is a common problem encountered by physicians in everyday practice. It is most often defined as a blood pressure remaining ? 140/90 mmHg despite the regular intake of at least three drugs lowering blood pressure by different mechanisms, one of them being a diuretic. It now appears justified to include, unless contraindicated or not tolerated, a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system and a calcium channel blocker in this drug regimen, not only to gain antihypertensive efficacy, but also to prevent or regress target organ damage and delay the development of cardiorenal complications. A non-negligible fraction of treatment-resistant hypertension have normal "out of office" blood pressures. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and/or home blood pressure recording should therefore be routinely performed to identify patients with true resistant hypertension, i.e. patients who are more likely to benefit from treatment intensification.
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Poor glycemic control is related to increased nitric oxide activity within the renal circulation of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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OBJECTIVE Experimental studies have shown that glucose releases endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and that NO contributes to renal hyperperfusion in models of diabetes. To examine whether this translates into the human condition, we studied the relationship between glycemic control and renal NO activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 113 patients with type 2 diabetes and a wide range of HbA1c concentrations were included. Renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined by constant infusion input clearance. Functional NO activity in the renal circulation was determined as change of RPF to infusion of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) (4.25 mg/kg). As additional markers, we measured urinary excretion of NO (UNOx) and l-arginine-to-asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio in plasma. RESULTS Subjects within the highest tertile of HbA1c concentration had increased RPF (low, medium, and high tertiles 576 ± 17 vs. 585 ± 22 vs. 627 ± 33 mL/min/m(2), P = 0.05 by one-way ANOVA), while GFR was similar across tertiles. The response of RPF to NOS blockade was augmented in subjects with higher HbA1c levels (-55 ± 7 vs. -64 ± 8 vs. -86 ± 8 mL/min, P = 0.04 by one-way ANOVA). Further, l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio and UNOx were increased in subjects with higher HbA1c levels. CONCLUSIONS In line with experimental evidence, we could demonstrate in humans that poor glycemic control is related to higher NO activity and hyperperfusion of the kidney. The renal NO system may thus be a novel therapeutic target for improving renal hemodynamics in patients with diabetes.
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Rationale and design of a large registry on renal denervation: the Global SYMPLICITY registry.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Hypertension is a global healthcare concern associated with a wide range of comorbidities. The recognition that elevated sympathetic drive plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension led to the use of renal artery denervation to interrupt the efferent and afferent sympathetic nerves between the brain and kidneys to lower blood pressure. Clinical trials of the Symplicity™ renal denervation system have demonstrated that radiofrequency ablation of renal artery nerves is safe and significantly lowers blood pressure in patients with severe resistant (systolic BP >160 mmHg) hypertension. Smaller ancillary studies in hypertensive patients suggest a benefit from renal denervation in a variety of conditions such as chronic kidney disease, glucose intolerance, sleep apnoea and heart failure.
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Effects of manidipine vs. amlodipine on intrarenal haemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Intraglomerular pressure is one of the main drivers of progression of renal failure. Experimental data suggest that there are important differences between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in their renal haemodynamic effects: manidipine reduces, whereas amlodipine increases intraglomerular pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of manidipine and amlodipine treatment on intragomerular pressure (P(glom)) in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.
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Review of direct renin inhibition by aliskiren.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Numerous clinical studies have been conducted to analyse the ability of renin-angiotensin system blockade to lower blood pressure and to reduce end-organ damage. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors emerged as an attractive option to inhibit the renin-angiotensin system and thus to prevent cardiovascular damage. Based on the publication of the most recent available results of ALTITUDE and ASTRONAUT, we review the data with respect to the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren given as an antihypertensive drug, in monotherapy and combination therapy, and the most recent publication analysing the effects of aliskiren on end-organ protection.
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Daytime Systolic Ambulatory Blood Pressure With a Direct Switch Between Candesartan Monotherapy and the Fixed-Dose Combination Olmesartan/Amlodipine in Patients With Uncontrolled Essential Hypertension (SEVICONTROL-1).
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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A direct switch of candesartan to the fixed-dose combination olmesartan/amlodipine in uncontrolled hypertension is a frequent clinical requirement but is not covered by current labeling. An open-label, prospective, single-arm phase IIIb study was performed in patients with 32 mg candesartan followed by olmesartan/amlodipine 40/10 mg. The primary endpoint was change in mean daytime systolic blood pressure (BP). Mean daytime systolic BP was reduced by 9.2±12.6 mm Hg (P<.0001) after substituting candesartan for olmesartan/amlodipine (baseline BP 140.2±9.7 mm Hg). The reduction in office BP was 9.4±18.4/4.0±9.6 mm Hg; P<.002). Overall, 61.3% of patients achieved a target BP <140/90 mm Hg using office BP and <135/85 mm Hg using ambulatory BP measurement. There were 8 adverse events with a possible relation to study drug and 1 unrelated serious adverse events. In conclusion, patients with uncontrolled moderate arterial hypertension being treated using candesartan monotherapy achieve a further reduction of BP when switched directly to a fixed-dose combination of olmesartan 40 mg/amlodipine 10 mg.
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Heart rate and blood pressure interactions in the development of erectile dysfunction in high-risk cardiovascular patients.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors as elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), resting high heart rate (HR), and endothelial dysfunction and predicts cardiovascular events. However, the interaction between high HR and SBP and the development of ED remains unclear.
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Ambulatory blood pressure changes after renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) reduces office blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension according to office BP. Less is known about the effect of RDN on 24-hour BP measured by ambulatory BP monitoring and correlates of response in individuals with true or pseudoresistant hypertension.
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An update on telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide combinations for the management of hypertensive patients with additional cardiovascular risk factors.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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International hypertension guidelines endorse the use of combination therapy to achieve blood pressure control in the majority of patients. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers, in combination with diuretics, are among the preferred combinations, with telmisartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) being an effective and well-tolerated combination. This article provides an up-to-date review of the existing data on telmisartan/HCTZ combination for the management of hypertension in patients with additional cardiovascular risk factors, including reports emerging from a number of recent clinical trials and secondary analyses of older trials. The accumulated evidence from clinical trials demonstrates that telmisartan/HCTZ combinations are effective and well tolerated in patients with mild-to-severe hypertension, including subgroups of patients with cardiovascular risk factors such as advanced age, obesity, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus and treatment-resistant hypertension.
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The sympathetic nervous system in chronic kidney disease.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Accumulating evidence has shown that the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of several chronic disorders, e.g., arterial hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and in particular chronic kidney disease (CKD). Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence that sympathetic inhibition using either sympatholytic pharmacotherapy or catheter-based renal denervation has beneficial effects in patients with CKD. Randomized clinical trials are needed to characterize the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and systematically evaluate the therapeutic effects of sympathetic inhibition in this high-risk patient population. In this review current knowledge of the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the development and progression of CKD will be summarized, and novel treatment options targeting sympathetic nervous system activity will be discussed.
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Updated ESH position paper on interventional therapy of resistant hypertension.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Out of the overall hypertensive population it is estimated that approximately 10% have treatment resistant hypertension (TRH). Percutaneous catheter-based transluminal renal ablation (renal denervation [RDN] by delivery of radiofrequency energy) has emerged as a new approach to achieve sustained blood pressure reduction in patients with TRH. This innovative interventional technique is now available across Europe for severe TRH for those patients in whom pharmacologic strategies and lifestyle changes have failed to control blood pressure below target (usually <140/90 mmHg). In 2012, the "ESH position paper: renal denervation - an interventional therapy of resistant hypertension" was published to facilitate a better understanding of the effectiveness, safety, limitation and unresolved issues. We have now updated this position paper since numerous studies have been published over the last year providing more data about the rationale, therapeutic efficacy and safety of RDN. In the upcoming ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, therapeutic options of treatment resistant hypertension will be addressed, but only briefly, and thus it is the focus of this paper to provide detailed and updated information on this innovative interventional technique.
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Ruling out secondary causes of hypertension.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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In the majority of hypertensive patients, no particular cause for abnormal blood pressure is evident (primary or essential hypertension). In contrast, in the minority of patients with secondary hypertension a specific underlying cause is responsible for the elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of secondary hypertension is higher in patients with resistant hypertension than in the general hypertensive population and increases with age. The list of secondary forms of hypertension is long and prevalence of the individual causes of secondary hypertension varies. Hence, this review divides them into two categories: common causes and rare causes. If appropriately diagnosed and treated, patients with a secondary form of hypertension might be cured, or at least show an improvement in their blood pressure control. Consequently, screening for secondary causes of hypertension plays an essential part in the care of patients with arterial hypertension. If the basal work-up raises the suspicion of a secondary cause of hypertension, specific diagnostic procedures become necessary, some of which can be performed by primary care physicians, while others require specialist input.
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International expert consensus statement: percutaneous transluminal renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Catheter-based radiofrequency ablation technology to disrupt both efferent and afferent renal nerves has recently been introduced to clinical medicine after the demonstration of significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions. Clinical trial data available thus far have been obtained primarily in patients with resistant hypertension, defined as standardized systolic clinic blood pressure ?160 mm Hg (or ?150 mm Hg in patients with type 2 diabetes) despite appropriate pharmacologic treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic agent. Accordingly, these criteria and blood pressure thresholds should be borne in mind when selecting patients for renal nerve ablation. Secondary forms of hypertension and pseudoresistance, such as nonadherence to medication, intolerance of medication, and white coat hypertension, should have been ruled out, and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is mandatory in this context. Because there are theoretical concerns with regard to renal safety, selected patients should have preserved renal function, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ?45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Optimal periprocedural management of volume status and medication regimens at specialized and experienced centers equipped with adequate infrastructure to cope with potential procedural complications will minimize potential patient risks. Long-term safety and efficacy data are limited to 3 years of follow-up in small patient cohorts, so efforts to monitor treated patients are crucial to define the long-term performance of the procedure. Although renal nerve ablation could have beneficial effects in other conditions characterized by elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity, its potential use for such indications should currently be limited to formal research studies of its safety and efficacy.
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The Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Failure (CAD-REF) registry: trial design, methods, and aims.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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During the past 10 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a major global health problem. Factors leading to decreased renal function are closely related to cardiovascular disease and vice versa. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are substantially increased in patients with CKD, even in those with only mild or moderate renal impairment. A better understanding of pathogenesis, risk factors, and genetic conditions is strongly required for more specific treatment strategies in CKD because until now, knowledge is very limited.
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Effects of nonpersistence with medication on outcomes in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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The impact of nonpersistence on events and of events on persistence is unclear. We studied the effects of nonpersistence on outcomes and events on nonadherence in a randomized placebo controlled trial in 40 countries on 25,620 patients.
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Does renal artery supply indicate treatment success of renal denervation?
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Renal denervation (RDN) emerged as an innovative interventional antihypertensive therapy. With the exception of pretreatment blood pressure (BP) level, no other clear predictor for treatment efficacy is yet known. We analyzed whether the presence of multiple renal arteries has an impact on BP reduction after RDN.
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Local application of tropicamide 0.5% reduces retinal capillary blood flow.
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (SLDF) plays an important role in the study of arterial hypertension, diabetes and stroke. The technology enables non-invasive measurement of the retinal capillary perfusion (RCF), retinal haemodynamics and arteriolar morphology in human. The values can be measured in mydriasis or in non-mydriatic eyes. It is not clear whether the using of vasoactive mydriatica for pupil dilation affects the measured parameters in retina. Acetylcholine, a vasoactive neurotransmitter in human retina, affects the contractility of pericytes using muscarinic receptors and stimulates endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether blockade of the retinal cholinergic receptors by tropicamide affects the RCF.
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Central pulse pressure is an independent determinant of vascular remodeling in the retinal circulation.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Pulse pressure has been recognized as a risk factor for stroke. Moreover, it was shown that central pulse pressure relates more strongly to vascular disease and outcome than (peripheral) brachial pulse pressure. Because vascular remodeling in the retinal circulation mirrors the 1 in the cerebral circulation and represents an easy, noninvasive possibility to assess microvascular changes in humans, we analyzed the impact of central pulse pressure on retinal vascular structure in humans. The study cohort comprised 135 nondiabetic patients across a wide range of blood pressure values. Parameter of retinal arteriolar remodeling (wall-to-lumen ratio) was assessed noninvasively and in vivo by scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Central pulse pressure and augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 beats per minute were assessed by pulse wave analysis. Central pulse pressure correlated with wall-to-lumen ratio (r=0.302; P<0.001), central augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 beats per minute correlated with wall-to-lumen ratio (r=0.190; P=0.028), and in accordance pulse pressure amplification (peripheral pulse pressure/central pulse pressure) was negatively correlated with wall-to-lumen ratio (r=-0.223; P=0.009). In contrast, central mean arterial pressure was not correlated with wall-to-lumen ratio (r=0.110; P=0.203). Multiple regression analysis revealed an independent relationship between wall-to-lumen ratio and central pulse pressure (?=0.277; P=0.009), but not with other classical cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, central pulse pressure, indicative of changes in large conduit arteries is an independent determinant of vascular remodeling in small retinal arterioles. Such a relationship indicates a coupling and crosstalk between the microvascular and macrovascular changes attributable to hypertension.
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Vascular and renal hemodynamic changes after renal denervation.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to be effective in reducing BP in treatment-resistant hypertension. Measurement of the renal and sympathetic activity revealed a decrease in sympathetic drive to the kidney and small resistance vessels after RDN. However, the consequences on renal perfusion and renal vascular resistance (RVR), as well as central hemodynamics, are unknown.
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Clinical situations associated with difficult-to-control hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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There is no doubt that patients with high blood pressure (BP) are at higher cardiovascular and death risk than those subjects whose BP levels are below the admitted normal threshold. However, most of the epidemiological surveys show that BP is uncontrolled in more than fifty percent of hypertensive subjects. There are several reasons that can justify this lack of hypertension control, some of them depending on the patient, such as therapeutic adherence, or some related to the doctor, due to therapeutic inertia or reluctance to increment the number and doses of antihypertensive drugs. Sometimes the efficacy or adverse effects related to the antihypertensive drugs underlie the uncontrolled hypertension. And, finally, there are some clinical conditions that are associated with difficult-to-control hypertension. Among them, comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome or chronic kidney disease, but also drug-related hypertension or resistant hypertension. In this article we review the epidemiology and the conditions which are related to poorly controlled hypertension and that can explain why hypertension may become difficult-to-treat.
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Determinants of cardiovascular risk in haemodialysis patients: post hoc analyses of the AURORA study.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Haemodialysis patients are at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the current study was to characterise the role of traditional and uraemia-specific CV risk factors in this patient population.
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Haemoglobin and vascular function in the human retinal vascular bed.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Haemoglobin is a potential nitric oxide (NO) scavenger. Haemoglobin is associated with blood viscosity and the red blood cell free layer width of microvessels that impact on shear stress in the microcirculation. We hypothesized that haemoglobin modulates retinal vascular function.
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Renal denervation in moderate treatment-resistant hypertension.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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This study sought to investigate the effect of renal denervation (RDN) in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension according to the established definition (Joint National Committee VII and European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology guidelines), that is, office blood pressure (BP) ?140/90 mm Hg (with at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, in adequate doses) and confirmed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM).
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23Na magnetic resonance imaging-determined tissue sodium in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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High dietary salt intake is associated with hypertension; the prevalence of salt-sensitive hypertension increases with age. We hypothesized that tissue Na(+) might accumulate in hypertensive patients and that aging might be accompanied by Na(+) deposition in tissue. We implemented (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging to measure Na(+) content of soft tissues in vivo earlier, but had not studied essential hypertension. We report on a cohort of 56 healthy control men and women, and 57 men and women with essential hypertension. The ages ranged from 22 to 90 years. (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging measurements were made at the level of the calf. We observed age-dependent increases in Na(+) content in muscle in men, whereas muscle Na(+) content did not change with age in women. We estimated water content with conventional MRI and found no age-related increases in muscle water in men, despite remarkable Na(+) accumulation, indicating water-free Na(+) storage in muscle. With increasing age, there was Na(+) deposition in the skin in both women and men; however, skin Na(+) content remained lower in women. Similarly, this sex difference was found in skin water content, which was lower in women than in men. In contrast to muscle, increasing Na(+) content was paralleled with increasing skin water content. When controlled for age, we found that patients with refractory hypertension had increased tissue Na(+) content, compared with normotensive controls. These observations suggest that (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging could have utility in assessing the role of tissue Na(+) storage for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in longitudinal studies.
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Feasibility of catheter-based renal nerve ablation and effects on sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Sympathetic activation is a hallmark of ESRD and adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis. Efferent sympathetic outflow and afferent neural signalling from the failing native kidneys are key mediators and can be targeted by renal denervation (RDN). Whether this is feasible and effective in ESRD is not known.
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Patients with treatment-resistant hypertension report increased stress and anxiety: a worldwide study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Treatment-resistant hypertension (rHTN) is defined as blood pressure (BP) that remains above goal despite compliance with at least three antihypertensive medications including a diuretic all at maximum tolerated doses or BP controlled on at least four drugs. An increased risk for cardiovascular events is associated with rHTN compared with controlled hypertension (HTN). The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional impact of rHTN on patients compared with the impact of uncontrolled hypertension (uHTN).
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EARLY Treatment with azilsartan compared to ACE-inhibitors in anti-hypertensive therapy--rationale and design of the EARLY hypertension registry.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Arterial hypertension is highly prevalent but poorly controlled. Blood pressure (BP) reduction substantially reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent randomized, double-blind clinical trials demonstrated that azilsartan medoxomil (AZM) is more effective in reducing BP than the ubiquitary ACE inhibitor ramipril. Therefore, we aimed to test whether these can be verified under clinical practice conditions.
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Sensory renal innervation: a kidney-specific firing activity due to a unique expression pattern of voltage-gated sodium channels?
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Sensory neurons with afferent axons from the kidney are extraordinary in their response to electrical stimulation. More than 50% exhibit a tonic firing pattern, i.e., sustained action potential firing throughout depolarizing, pointing to an increased excitability, whereas nonrenal neurons show mainly a phasic response, i.e., less than five action potentials. Here we investigated whether these peculiar firing characteristics of renal afferent neurons are due to differences in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from rats (Th11-L2) were recorded by the current-clamp technique and distinguished as "tonic" or "phasic." In voltage-clamp recordings, Navs were characterized by their tetrodotoxoxin (TTX) sensitivity, and their molecular identity was revealed by RT-PCR. The firing pattern of 66 DRG neurons (41 renal and 25 nonrenal) was investigated. Renal neurons exhibited more often a tonic firing pattern (56.1 vs. 12%). Tonic neurons showed a more positive threshold (-21.75 ± 1.43 vs.-29.33 ± 1.63 mV; P < 0.05), a higher overshoot (56.74 [53.6-60.96] vs. 46.79 mV [38.63-54.75]; P < 0.05) and longer action potential duration (4.61 [4.15-5.85] vs. 3.35 ms [2.12-5.67]; P < 0.05). These findings point to an increased presence of the TTX-resistant Navs 1.8 and 1.9. Furthermore, tonic neurons exhibited a relatively higher portion of TTX-resistant sodium currents. Interestingly, mRNA expression of TTX-resistant sodium channels was significantly increased in renal, predominantly tonic, DRG neurons. Hence, under physiological conditions, renal sensory neurons exhibit predominantly a firing pattern associated with higher excitability. Our findings support that this is due to an increased expression and activation of TTX-resistant Navs.
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Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of olmesartan 40 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5/25 mg in daily practice.
Vasc Health Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The safety and efficacy of olmesartan 40 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) as a fixed-dose combination has been investigated in clinical trials leading to its approval. The aims of the present study were to confirm these data in an unselected patient population in daily practice and to determine the impact of physical activity on blood pressure control.
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Reversibility of the effects of aliskiren in the renal versus systemic circulation.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Renal hemodynamic effects of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system can increase the risk of acute kidney injury under certain conditions. The BP-lowering effects of the renin inhibitor aliskiren are sustained 3-4 weeks after withdrawal. In this study, the reversibility of the renal hemodynamic effects of aliskiren was tested.
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(23)Na magnetic resonance imaging of tissue sodium.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Hypertension is linked to disturbed total-body sodium (Na(+)) regulation; however, measuring Na(+) disposition in the body is difficult. We implemented (23)Na magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((23)Na-MR) and imaging technique ((23)Na-MRI) at 9.4T for animals and 3T for humans to quantify Na(+) content in skeletal muscle and skin. We compared (23)Na-MRI data with actual tissue Na(+) content measured by chemical analysis in animal and human tissue. We then quantified tissue Na(+) content in normal humans and in patients with primary aldosteronism. We found a 29% increase in muscle Na(+) content in patients with aldosteronism compared with normal women and men. This tissue Na(+) was mobilized after successful treatment without accompanying weight loss. We suggest that, after further refinements, this tool could facilitate understanding the relationships between Na(+) accumulation and hypertension. Furthermore, with additional technical advances, a future clinical use may be possible.
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Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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The precise relationship between sodium and potassium intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk remains uncertain, especially in patients with CV disease.
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Beyond salt: lifestyle modifications and blood pressure.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Lifestyle changes have been shown to effect significant blood pressure (BP) reductions. Although there are several proposed neurohormonal links between weight loss and BP, body mass index itself appears to be the most powerful mediator of the weight-BP relationship. There appears to be a mostly linear relationship between weight and BP; as weight is regained, the BP benefit is mostly lost. Physical activity, but more so physical fitness (the physiological benefit obtained from physical activity), has a dose-dependent BP benefit but reaches a plateau at which there is no further benefit. However, even just a modest physical activity can have a meaningful BP effect. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables with low-fat dairy products and low in saturated and total fat (DASH) is independently effective in reducing BP. Of the dietary mineral nutrients, the strongest data exist for increased potassium intake, which reduces BP and stroke risk. Vitamin D is associated with BP benefit, but no causal relationship has been established. Flavonoids such as those found in cocoa and berries may have a modest BP benefit. Neither caffeine nor nicotine has any significant, lasting BP effect. Biofeedback therapies such as those obtained with device-guided breathing have a modest and safe BP benefit; more research is needed before such therapies move beyond those having an adjunctive treatment role. There is a strong, linear relationship between alcohol intake and BP; however, the alcohol effects on BP and coronary heart disease are divergent. The greatest BP benefit seems to be obtained with one drink per day for women and with two per day for men. This benefit is lost or attenuated if the drinking occurs in a binge form or without food. Overall, the greatest and most sustained BP benefit is obtained when multiple lifestyle interventions are incorporated simultaneously.
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Remodeling of retinal small arteries in hypertension.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Vascular dysfunction due to elevated blood pressure constitutes an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and of clinical correlates of vascular remodeling in retinal arteries and arterioles offers the opportunity for a better risk stratification and treatment. In vivo vascular changes can be best detected by direct imaging techniques. In this review, we summarize the main findings of several recent studies analyzing retinal-arteriolar parameters, such as outer diameter (OD) and lumen diameter (LD), retinal capillary flow (RCF), wall-to-lumen-ratio, and wall cross-sectional area by using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry (SLDF). Blood pressure emerged as an independent determinant of the wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of retinal arterioles. Retinal arterioles and small arteries of hypertensive subjects showed eutrophic inward remodeling as indicated by increased WLR, decreased LD and almost unchanged wall cross-sectional area compared to normotensive subjects. These findings are in accordance with those observed in small-resistance vessels analyzed ex vivo. In hypertensive patients, an increased retinal vascular resistance has been documented and basal nitric oxide activity emerged as an independent determinant of early arteriolar remodeling. Thus, SLDF emerged as a noninvasive research tool to assess early vascular changes in the retinal circulation.
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Blood pressure targets recommended by guidelines and incidence of cardiovascular and renal events in the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET).
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Hypertension treatment guidelines recommend that blood pressure (BP) be lowered to <140/90 mm Hg, but that a reduction to <130/80 mm Hg be adopted in patients at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. We investigated the CV and renal benefits associated with these BP targets in the high-CV-risk population of the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global End Point Trial (ONTARGET).
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Effects of statin treatment on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with arterial hypertension and normal cholesterol levels.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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Patients with arterial hypertension are characterized by impaired endothelial function and increased cardiovascular risk. Statins have been proposed as a potential treatment option in hypertension, even in those with normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. We tested whether fluvastatin reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, and improves endothelial function in patients with arterial hypertension and normal LDL-cholesterol.
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Cerebral microangiopathy in treatment-resistant hypertension.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Cerebral microangiopathy is a cause of cognitive impairment and indicates high risk for clinically overt cerebrovascular disease. It develops in patients with or without hypertension, and different pathologies may play a supporting role. In this pilot study, the authors aimed to elucidate risk factors contributing to the deleterious action of hypertension on cerebral small vessels. A cross-sectional study in 42 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension was performed. Microangiopathy was investigated by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Determinants were identified by clinical investigation, computed tomography, intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity measurement, and urinary albumin excretion. Nineteen of 42 patients had cerebral microangiopathy (23 controls). Patients were different with respect to heart rate (60.5 ± 10.2 vs 69.7 ± 15.1 beats per minute; P = .029) and systolic blood pressure during nighttime (138 ± 13 mm Hg vs 126 ± 18 mm Hg; P = .019). In addition, there were significant differences in pulse wave velocity (10.7 ± 2.0 m/s vs 9.4 ± 1.4 m/s; P = .034), peripheral pulse pressure (70.8 ± 16.3 mm Hg vs 59.2 ± 13.6 mm Hg; P = .016), central pulse pressure (62.9 ± 15.8 mm Hg vs 50.3 ± 14.2 mm Hg; P = .012), and aortic augmentation pressure (15.9 ± 6.0 vs 11.8 ± 6.6; P = .040). Systolic blood pressure and signs of hypertensive vasculopathy such as peripheral and central pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity were associated with cerebral microangiopathy in patients with long-standing treatment-resistant hypertension.
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Influence of blood flow on arteriolar wall-to-lumen ratio in the human retinal circulation in vivo.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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We hypothesized that blood flow impacts on arteriolar wall-to-lumen ratio and that vasodilatory capacity is negatively related to arteriolar wall-to-lumen ratio in the human retinal vascular bed.
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Physician attitudes to blood pressure control: findings from the Supporting Hypertension Awareness and Research Europe-wide survey.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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The Supporting Hypertension Awareness and Research Europe-wide (SHARE) physician survey aimed to qualify the key challenges that physicians face when trying to get patients to blood pressure (BP) goal.
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Changes in albuminuria predict mortality and morbidity in patients with vascular disease.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The degree of albuminuria predicts cardiovascular and renal outcomes, but it is not known whether changes in albuminuria also predict similar outcomes. In two multicenter, multinational, prospective observational studies, a central laboratory measured albuminuria in 23,480 patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes. We quantified the association between a greater than or equal to twofold change in albuminuria in spot urine from baseline to 2 years and the incidence of cardiovascular and renal outcomes and all-cause mortality during the subsequent 32 months. A greater than or equal to twofold increase in albuminuria from baseline to 2 years, observed in 28%, associated with nearly 50% higher mortality (HR 1.48; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.66), and a greater than or equal to twofold decrease in albuminuria, observed in 21%, associated with 15% lower mortality (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98) compared with those with lesser changes in albuminuria, after adjustment for baseline albuminuria, BP, and other potential confounders. Increases in albuminuria also significantly associated with cardiovascular death, composite cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure), and renal outcomes including dialysis or doubling of serum creatinine (adjusted HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.78). In conclusion, in patients with vascular disease, changes in albuminuria predict mortality and cardiovascular and renal outcomes, independent of baseline albuminuria. This suggests that monitoring albuminuria is a useful strategy to help predict cardiovascular risk.
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Validation of a therapeutic scheme for the treatment of resistant hypertension.
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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We tested the hypothesis that a therapeutic strategy of substituting the diuretic (most commonly hydrochlorothiazide) with chlorthalidone (50 mg/day), and, if needed, the calcium channel blocker with the highest dose of the most commonly used calcium antagonist (amlodipine 10 mg), and adding on top a direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren 300 mg) is effective to treat resistant hypertensive patients not responding to spironolactone. The scheme was tested in a group of 76 patients who had true treatment resistant hypertension (24-hour mean blood pressure ?130/80 mm Hg while receiving three or more drugs). An effective response to spironolactone was defined as 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) drop by more than 20 mm Hg, and was obtained with 25-50 mg in 60 patients (78.9%). In patients with inadequate response to spironolactone (n = 16), we administered the triple combination plus the remaining therapy, a mean decrease of 29 mm Hg (95% CI 11-48; P = .004) for SBP and 12 mm Hg (95% CI: 4-20 mm Hg) for diastolic BP were observed. In only 1 of 16 patients (6%), the response was considered as insufficient. These data indicate the need for further testing this scheme that looks really promising to treat resistant hypertensive patients not responding to spironolactone.
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Rosuvastatin in diabetic hemodialysis patients.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis showed no effect of atorvastatin on a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but analysis of the component cardiac endpoints suggested that atorvastatin may significantly reduce risk. Because the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial included patients with and without diabetes, we conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of cardiac events in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. Among the 731 participants with diabetes, traditional risk factors such as LDL-C, smoking, and BP did not associate with cardiac events (cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction). At baseline, only age and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were independent risk factors for cardiac events. Assignment to rosuvastatin associated with a nonsignificant 16.2% reduction in risk for the AURORA trials composite primary endpoint of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, or fatal or nonfatal stroke (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07). There was no difference in overall stroke, but the rosuvastatin group had more hemorrhagic strokes than the placebo group (12 versus two strokes, respectively; HR, 5.21; 95% CI 1.17 to 23.27). Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the rates of cardiac events by 32% among patients with diabetes (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus, rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.
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Basal nitric oxide activity is an independent determinant of arteriolar structure in the human retinal circulation.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Experimental data indicate that nitric oxide might play a role in structure and remodeling of peripheral small arteries and arterioles. We hypothesized that retinal arteriolar structure is modulated by basal nitric oxide activity.
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Renal protection with angiotensin receptor blockers: where do we stand.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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The increasing burden on health care providers from chronic kidney disease (CKD) is due to the escalating prevalence of obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The gradual decline in kidney function in the presence of these risk factors is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease. Excess angiotensin II production by the renin-angiotensin system is responsible, at least in part, for development of hypertension and for damage in the kidneys and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacological targeting of the renin-angiotensin system not only reduces blood pressure, but may also provides more direct vascular protection. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are better tolerated than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and, thus, may be a more practical therapeutic option. Clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of irbesartan, losartan, telmisartan and valsartan in the management of CKD. All ARBs tested to date have proved effective in improving at least some aspects of renal dysfunction. Few within-class comparative studies exist. Telmisartan provides superior reductions in proteinuria to losartan, however, even when blood pressures are equalized with concomitant antihypertensives. This superiority is probably linked to higher receptor affinity, longer plasma half-life and higher lipophilicity of telmisartan compared with other ARBs. The reduction of proteinuria with ARBs is also linked to improved cardiovascular outcomes. After a decade of research, there is now substantial evidence to show that the use of ARBs provides an efficacious treatment option for the prevention of renal disease progression in patients with hypertension and/or diabetes.
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Telmisartan in incipient and overt diabetic renal disease.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Renal dysfunction can be regarded as a continuum that extends from endothelial dysfunction to microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, end-stage renal disease and ultimately to death. All stages of this continuum are associated with progressively increasing cardiovascular risk. Preventing the development and progression of kidney disease requires rigorous management of blood pressure. Due to the important role of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal disease, agents that inhibit this system are recognized as first-line therapy, offering both effective blood pressure lowering and direct actions on the kidney. This review examines the effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan on renal dysfunction.
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Association of (pro)renin receptor gene polymorphism with blood pressure in Caucasian men.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The renin-angiotensin system is a major regulatory system of cardiovascular and renal function. Recently, (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] was identified as new component of the renin-angiotensin system. The IVS5+169C>T polymorphism of the (P)RR gene was shown to be associated with blood pressure (BP) in Japanese men, but no data are available for Caucasians. Hence, we genotyped the IVS5+169C>T polymorphism of the (P)RR gene in 266 Caucasian men with normal or mildly elevated BP and without any medication. Office BP was measured according to current guidelines. Office and resting systolic BP was lower in C-allele than in T-allele carriers (P<0.05) of the (P)RR gene, with no difference in diastolic BP and heart rate. Serum aldosterone was also lower in C-allele than in T-allele carriers (P<0.05). These findings indicate that C-allele carriers have lower systolic BP than T-allele carriers. Thus, our data suggest that (P)RR influences BP regulation in Caucasian men, potentially through altered aldosterone release.
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The Fc? receptor IIA R131H gene polymorphism is associated with endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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A gene polymorphism substituting arginine (R) for histidine (H) at position 131 has been described within the Fc? receptor IIa (Fc?RIIa). The R allele is associated with increased binding of CRP and enhanced activation of monocytes. Fc?RIIa is also expressed on endothelial cells, and we hypothesized this polymorphism would be associated with alterations of endothelial function.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.