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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bisphosphonates inhibit stellate cell activity and enhance antitumor effects of nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) have been recognized as the principal cells responsible for the production of fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Recently, PSCs have been noted to share characteristics with cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage (MML cells). Thus, we tested whether PSCs could be targeted with the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBP; pamidronate or zoledronic acid), which are potent MML cell inhibitors. In addition, we tested NBPs treatment combination with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) to enhance antitumor activity. In vitro, we observed that PSCs possess ?-naphthyl butyrate esterase (ANBE) enzyme activity, a specific marker of MML cells. Moreover, NBPs inhibited PSCs proliferation, activation, release of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and type I collagen expression. NBPs also induced PSCs apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In vivo, NBPs inactivated PSCs; reduced fibrosis; inhibited tumor volume, tumor weight, peritoneal dissemination, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation; and increased apoptosis in an orthotopic murine model of PDAC. These in vivo antitumor effects were enhanced when NBPs were combined with nab-paclitaxel but not gemcitabine. Our study suggests that targeting PSCs and tumor cells with NBPs in combination with nab-paclitaxel may be a novel therapeutic approach to PDAC. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(11); 2583-94. ©2014 AACR.
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Current status of imaging-guided percutaneous ablation of breast cancer.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The purpose of this article is to briefly describe the various techniques used for percutaneous ablation of breast cancer, their preliminary results, and their limitations. The techniques include thermotherapy (radiofrequency ablation, laser irradiation, microwave irradiation, and insonation with high-intensity focused ultrasound waves), cryotherapy, and irreversible electroporation.
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Influence of biospecimen variables on proteomic biomarkers in breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling is being actively pursued as a therapeutic target for breast cancer. We sought to determine if tumor heterogeneity and biospecimen variables affect the evaluation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway markers.
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Galectin-1 drives pancreatic carcinogenesis through stroma remodeling and Hedgehog signaling activation.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Despite some advances, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains generally refractory to current treatments. Desmoplastic stroma, a consistent hallmark of PDAC, has emerged as a major source of therapeutic resistance and thus potentially promising targets for improved treatment. The glycan-binding protein galectin-1 (Gal1) is highly expressed in PDAC stroma, but its roles there have not been studied. Here we report functions and molecular pathways of Gal1 that mediate its oncogenic properties in this setting. Genetic ablation of Gal1 in a mouse model of PDAC (EIa-myc mice) dampened tumor progression by inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis, desmoplasic reaction and by stimulating a tumor-associated immune response, yielding a 20% increase in relative lifesplan. Cellular analyses in vitro and in vivo suggested these effects were mediated through the tumor microenvironment. Importantly, acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, a crucial step for initiation of PDAC, was found to be regulated by Gal1. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Gal1 promoted Hedgehog pathway signaling in PDAC cells and stromal fibroblasts as well as in Ela-myc tumors. Taken together, our findings establish a function for Gal1 in tumor-stroma crosstalk in PDAC and provide a preclinical rationale for Gal1 targeting as a microenvironment-based therapeutic strategy.
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Timing of infectious complications following breast-conserving therapy with catheter-based accelerated partial breast irradiation.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole-breast irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy. Indications and outcomes are topics of ongoing investigation. Previous publications have focused on early postoperative infections and reported low rates of delayed infection. We investigated the pattern of infection after catheter-based APBI at our institution.
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Clinical application of noninvasive prenatal testing for the detection of trisomies 21, 18, and 13: a hospital experience.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The aim of this study is to report the clinical application of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) to detect chromosomal aneuploidies, especially trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in Chinese singleton pregnancies.
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Prostaglandin E2 regulates pancreatic stellate cell activity via the EP4 receptor.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Pancreatic stellate cells are source of dense fibrotic stroma, a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We observed correlation between levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the extent of pancreatic fibrosis. The aims of this study were to delineate the effects of PGE2 on immortalized human pancreatic stellate cells (HPSCs) and to identify the receptor involved.
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Snail cooperates with KrasG12D to promote pancreatic fibrosis.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Patients with pancreatic cancer, which is characterized by an extensive collagen-rich fibrotic reaction, often present with metastases. A critical step in cancer metastasis is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can be orchestrated by the Snail family of transcription factors. To understand the role of Snail (SNAI1) in pancreatic cancer development, we generated transgenic mice expressing Snail in the pancreas. Because chronic pancreatitis can contribute to pancreatic cancer development, Snail-expressing mice were treated with cerulein to induce pancreatitis. Although significant tissue injury was observed, a minimal difference in pancreatitis was seen between control and Snail-expressing mice. However, because Kras mutation is necessary for tumor development in mouse models of pancreatic cancer, we generated mice expressing both mutant Kras(G12D) and Snail (Kras(+)/Snail(+)). Compared with control mice (Kras(+)/Snai(-)), Kras(+)/Snail(+) mice developed acinar ectasia and more advanced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. The Kras(+)/Snail(+) mice exhibited increased fibrosis, increased phosphorylated Smad2, increased TGF-?2 expression, and activation of pancreatic stellate cells. To further understand the mechanism by which Snail promoted fibrosis, we established an in vitro model to examine the effect of Snail expression in pancreatic cancer cells on stellate cell collagen production. Snail expression in pancreatic cancer cells increased TGF-?2 levels, and conditioned media from Snail-expressing pancreatic cancer cells increased collagen production by stellate cells. Additionally, inhibiting TGF-? signaling in stellate cells attenuated the conditioned media-induced collagen production by stellate cells. Together, these results suggest that Snail contributes to pancreatic tumor development by promoting fibrotic reaction through increased TGF-? signaling.
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Impact of identification of internal mammary sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Accurate assessment of the internal mammary (IM) nodal basin can impact prognosis and treatment in breast cancer. The goal of this study was to identify characteristics associated with positive IM sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and the impact on adjuvant treatment.
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Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts [also known as pancreatic stellate cells (PSC)] and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived interleukin (IL)-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy.
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Incidence and consequence of close margins in patients with ductal carcinoma-in situ treated with mastectomy: is further therapy warranted?
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The impact of close margins in patients with ductal carcinoma-in situ (DCIS) treated with mastectomy is unclear; however, this finding may lead to a recommendation for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). We sought to determine the incidence and consequences of close margins in patients with DCIS treated with mastectomy.
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Gene expression profiling of ampullary carcinomas classifies ampullary carcinomas into biliary-like and intestinal-like subtypes that are prognostic of outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adenocarcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are classified as biliary cancers, though the exact epithelium of origin for these cancers is not known. We sought to molecularly classify ampullary adenocarcinomas in comparison to known adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct, and duodenum by gene expression analysis.
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Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase by PF-562,271 inhibits the growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer concomitant with altering the tumor microenvironment.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Current therapies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) target individual tumor cells. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is activated in PDA, and levels are inversely associated with survival. We investigated the effects of PF-562,271 (a small-molecule inhibitor of FAK/PYK2) on (i) in vitro migration, invasion, and proliferation; (ii) tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in a murine model; and (iii) stromal cell composition in the PDA microenvironment. Migration assays were conducted to assess tumor and stromal cell migration in response to cellular factors, collagen, and the effects of PF-562,271. An orthotopic murine model was used to assess the effects of PF-562,271 on tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Proliferation assays measured PF-562,271 effects on in vitro growth. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the effects of FAK inhibition on the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment. FAK and PYK2 were activated and expressed in patient-derived PDA tumors, stromal components, and human PDA cell lines. PF-562,271 blocked phosphorylation of FAK (phospho-FAK or Y397) in a dose-dependent manner. PF-562,271 inhibited migration of tumor cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and macrophages. Treatment of mice with PF-562,271 resulted in reduced tumor growth, invasion, and metastases. PF-562,271 had no effect on tumor necrosis, angiogenesis, or apoptosis, but it did decrease tumor cell proliferation and resulted in fewer tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts than control or gemcitabine. These data support a role for FAK in PDA and suggest that inhibitors of FAK may contribute to efficacious treatment of patients with PDA.
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MT1-MMP cooperates with Kras(G12D) to promote pancreatic fibrosis through increased TGF-? signaling.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Pancreatic cancer is associated with a pronounced fibrotic reaction that was recently shown to limit delivery of chemotherapy. To identify potential therapeutic targets to overcome this fibrosis, we examined the interplay between fibrosis and the key proteinase membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), which is required for growth and invasion in the collagen-rich microenvironment. In this article, we show that compared with control mice (Kras(+)/MT1-MMP(-)) that express an activating Kras(G12D) mutation necessary for pancreatic cancer development, littermate mice that express both MT1-MMP and Kras(G12D) (Kras(+)/MT1-MMP(+)) developed a greater number of large, dysplastic mucin-containing papillary lesions. These lesions were associated with a significant amount of surrounding fibrosis, increased ?-smooth muscle actin (+) cells in the stroma, indicative of activated myofibroblasts, and increased Smad2 phosphorylation. To further understand how MT1-MMP promotes fibrosis, we established an in vitro model to examine the effect of expressing MT1-MMP in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells on stellate cell collagen deposition. Conditioned media from MT1-MMP-expressing PDAC cells grown in three-dimensional collagen enhanced Smad2 nuclear translocation, promoted Smad2 phosphorylation, and increased collagen production by stellate cells. Inhibiting the activity or expression of the TGF-? type I receptor in stellate cells attenuated MT1-MMP conditioned medium-induced collagen expression by stellate cells. In addition, a function-blocking anti-TGF-? antibody also inhibited MT1-MMP conditioned medium-induced collagen expression in stellate cells. Overall, we show that the bona fide collagenase MT1-MMP paradoxically contributes to fibrosis by increasing TGF-? signaling and that targeting MT1-MMP may thus help to mitigate fibrosis.
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Trefoil factor 1 stimulates both pancreatic cancer and stellate cells and increases metastasis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a stable secretory protein expressed widely in the gastrointestinal mucosa that is also expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the current study, we documented the extent and timing of TFF1 expression and investigated the effects of TFF1 on PDAC cells and stellate cells, the primary cells of the PDAC stroma.
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Prospective evaluation of the nipple-areola complex sparing mastectomy for risk reduction and for early-stage breast cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Psychological effects of mastectomy for women with breast cancer have driven treatments that optimize cosmesis while strictly adhering to oncologic principles. Although skin-sparing mastectomy is oncologically safe, questions remain regarding the use of nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy (NSM). We prospectively evaluated NSM for patients undergoing mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer or risk reduction.
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Ablative therapies of the breast.
Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Minimally invasive ablative therapy techniques are being used in research protocols to treat benign and malignant tumors of the breast in select patient populations. These techniques offer the advantages of an outpatient setting, decreased pain, and improved cosmesis. These therapies, including radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, interstitial laser therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasonography, and focused microwave thermotherapy, are reviewed in this article.
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Molecular profiling of direct xenograft tumors established from human pancreatic adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant therapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is among the most resistant of human cancers, yet specific mechanisms of treatment resistance remain poorly understood. Models to study pancreatic cancer resistance remain limited and should reflect in vivo changes that occur within patient tumors. We sought to identify consistent, differentially expressed genes between treatment of naive pancreatic tumors and those exposed to neoadjuvant therapy using a strict, in vivo direct xenograft model system.
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Classification of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after breast conservation therapy can predict patient prognosis and facilitate treatment planning.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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To classify ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) as either new primary tumors (NP) or true local recurrence (TR). We utilized 2 different methods and compared sensitivities and specificities between them. Our goal was to determine whether distinguishing NP from TR had prognostic value.
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Sentinel lymph node dissection is technically feasible in older breast cancer patients.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Previous studies suggested that sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rates are lower in older breast cancer patients. This study was undertaken to compare identification rates in patients 70 years of age and older versus those younger than 70 years in a large cohort undergoing sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND).
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Trends in and outcomes from sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone vs. SLNB with axillary lymph node dissection for node-positive breast cancer patients: experience from the SEER database.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remains the standard practice. As nodal surgery has long been considered a staging procedure without a clear survival benefit, the need for ALND in all patients is debatable. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in survival for patients undergoing SLNB alone versus SLNB with complete ALND.
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Isoform-specific upregulation of palladin in human and murine pancreas tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal disease with a characteristic pattern of early metastasis, which is driving a search for biomarkers that can be used to detect the cancer at an early stage. Recently, the actin-associated protein palladin was identified as a candidate biomarker when it was shown that palladin is mutated in a rare inherited form of PDA, and overexpressed in many sporadic pancreas tumors and premalignant precursors. In this study, we analyzed the expression of palladin isoforms in murine and human PDA and explored palladins potential use in diagnosing PDA. We performed immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses on patient samples and tumor-derived cells using an isoform-selective monoclonal antibody and a pan-palladin polyclonal antibody. Immunoblot and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to quantify palladin mRNA levels in human samples. We show that there are two major palladin isoforms expressed in pancreas: 65 and 85-90 kDa. The 65 kDa isoform is expressed in both normal and neoplastic ductal epithelial cells. The 85-90 kDa palladin isoform is highly overexpressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in both primary and metastatic tumors compared to normal pancreas, in samples obtained from either human patients or genetically engineered mice. In tumor-derived cultured cells, expression of palladin isoforms follows cell-type specific patterns, with the 85-90 kDa isoform in TAFs, and the 65 kDa isoform predominating in normal and neoplastic epithelial cells. These results suggest that upregulation of 85-90 kDa palladin isoform may play a role in the establishment of the TAF phenotype, and thus in the formation of a desmoplastic tumor microenvironment. Thus, palladin may have a potential use in the early diagnosis of PDA and may have much broader significance in understanding metastatic behavior.
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Does blue dye contribute to success of sentinel node mapping for breast cancer?
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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We sought to evaluate the utilization of blue dye in addition to radioisotope and its relative contribution to sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping at a high-volume institution.
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Clinicopathologic factors associated with involved margins after breast-conserving surgery for invasive lobular carcinoma.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Obtaining negative margins for patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be difficult because of the unique histologic pattern of ILC. Our goal was to determine whether any specific patient- or disease-related factors influenced margin status.
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Present-day locoregional control in patients with t1 or t2 breast cancer with 0 and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes after mastectomy without radiotherapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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We sought to determine present-day locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates to better understand the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in women with 0 to 3 positive lymph nodes.
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Multidisciplinary management strategy for incidental cystic lesions of the pancreas.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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At our institution, incidental pancreatic cysts are frequently identified in asymptomatic patients undergoing routine imaging for staging of nonpancreatic malignancies. Management of these patients is unclear because a small but significant number of incidental pancreatic cysts are malignant.
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Sentinel lymph node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is accurate and reduces the need for axillary dissection in breast cancer patients.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2009
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Sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery is widely used for nodal staging in early-stage breast cancer. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of SLN surgery for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus patients undergoing surgery first.
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The ADMR receptor mediates the effects of adrenomedullin on pancreatic cancer cells and on cells of the tumor microenvironment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Adrenomedullin (AM) is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer and stimulates pancreatic cancer cells leading to increased tumor growth and metastasis. The current study examines the role of specific AM receptors on tumor and cells resembling the tumor microenvironment (human pancreatic stellate--HPSC, human umbilical vein-- HUVEC and mouse lung endothelial cells--MLEC).
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A prospective study comparing touch imprint cytology, frozen section analysis, and rapid cytokeratin immunostain for intraoperative evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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The intraoperative evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) allows the surgeon to complete axillary dissection in 1 setting at the time of the primary breast surgery. However, to the authors knowledge, there is no consensus regarding the optimal method for intraoperative evaluation of SLNs in breast cancer. The authors of this report prospectively compared touch imprint (TI) cytology with frozen section (FS) analysis and rapid cytokeratin immunostaining (RCI) of SLNs for the intraoperative evaluation of disease and compared the results with final pathologic examination (FP).
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Long-term survival after multidisciplinary management of resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Actual 5-year survival rates of 10-18% have been reported for patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC), but the use of multimodality therapy was uncommon in these series. We evaluated long-term survival and patterns of recurrence in patients treated for PC with contemporary staging and multimodality therapy.
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Predictors of contralateral breast cancer in patients with unilateral breast cancer undergoing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Although contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) reduced the risk of contralateral breast cancer in unilateral breast cancer patients, it was difficult to predict which patients were most likely to benefit from the procedure. The objective of this study was to identify the clinicopathologic factors that predict contralateral breast cancer and thereby inform decisions regarding performing CPM in unilateral breast cancer patients.
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Impact of the american college of surgeons oncology group Z0011 criteria applied to a contemporary patient population.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
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The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial concluded that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may not be necessary for all patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT). The aim of this study was to assess applicability of Z0011 results to our patient population and determine what percentage may be affected by these results.
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Inhibition of the hedgehog pathway targets the tumor-associated stroma in pancreatic cancer.
Mol. Cancer Res.
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The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an important pathway in multiple tumor types and is thought to be dependent on a paracrine signaling mechanism. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts (human pancreatic stellate cells, HPSCs) in Hh signaling. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel Hh antagonist, AZD8542, on tumor progression with an emphasis on the role of the stroma compartment.
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The role for sentinel lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients who present with node-positive breast cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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Sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection has been investigated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and has shown mixed results. Our objective was to evaluate SLN dissection in node-positive patients and to determine whether postchemotherapy ultrasound could select patients for this technique.
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Impact of internal mammary lymph node drainage identified by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy on outcomes in patients with stage I to III breast cancer.
Cancer
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Involvement of internal mammary (IM) lymph nodes is associated with a poor prognosis for patients with breast cancer. This study examined the effect of drainage to IM nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy on oncologic outcomes.
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Biology, treatment, and outcome in very young and older women with DCIS.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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This study examines a modern cohort of women with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) in order to identify potential differences in clinical presentation, treatments, and outcome based on age.
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Evaluation of a breast cancer nomogram for predicting risk of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ after local excision.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Prediction of patients at highest risk for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after local excision of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains a clinical concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate a published nomogram from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center to predict for risk of IBTR in patients with DCIS from our institution.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.