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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antipsychotic use in children and adolescents: a 1-year follow-up study.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The objective of this study was to analyze the initial treatment with antipsychotics (APs) and its changes during the first year of treatment in patients visited in specialized child and adolescent psychiatry departments.
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[Emotional processing in adult vs adolescent patients with eating behavior disorders; emotional recognizing and the mental theory].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Current research has focused on the impact of difficulties in emotional recognition and regulation and deficits in social cognition (ToM) in the predisposition and maintenance of eating disorders EDs. Though most studies have assessed adult patients, few studies have examined these characteristics in adolescent patients. This study assessed difficulties in emotional recognition and ToM in 48 adult and adolescent patients (39 Anorexia Nervosa patients, and 9 Bulimia Nervosa patients) of varying degrees of severity, who were compared with a group of healthy controls using the TAS-20, and the RME.
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Septic shock non-thyroidal illness syndrome causes hypothyroidism and conditions for reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is part of the neuroendocrine response to stress, but the significance of this syndrome remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NTIS on thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH molecular targets, as well as the relationship between septic shock nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) activation and TH receptor ? (THRB) gene expression at a multi-tissue level in a pig model. Prepubertal domestic pigs were given i.v. saline or LPS for 48?h. Serum and tissue TH was measured by chemiluminescence and RIA. Expression of THRs and cofactors was measured by real-time PCR, and deiodinase (DIO) activity was measured by enzyme assays. Tissue NF-kB nuclear binding activity was evaluated by EMSA. LPS-treated pigs had decreased TH levels in serum and most tissues. DIO1 expression in liver and kidney and DIO1 activity in kidney decreased after LPS. No changes in DIO2 activity were observed between groups. LPS induced an increase in hypothalamus, thyroid, and liver DIO3 activity. Among the other studied genes, monocarboxylate transporter 8 and THRB were the most commonly repressed in endotoxemic pigs. LPS-induced NF-kB activation was associated with a decrease in THRB gene expression only in frontal lobe, adrenal gland, and kidney cortex. We conclude that LPS-induced NTIS in pigs is characterized by hypothyroidism and tissue-specific reduced TH sensitivity. The role of NF-kB in regulating THRB expression during endotoxemia, if any, is restricted to a limited number of tissues.
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ChREBP expression in the liver, adipose tissue and differentiated preadipocytes in human obesity.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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ChREBP is an essential transcription factor for lipogenesis. Its physiological role in adipose tissue has been studied only to a small extent and the control of its expression remains unknown in human adipocytes. We have studied ChREBP mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver and the omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues from obese and lean subjects, as well as in human differentiated preadipocytes. Liver and OM and SC adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from lean and obese patients. Human preadipocytes were isolated from the adipose tissues from obese patients and differentiated under adipogenic conditions. ChREBP expression levels were quantified by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We found opposing results in terms of ChREBP regulation in the liver and adipose samples. ChREBP increased in the liver from obese compared to lean subjects, whereas the expression decreased in both adipose tissues. The mRNAs of other adipogenic markers were checked in these tissues. The pattern of FASN was similar to the one for ChREBP, ADCY3 decreased in both adipose tissues from obese patients, AP2 decreased only in OM adipose tissue of obese patients and ATGL did not change. The levels of ChREBP mRNA and protein showed dramatic increases during the differentiation of human OM and SC preadipocytes. In conclusion, ChREBP expression has an opposite regulation in the liver and adipose tissue from obese subjects which is compatible with the increased hepatic lipogenesis and decreased adipocytic lipogenesis found in these patients. The dramatic increase of ChREBP mRNA and protein levels during preadipocyte differentiation suggests a role in adipogenesis.
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Patterns of substance use in adolescents attending a mental health department.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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This study aimed to describe patterns of substance use in adolescents initiating mental health treatment and analyse factors associated with a high-risk pattern of substance use differentially by gender. Two hundred and thirty-seven 12- to 17-year-old new patients in an urban public mental health service were prospectively recruited and evaluated using semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic, psychopathological, family, school and substance use data. The most prevalent primary diagnoses among males were attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder, while among females they were eating disorders, affective and conduct disorders. Substance use disorder was diagnosed as follows: cannabis in 10.1% of the sample, alcohol in 3.4% and other drugs in 0.4%. A pattern of substance use with high risk of developing problems (at least regular use of alcohol or occasional use of cannabis or other illegal drugs) was found in 48.9% of the sample. After adjusting for age in the multivariate logistic regression, this pattern of risky use of drugs was found to be associated with Youth Self-Report scales of thought problems, delinquent and aggressive behaviour, in both genders. Altered family structure, having had to repeat a school grade and Youth Self-Report attention problems were only significantly associated with risky drug consumption in females. The high prevalence of risky and problematic substance use in adolescents entering mental health treatment warrants early systematic screening and specific preventive and therapeutic interventions, addressing mental health psychoeducation and motivation to avoid drugs, as well as differential associated risk factors for males and females.
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A voxel-based morphometric MRI study of stabilized obsessive-compulsive adolescent patients.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine whether treated stabilized adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) present brain structure differences in comparison with healthy control subjects.
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Presence and regulation of D1 and D2 deiodinases in rat white adipose tissue.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Thyroid hormones regulate adipogenic differentiation, lipogenic and lipolytic metabolism, and mitochondrial activity in adipose tissue. Triiodothyronine (T3) levels in tissues are regulated by the deiodinase enzymes. The objective was to study the activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the 5 outer-ring deiodinases (type 1 [D1] and type 2 [D2] deiodinase) and thyroid hormone concentrations in rat white adipose tissue (WAT), where only D1 activity had been described. Control, thyroidectomized, and thyroid hormone-treated rats were used. Type 1 and type 2 deiodinase mRNAs were determined in WAT by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using Taqman probes; D1 and D2 activities were determined using reverse T3 and thyroxine (T4) as substrates. Thyroxine and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue. Type 1 and type 2 deiodinase mRNAs are present in epididymal rat WAT with similar abundance, which is 7% of the D2 mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue and 1% of D1 in liver. The Michaelis-Menten constants in WAT are 40 nmol/L T4 for D2 and 0.35 ?mol/L reverse T3 for D1. Both D1 and D2 are regulated in rat epididymal WAT by thyroidal status. Thyroxine and T3 concentrations in plasma, liver, and WAT decreased after thyroidectomy and recovered after treatment with T4 + T3. Both D1 and D2 mRNAs increased in WAT from thyroidectomy rats; and T4 + T3 treatment inhibited them, especially D2 mRNA. Type 1 deiodinase activity did not change with thyroidal status, whereas D2 activity was inhibited by T4 + T3. The presence of both deiodinases in WAT suggests important roles in regulating T3 bioavailability for adipose tissue function and regulation of lipid metabolism and thermogenesis.
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Regional decrease of subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients with type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy is associated with changes in thyroid hormone metabolism.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type (FPLD2) presents with a decrease of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the limbs and trunk. As thyroid hormones (TH) play an important role in adipogenesis, we studied if SAT from subjects with FPLD2 have changes in the gene expression levels of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a TH transporter, and TH nuclear receptors and in iodothyronine deiodinases (DIOs) expression and activities that could affect TH bioavailability and action in white adipose tissue.
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Early-onset bipolar disorder: how about visual-spatial skills and executive functions?
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Early-onset bipolar disorder is an impairing condition that is strongly associated with genetic inheritance. Neurocognitive deficits are core traits of this disorder which seem to be present in both young and adult forms. Deficits in verbal memory and attention are persistent within euthymic phases in bipolar adults, adolescents, and children. In younger samples, including type I or II and not otherwise specified patients, executive functions are not widely impaired and the existence of visual-spatial deficits remains unclear. The main aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive performance in young stabilized type I or II bipolar patients and healthy controls. Fifteen medicated adolescents with bipolar disorder and 15 healthy adolescents, matched in age and gender, were compared on visual-spatial skills (reasoning, memory, visual-motor accuracy) and executive functioning (attention and working memory, set-shifting, inhibition) using t-tests and MANCOVA. Correcting for verbal competence, MANCOVA showed that patients performed significantly worse than controls in letters and numbers sequencing (P = 0.003), copy (P < 0.001) and immediate recall (P = 0.007) of the Rey Complex Figure Test, interference of the Stroop Color-Word Test (P = 0.007) and non-perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (P = 0.038). Impaired cognitive performance was found in young bipolar patients in working memory, visual-motor skills, and inhibitory control.
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Prevalence and factors related to substance use among adolescents with eating disorders.
Eur Addict Res
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2009
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Very few studies have assessed substance use in clinical samples of adolescents with eating disorders (ED). This paper reports the prevalence of regular or risky substance use (RRSU) and substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents with ED.
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IPO8 and FBXL10: new reference genes for gene expression studies in human adipose tissue.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2009
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Housekeeping genes frequently used in gene expression studies are highly regulated in human adipose tissue. To ensure a correct interpretation of results, it is critical to select appropriate reference genes. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue expression was analyzed from lean and obese subjects using whole genome complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to identify stably expressed genes and commercial TaqMan low density arrays (LDAs), with 16 common control genes. The best candidate gene from microarrays analysis was F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein-10 (FBXL10) (fold-change 10(-3) P < 0.01), an ubiquitous nucleolar protein evolutionarily conserved. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) and importin 8 (IPO8), were the best reference genes among the 16 genes in the LDAs with coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.51 and 4.55%, respectively. However, when the LDAs data were further analyzed by the geNorm and NormFinder softwares, IPO8, a nuclear protein mediating import of proteins, was the first and the third better reference gene, respectively. IPO8 and FBXL10 were further validated by real-time PCR in additional OM and SC fat samples and primary cultured preadipocytes. According to their CV, IPO8 resulted more suitable than FBXL10 in both adipose tissue depots and SC preadipocytes, whereas FBXL10 performed better than IPO8 in OM cultured preadipocytes. Both genes expression levels did not change throughout adipogenesis. Thus, we provide clear evidence that IPO8 and FBXL10 are good candidates to use as reference genes in gene expression studies in human OM and SC adipose tissues as well as differentiated primary preadipocytes.
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Brain changes in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after treatment: a voxel-based morphometric MRI study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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The aim of this study is to determine whether children and adolescents with treatment-naïve obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) present brain structure differences in comparison with healthy subjects, and to evaluate brain changes after treatment and clinical improvement. Initial and 6 months follow-up evaluations were performed in 15 children and adolescents (age range=9-17 years, mean=13.7, S.D.=2.5; 8 male, 7 female) with DSM-IV OCD and 15 healthy subjects matched for age, sex and estimated intellectual level. An evaluation with psychopathological scales and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out at admission and after 6 months follow-up. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 T scanner and analysed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and longitudinal VBM approaches. Compared with controls, OCD patients presented significantly less gray matter volume bilaterally in right and left parietal lobes and right parietal white matter (P=0.001 FWE corrected) at baseline evaluation. After 6 months of treatment, and with a clear clinical improvement, the differences between OCD patients and controls in the parietal lobes in gray and white matter were no longer statistically significant. During follow-up in the longitudinal study, an increase in gray matter volume in the right striatum of OCD patients was observed, though the difference was not statistically significant. Children and adolescents with untreated OCD present gray and white matter decreases in lateral parietal cortices, but this abnormality is reversible after clinical improvement.
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Iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptors regulation during flatfish (Solea senegalensis) metamorphosis.
J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis seems to represent an ancestral feature of chrordates (urochordates, cephalochordates and vertebrates), but also of nonchordate animals. Although thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptor profiles during metamorphosis have been analyzed in different vertebrate taxa, including fish, developmental expression and activity of type 2 (dio2, D2) and type 3 (dio3, D3) iodothyronine deiodinases, two key enzymes in anuran metamorphosis, remain unknown in any fish species. The aim of this work was to investigate the development of thyroid hormone system during the metamorphosis of a flatfish species, the Senegalese sole, focusing on the deiodinases developmental profile. We have cloned sole D2 and D3 and analyzed several parameters of thyroid hormones system in pre-, early-, middle-, and late-metamorphic larvae. Both deiodinases contain in their catalytic centers an UGA triplet encoding for a selenocystein (Sec) residue as expected. Left eye migration and rotation in body position were associated with a significant increase in both thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptors at the middle-late metamorphic stages. Although dio2 expression slightly increased during metamorphosis, D2 activity augmentation was much more significant. Sole dio3 expression declined only slightly, whereas the D3 activity clearly decreased at mid-late metamorphic period. This developmental profile of deiodinases sustained the rise of thyroid hormones levels observed during sole metamorphosis. No clear cut daily rhythms were observed in the parameters analyzed although it seemed that thyroid hormone system was more active during daytime, in particular at late metamorphic stages. These developmental changes point out the importance not only of thyroid hormones and their receptors but also of dio2 and dio3 in mediating flatfish metamorphosis, as it has been described in amphibians.
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Brief intervention in substance-use among adolescent psychiatric patients: a randomized controlled trial.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement intervention in adolescents referred to psychiatric treatment who reported substance-use. In a sample of adolescents (n = 237) consecutively admitted to a psychiatry department, 143 were identified as users. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: an experimental group that received a brief intervention aimed at increasing their awareness of the risks of substance-use, or a control group. All subjects received standard treatment according to the primary diagnosis. Structured questionnaires assessing knowledge, problems, perception of risks and intention of use of psychoactive substances were administered upon admission and 1 month later. Fifty-nine subjects entered the experimental group and 44 the control group. No significant differences between the two groups were identified in socio-demographic features or substance-use. Non-parametric analyses showed a significant increase across time in overall knowledge about drugs and perception of risk in the experimental group (P < 0.05). A significant increase in overall knowledge in the experimental group compared to controls was found (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for other variables such as intention of use or perception of risk. Brief intervention in adolescents entering psychiatric treatment led to a significant change in overall knowledge about psychoactive substances but not in other variables related to use. Our results point to the need of more intensive interventions.
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Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits and personality dimensions in parents of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Eur. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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To compare patterns of temperament and character and the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) and OCPD traits in parents of children with OCD and parents of healthy controls.
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Deiodinase activities in thyroids and tissues of iodine-deficient female rats.
Endocrinology
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Severe iodine deficiency is characterized by goiter, preferential synthesis, and secretion of T(3) in thyroids, hypothyroxinemia in plasma and tissues, normal or low plasma T(3), and slightly increased plasma TSH. We studied changes in deiodinase activities and mRNA in several tissues of rats maintained on low-iodine diets (LIDs) or LIDs supplemented with iodine (LID+I). T(4) and T(3) concentrations decreased in plasma, tissues, and thyroids of LID rats, and T(4) decreased more than T(3) (50%). The highest type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) activities were found in the thyroid, kidney, and the liver; pituitary, lung, and ovary had lower D1 activities; but the lowest levels were found in the heart and skeletal muscle. D1 activity decreased in all tissues of LID rats (10-40% of LID+I rats), except for ovary and thyroids, which D1 activity increased 2.5-fold. Maximal type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) activities were found in thyroid, brown adipose tissue, and pituitary, increasing 6.5-fold in thyroids of LID rats and about 20-fold in the whole gland. D2 always increased in response to LID, and maximal increases were found in the cerebral cortex (19-fold), thyroid, brown adipose tissue, and pituitary (6-fold). Lower D2 activities were found in the ovary, heart, and adrenal gland, which increased in LID. Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity was undetectable. Thyroidal Dio1 and Dio2 mRNA increased in the LID rats, and Dio1 decreased in the lung, with no changes in mRNA expression in other tissues. Our data indicate that LID induces changes in deiodinase activities, especially in the thyroid, to counteract the low T(4) synthesis and secretion, contributing to maintain the local T(3) concentrations in the tissues with D2 activity.
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Obesity-associated insulin resistance is correlated to adipose tissue vascular endothelial growth factors and metalloproteinase levels.
BMC Physiol.
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The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature, which appears to have the potential to regulate the onset of obesity. However, at present, there are no studies highlighting the relationship between human adipose tissue angiogenesis and obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR).
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