JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Modeling the Implementation of Universal Coverage for HIV Treatment as Prevention and its Impact on the HIV Epidemic.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recently updated its global targets for antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage for HIV-positive persons under which 90 % of HIV-positive people are tested, 90 % of those are on ART, and 90 % of those achieve viral suppression. Treatment policy is moving toward treating all HIV-infected persons regardless of CD4 cell count-otherwise known as treatment as prevention-in order to realize the full therapeutic and preventive benefits of ART. Mathematical models have played an important role in guiding the development of these policies by projecting long-term health impacts and cost-effectiveness. To guide future policy, new mathematical models must consider the barriers patients face in receiving and taking ART. Here, we describe the HIV care cascade and ART delivery supply chain to examine how mathematical modeling can provide insight into cost-effective strategies for scaling-up ART coverage in sub-Saharan Africa and help achieve universal ART coverage.
Related JoVE Video
Have the explosive HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa been driven by higher community viral load?
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The HIV epidemic has carved contrasting trajectories around the world with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) being most affected. We hypothesized that mean HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads are higher in SSA than other areas, and that these elevated levels may contribute to the scale of epidemics in this region.
Related JoVE Video
Integrated strategies for combination HIV prevention: principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combination HIV prevention is of high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding most-impacted populations and those at high risk of HIV transmission and acquisition, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, and feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV serodiscordant couples.
Related JoVE Video
High HIV testing uptake and linkage to care in a novel program of home-based HIV counseling and testing with facilitated referral in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For antiretroviral therapy (ART) to have a population-level HIV prevention impact, high levels of HIV testing and effective linkages to HIV care among HIV-infected persons are required.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding the potential impact of a combination HIV prevention intervention in a hyper-endemic community.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite demonstrating only partial efficacy in preventing new infections, available HIV prevention interventions could offer a powerful strategy when combined. In anticipation of combination HIV prevention programs and research studies we estimated the population-level impact of combining effective scalable interventions at high population coverage, determined the factors that influence this impact, and estimated the synergy between the components.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 on HIV-1 acquisition and progression in an HIV vaccine trial (the Step study).
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extensive observational data suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection may facilitate HIV acquisition, increase HIV viral load, and accelerate HIV progression and onward transmission. To explore these relationships, we examined the impact of preexisting HSV-2 infection in an international HIV vaccine trial.
Related JoVE Video
The role of coinfections in HIV epidemic trajectory and positive prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recurrent or persistent coinfections may increase HIV viral load and, consequently, risk of HIV transmission, thus increasing HIV incidence. We evaluated the association between malaria, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and tuberculosis (TB) coinfections and their treatment on HIV viral load.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal uses of antiretrovirals for prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples in South Africa: a modelling study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretrovirals have substantial promise for HIV-1 prevention, either as antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-1-infected persons to reduce infectiousness, or as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1-uninfected persons to reduce the possibility of infection with HIV-1. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in long-term partnerships (one member is infected and the other is uninfected) are a priority for prevention interventions. Earlier ART and PrEP might both reduce HIV-1 transmission in this group, but the merits and synergies of these different approaches have not been analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
The potential role of biomarkers in HIV preventive vaccine trials.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Successful conduct of HIV vaccine efficacy trials entails identification and enrollment of at-risk populations, assessment of appropriate end points as measures of vaccine efficacy for prevention of HIV acquisition, and amelioration of disease course among infected vaccinees, as well as identification of potential confounders or effect modifiers. Although not invariably useful and bringing their own cost in terms of measurement and validation, a variety of biomarkers may aid at each stage of trial conduct.
Related JoVE Video
Infectious co-factors in HIV-1 transmission herpes simplex virus type-2 and HIV-1: new insights and interventions.
Curr. HIV Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the last thirty years, epidemiologic and molecular studies indicate a strong and synergist relationship between the dual epidemics of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV-1 infection. While prospective studies show that HSV-2 infection increases the risk for HIV-1 acquisition by 2- to 3-fold, HSV-2 suppression with standard prophylactic doses of HSV-2 therapy did not prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Reconciling these discrepancies requires understanding recent HSV-2 pathogenesis research, which indicates HSV-2 infection is not a latent infection with infrequent recurrence but a near constant state of reactivation and viral shedding which is not completely suppressed by standard antivirals. Because current antivirals do not prevent or fully suppress HSV-2 replication, priorities are HSV-2 vaccine development and antivirals that reach high concentrations in the genital mucosa and suppress the persistent genital inflammation associated with genital herpes reactivation in order to reduce the increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection associated with HSV-2. HIV-1 and HSV-2 synergy is also seen among co-infected individuals who exhibit higher HIV-1 viral load compared to HSV-2 uninfected individuals. Standard HSV-2 therapy modestly lowers HIV-1 viral load and is associated with slower HIV-1 disease progression. A promising area of research is higher doses of HSV-2 suppressive therapy achieving a greater reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA, which could translate to greater reductions in HIV-1 disease progression and infectiousness. However, many questions remain to be answered including potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of higher dose HSV-2 suppressive therapy. Mathematical models of HSV-2 and HIV-1 at a population level would be useful tools to estimate the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of higher dose HSV-2 suppressive therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking as a major risk factor for cervical cancer and pre-cancer: results from the EPIC cohort.
Int. J. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A total of 308,036 women were selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire and provided blood samples. During a mean follow-up time of 9 years, 261 ICC cases and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the baseline sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2). Cervical samples were not available for HPV-DNA analysis in this study. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate associations between smoking and risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC in the cohort and the case-control studies. In the cohort analyses smoking status, duration and intensity showed a 2-fold increased risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC, while time since quitting was associated with a 2-fold reduced risk. In the nested case-control study, consistent associations were observed after adjustment for HPV, CT and HHV-2 serostatus, in both HPV seronegative and seropositive women. Results from this large prospective study confirm the role of tobacco smoking as an important risk factor for both CIN3/CIS and ICC, even after taking into account HPV exposure as determined by HPV serology. The strong beneficial effect of quitting smoking is an important finding that will further support public health policies for smoking cessation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective seroepidemiologic study on the role of Human Papillomavirus and other infections in cervical carcinogenesis: Evidence from the EPIC cohort.
Int. J. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate prospectively the association between serological markers of selected infections, including HPV, and risk of developing cervical cancer (CC) and pre-cancer, we performed a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study that included 184 cases of invasive CC (ICC), 425 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 1,218 matched control women. At enrollment participants completed lifestyle questionnaires and provided sera. Subjects were followed-up for a median of 9 years. Immunoassays were used to detect serum antibodies to Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumoniae, L1 proteins of mucosal and cutaneous HPV types, E6/E7 proteins of HPV16/18, as well as to four polyomaviruses. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) (and 95% confidence intervals (CI)) for CIN3/CIS and ICC risk were, respectively: 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.8 (1.1-2.7) for L1 seropositivity to any mucosal HPV type, 1.0 (0.4-2.4) and 7.4 (2.8-19.7) for E6 seropositivity to HPV16/18, 1.3 (0.9-1.9) and 2.3 (1.3-4.1) for CT seropositivity, and 1.4 (1.0-2.0) and 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for HHV-2 seropositivity. The highest OR for ICC was observed for HPV16 E6 seropositivity (OR=10.2 (3.3-31.1)). Increasing number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was associated with increasing risk. Non-STIs were not associated with CC risk. In conclusion, this large prospective study confirms the important role of HPV and a possible contribution of CT and HHV-2 in cervical carcinogenesis. It further identifies HPV16 E6 seropositivity as the strongest marker to predict ICC well before disease development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.