The etiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic interstitial lung disease (ILD) remain incompletely understood. Genetic susceptibility to ILD has been demonstrated in previous studies. It is well known that EGFR inhibitors can induce ILD in human lung cancer patient with ethnic differences, which prompted us to hypothesize that genetic variation in EGFR pathway genes confer susceptibility to ILD. We aimed in this study to investigate whether functional polymorphisms of EGFR and its ligands genes (EGF and TGFA) were associated with ILD. Three EGFR [-216G/T (rs712830), -191A/C (rs712829), 497R > K(A/G) (rs2227983)], one EGF [61A/G, (rs4444903)] and one TGFA (rs3821262C/T) polymorphisms previously demonstrated to alter gene functions were genotyped in 229 sporadic idiopathic ILD patients and 693 normal healthy individuals. Allelic and genotypic association tests between these polymorphisms and ILD were performed. The EGF 61A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with elevated risk of ILD, with the frequency of G allele significantly increased in the ILD patient population (OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.07-1.66, P = 0.0099). None of the other polymorphisms were associated with risk of ILD. Our study suggested that the EGF 61A/G polymorphism may be associated with sporadic ILD. While a false positive finding cannot be excluded, independent studies are warranted to further validate this result.
TERT and MUC5B polymorphisms have been associated consistently with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in recent genomewide genetic studies. However, it remains unclear how both loci contribute to the susceptibility to different entities of sporadic interstitial lung disease (ILD). We sought to test the associations of the 2 polymorphisms with IPF and non-IPF ILD entities in a white population. Associations between 2 polymorphisms in TERT (rs2736100) and MUC5B (rs35705950) and IPF or non-IPF sporadic ILD were tested using 227 patients with ILD and 689 control subjects. Genotypic data were also correlated with pulmonary functions measured in patients with ILD. As a result, rs2736100 and rs35705950 were associated significantly and independently with ILD as a single phenotype (Odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.60; P = 2 × 10(-2); and OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.69-2.92; P = 7 × 10(-9); respectively). When considering IPF and "other ILD" (non-IPF) separately, rs35705950 had a stronger association with IPF (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.21-4.63; P = 1.2 × 10(-10)) than with other ILD (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.22-2.42; P = 1.2 × 10(-3)). In contrast, rs2736100 was associated with other ILD (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.11-1.85; P = 6.2 × 10(-3)) but not with IPF (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.78-1.49; P > 0.05). Rs35705950 correlated significantly with increased pulmonary function (P < 0.05). It was also associated with ILD without airflow obstruction in both the IPF and other ILD groups (P < 0.01 for both), and conferred the highest risk for IPF without airflow obstruction (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 2.60-7.66; P = 4.5 × 10(-9)). Our study suggests that although both loci confer independent risks for ILD, rs35705950 may, in particular, contribute differentially to IPF and other ILD entities. Our study further highlights the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ILD.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious problem in China. While there have been some studies on the nationwide genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), there has been little detailed research in Beijing, the capital of China, which has a huge population. Here, M. tuberculosis clinical strains collected in Beijing during 2009 were genotyped by classical methods.
Vitamin E improved liver histology in children and adults with NAFLD who participated in TONIC and PIVENS clinical trials, but with significant inter-individual variability in its efficacy. Cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) is the major enzyme metabolizing Vit E, with two common genetic variants (V433M, rs2108622 and W12G, rs3093105) found to alter its activity. We investigated the relationship between CYP4F2 genotypes, ?-tocopherol levels and histological improvement in these two trials. V433M and W12G variants were genotyped in TONIC (n?=?155) and PIVENS (n?=?213) DNA samples. The relationships between CYP4F2 genotypes, plasma ?-tocopherol levels at baseline and weeks 48 (w48) and 96 (w96) and histological end points (overall improvement in liver histology and resolution of NASH) were investigated. As a result, the V433M genotype was significantly associated with baseline plasma ?-tocopherol in the TONIC trial (p?=?0.004), but not in PIVENS. Among those receiving Vit E treatment, CYP4F2 V433M genotype was associated with significantly decreased plasma ?-tocopherol levels at w48 (p?=?0.003 for PIVENS and p?=?0.026 for TONIC) but not at w96. The w96 ?-tocopherol level was significantly associated with resolution of NASH (p?=?0.006) and overall histology improvement (p?=?0.021)in the PIVENS, but not in the TONIC trial. There was no significant association between CYP4F2 genotypes and histological end points in either trial. Our study suggested the a moderate role of CYP4F2 polymorphisms in affecting the pharmacokinetics of Vit E as a therapeutic agent. In addition, there may be age-dependent relationship between CYP4F2 genetic variability and Vit E pharmacokinetics in NAFLD.
The genetic diversity of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is determined not only by the env gene but also by its 3UTR and 3LTR. They all play important roles in extending the host range and tumor development. In the present study, one ALV-J strain (ZB110406-6) from Black-bone silk fowl (BSF) and three ALV-J strains (ZB110406-3/4/5) from Grey partridge (GP) which bore multiple tumors and breed in one house of Farm A were demonstrated extending their host to Grey partridge (GP), while two other ALV-J strains (LC110515-3/4) from BSF of Farm B can not infect embryo fibroblast of GP. The BSF is a unique species of chicken in China, while the GP is a close relative of the pheasant that previously demonstrated resistance to ALV-J. Histopathology showed that various tumors were induced by ALV-J in the two species. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolates from Farm A and B rather than species belong to two different clusters of ALV-J. Genetic mutations analysis revealed that the isolates obtained from Farm A showed a higher frequency of mutation in the hr2 domain than in other variable regions of the gp85 gene. From the nucleotide alignment of the 3 UTR and 3 LTR gene, and the spectrum of tumors observed in this study, we speculate that the deletions or mutations in the rTM, E element and U3 (CAAT boxes, CArG box and Y box) might associate with tumor formation and development. The extension of the host range of ALV-J to the GP suggested that housing different species together provides more opportunities for ALV-J to rapidly evolve.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the development and progression of cancer. The aim of this study is to identify miRNA expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma and delineate their clinical significance for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Recent studies have illuminated the diversity of roles for microRNAs in cellular, developmental, and pathophysiological processes. The study of microRNAs in human liver tissue promises to clarify the therapeutic and diagnostic value of this important regulatory mechanism of gene expression.
The aim of this study was to assess the value of interferon-? (IFN-?) release assay (IGRA) (T-SPOT.TB) for patients with suspected osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with conventional and molecular methods. Of 145 patients with suspected osteoarticular TB, recruited from Beijing Chest Hospital between July 2011 and June 2012, 86 (59.3%)had osteoarticular TB (26 with culture-confirmed TB, 60 with probable TB), 24 (16.6%) were not having active TB. The remaining 17 (11.7%) inconclusive TB and 18 (12.4%) possible TB were excluded from final analysis. In addition to conventional tests and molecular method, T-SPOT.TB assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells to examine IFN-? response to early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10 was also performed. The sensitivity and specificity for T-SPOT.TB assay were 94.2% and 70.8%, respectively. A statistically significant difference in sensitivity was found between T-SPOT.TB assay (94.2%) and other tests (acid-fast bacilli smear (19.7%), culture (34.2%), real-time PCR (36.8%); P < 0.01, respectively). These results suggested that the IGRA assay could provide useful aids in the diagnosis of osteoarticular TB.
Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased hepatic cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) activity but the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is not well elucidated. In this study, we examined if certain microRNAs (miRNA) are associated with decreased hepatic CYP3A activity in cirrhosis.
Background: The rs2736100 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is located in the intron 2 of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently supported the strong association between this SNP and risk for multiple cancers. Given the important role of the hTERT gene and this SNP in cancer biology, we hypothesize that rs2736100 may also confer susceptibility to anti-cancer drug sensitivity. In this study we aim to investigate the correlation between the rs2736100 genotype and the responsiveness to anti-cancer agents in the NCI-60 cancer cell panel. Methods and Materials: The hTERT rs2736100 was genotyped in the NCI-60 cancer cell lines. The relative telomere length (RTL) of each cell line was quantified using real-time PCR. The genotype was then correlated with publically available drug sensitivity data of two agents with telomerase-inhibition activity: Geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor) and RHPS4/BRACO19 (G-quadruplex stabilizer) as well as additional 110 commonly used agents with established mechanism of action. The association between rs2736100 and mutation status of TP53 gene was also tested. Results: The C allele of the SNP was significantly correlated with increased sensitivity to RHPS4/BRACO19 with an additive effect (r = -0.35, p = 0.009) but not with Geldanamycin. The same allele was also significantly associated with sensitivity to antimitotic agents compared to other agents (p = 0.003). The highest correlation was observed between the SNP and paclitaxel (r = -0.36, p = 0.005). The telomere length was neither associated with rs2736100 nor with sensitivity to anti-cancer agents. The C allele of rs2736100 was significantly associated with increased mutation rate in TP53 gene (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Our data suggested that the cancer risk allele of hTERT rs2736100 polymorphism may also affect the cancer cell response to both TERT inhibitor and anti-mitotic agents, which might be attributed to the elevated telomerase-independent activity of hTERT, as well as the increased risk for TP53 gene mutagenesis conferred by the polymorphism. Detailed mechanisms need to be further investigated.
Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). In China, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, but the prevalence of LTBI in HCWs especially in the hospital for pulmonary diseases has not been assessed enough. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and putative risk factors of LTBI among HCWs in a chest hospital and a TB research institute in China.
Genetic variation in the expression of human xenobiotic metabolism enzymes and transporters (XMETs) leads to inter-individual variability in metabolism of therapeutic agents as well as differed susceptibility to various diseases. Recent expression quantitative traits loci (eQTL) mapping in a few human cells/tissues have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with mRNA expression of many XMET genes. These eQTLs are therefore important candidate markers for pharmacogenetic studies. However, questions remain about whether these SNPs are causative and in what mechanism these SNPs may function. Given the important role of microRNAs (miRs) in gene transcription regulation, we hypothesize that those eQTLs or their proxies in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) altering miR targeting are likely causative SNPs affecting gene expression. The aim of this study is to identify eQTLs potentially regulating major XMETs via interference with miR targeting. To this end, we performed a genome-wide screening for eQTLs for 409 genes encoding major drug metabolism enzymes, transporters and transcription factors, in publically available eQTL datasets generated from the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines and human liver and brain tissue. As a result, 308 eQTLs significantly (p?10(-5)) associated with mRNA expression of 101 genes were identified. We further identified 7,869 SNPs in strong LD (r(2)???0.8) with these eQTLs using the 1,000 Genome SNP data. Among these 8,177 SNPs, 27 are located in the 3-UTR of 14 genes. Using two algorithms predicting miR-SNP interaction, we found that almost all these SNPs (26 out of 27) were predicted to create, abolish, or change the target site for miRs in both algorithms. Many of these miRs were also expressed in the same tissue that the eQTL were identified. Our study provides a strong rationale for continued investigation for the functions of these eQTLs in pharmacogenetic settings.
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