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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gadospin f-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and monitoring of atherosclerosis: validation with transmission electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging in the apolipoprotein e-deficient mouse.
Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of noninvasive monitoring of plaque burden in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice by Gadospin F (GDF)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium uptake in plaques was controlled using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. To monitor the progression of atherosclerosis, ApoE-/- (n ?=? 5) and wild-type (n ?=? 2) mice were fed a Western diet and imaged at 5, 10, 15, and 20 weeks. Contrast-enhanced MRI was performed at 7 T Clinscan (Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) before and 2 hours after intravenous injection of GDF (100 ?mol/kg) to determine the blood clearance. Plaque size and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were calculated for each time point using region of interest measurements to evaluate plaque progression. Following MRI, aortas were excised and GDF uptake was cross-validated by TEM and XRF microscopy. The best signal enhancement in aortic plaque was achieved 2 hours after application of GDF. No signal differences between pre- and postcontrast MRI were detectable in wild-type mice. We observed a gradual and considerable increase in plaque CNR and size for the different disease stages. TEM and XRF microscopy confirmed the localization of GDF within the plaque. GDF-enhanced MRI allows noninvasive and reliable estimation of plaque burden and monitoring of atherosclerotic progression in vivo.
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Importin-?7 is required for enhanced influenza A virus replication in the alveolar epithelium and severe lung damage in mice.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Influenza A viruses recruit components of the nuclear import pathway to enter the host cell nucleus and promote viral replication. Here, we analyzed the role of the nuclear import factor importin-?7 in H1N1 influenza virus pulmonary tropism by using various ex vivo imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and correlative light-electron microscopy). We infected importin-?7 gene-deficient (?7(-/-)) mice with a recombinant H1N1 influenza virus and compared the in vivo viral kinetics with those in wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, influenza virus replication in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium already occurred a few days after infection. Accordingly, extensive mononuclear infiltration and alveolar destruction were present in the lungs of infected WT mice, followed by 100% lethality. Conversely, in ?7(-/-) mice, virus replication was restricted mostly to the bronchial epithelium with marginal alveolar infection, resulting in significantly reduced lung damage and enhanced animal survival. To investigate the host immune response during alveolar virus replication, we studied the role of primary macrophages in virus propagation and clearance. The ability of macrophages to support or clear the virus infection, as well as the host cellular immune responses, did not significantly differ between WT and ?7(-/-) mice. However, cytokine and chemokine responses were generally elevated in WT mice, likely reflective of increased viral replication in the lung. In summary, these data show that a cellular factor, importin-?7, is required for enhanced virus replication in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in elevated cytokine and chemokine levels, extensive mononuclear infiltration, and thus, severe pneumonia and enhanced virulence in mice. Importance: Influenza A viruses are respiratory pathogens that may cause pneumonia in humans. Viral infection and replication in the alveoli of the respiratory tract are believed to be crucial for the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with fatal outcomes in influenza virus-infected patients. Here, we report the requirement of a cellular factor, importin-?7, for efficient virus replication in the alveolar epithelium of mice. Using complementary ex vivo imaging approaches, we show that influenza virus replication is restricted to the bronchial epithelium, followed by enhanced survival in importin-?7-deficient mice. In contrast, the presence of this gene results in enhanced virus replication in the alveoli, elevated cytokine and chemokine responses, mononuclear infiltration, alveolar destruction, and 100% lethality in wild-type mice. Taken together, our results show that importin-?7 is particularly required for virus replication in the alveolar epithelium in association with severe pneumonia and death in mice.
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Towards tender X-rays with Zernike phase-contrast imaging of biological samples at 50 nm resolution.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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X-ray microscopy is a commonly used method especially in material science application, where the large penetration depth of X-rays is necessary for three-dimensional structural studies of thick specimens with high-Z elements. In this paper it is shown that full-field X-ray microscopy at 6.2?keV can be utilized for imaging of biological specimens with high resolution. A full-field Zernike phase-contrast microscope based on diffractive optics is used to study lipid droplet formation in hepatoma cells. It is shown that the contrast of the images is comparable with that of electron microscopy, and even better contrast at tender X-ray energies between 2.5?keV and 4?keV is expected.
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Determination of liver-specific r2 * of a highly monodisperse USPIO by (59) Fe iron core-labeling in mice at 3 T MRI.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Accurate determination of tissue concentration of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) using T2 * MR relaxometry is still challenging. We present a reliable quantification method for local USPIO amount with the estimation of the liver specific relaxivity r2 * using monodisperse (59) Fe-core-labeled USPIO ((59) FeUSPIO). Dynamic and relaxometric in vivo characteristics of unlabeled monodisperse USPIO were determined in MRI at 3 T. The in vivo MR studies were performed for liver tissue with (59) FeUSPIO using iron dosages of 9 (n?=?3), 18 (n?=?2) and 27 (n?=?3) µmol Fe kg(-1) body weight. The R2 * of the liver before and after USPIO injection (?R2 *) was measured and correlated with (59) Fe activity measurements of excised organs by a whole body radioactivity counter (HAMCO) to define the dependency of ?R2 * and (59) FeUSPIO liver concentration and calculate the r2 * of (59) FeUSPIO for the liver. Ultrastructural analysis of liver uptake was performed by histology and transmission electron microscopy. ?R2 * of the liver revealed a dosage-dependent accumulation of (59) FeUSPIO with a percentage uptake of 70-88% of the injection dose. Hepatic ?R2 * showed a dose-dependent linear correlation to (59) FeUSPIO activity measurements (r?=?0.92) and an r2 * in the liver of 481?±?74.9 mm(-1) s(-1) in comparison to an in vitro r2 * of 60.5?±?3.3 mm(-1) s(-1) . Our results indicate that core-labeled (59) FeUSPIO can be used to quantify the local amount of USPIO and to estimate the liver-specific relaxivity r2 *. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Magneto-fluorescent core-shell supernanoparticles.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Magneto-fluorescent particles have been recognized as an emerging class of materials that exhibit great potential in advanced applications. However, synthesizing such magneto-fluorescent nanomaterials that simultaneously exhibit uniform and tunable sizes, high magnetic content loading, maximized fluorophore coverage at the surface and a versatile surface functionality has proven challenging. Here we report a simple approach for co-assembling magnetic nanoparticles with fluorescent quantum dots to form colloidal magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles. Importantly, these supernanoparticles exhibit a superstructure consisting of a close-packed magnetic nanoparticle 'core', which is fully surrounded by a 'shell' of fluorescent quantum dots. A thin layer of silica coating provides high colloidal stability and biocompatibility, and a versatile surface functionality. We demonstrate that after surface pegylation, these silica-coated magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles can be magnetically manipulated inside living cells while being optically tracked. Moreover, our silica-coated magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles can also serve as an in vivo multi-photon and magnetic resonance dual-modal imaging probe.
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Nanoscale glucan polymer network causes pathogen resistance.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Successful defence of plants against colonisation by fungal pathogens depends on the ability to prevent initial penetration of the plant cell wall. Here we report that the pathogen-induced (1,3)-?-glucan cell wall polymer callose, which is deposited at sites of attempted penetration, directly interacts with the most prominent cell wall polymer, the (1,4)-?-glucan cellulose, to form a three-dimensional network at sites of attempted fungal penetration. Localisation microscopy, a super-resolution microscopy technique based on the precise localisation of single fluorescent molecules, facilitated discrimination between single polymer fibrils in this network. Overexpression of the pathogen-induced callose synthase PMR4 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana not only enlarged focal callose deposition and polymer network formation but also resulted in the exposition of a callose layer on the surface of the pre-existing cellulosic cell wall facing the invading pathogen. The importance of this previously unknown polymeric defence network is to prevent cell wall hydrolysis and penetration by the fungus. We anticipate our study to promote nanoscale analysis of plant-microbe interactions with a special focus on polymer rearrangements in and at the cell wall. Moreover, the general applicability of localisation microscopy in visualising polymers beyond plant research will help elucidate their biological function in complex networks.
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A new class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides inhibits influenza A virus replication by blocking cellular attachment.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Influenza A viruses are a continuous threat to human health as illustrated by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since circulating influenza virus strains become increasingly resistant against currently available drugs, the development of novel antivirals is urgently needed. Here, we have evaluated a recently described new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides (synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; SALPs) for their potential to inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo. We found that particularly SALP PEP 19-2.5 shows high binding affinities for the influenza virus receptor molecule, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, leading to impaired viral attachment and cellular entry. As a result, replication of several influenza virus subtypes (H7N7, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1) was strongly reduced. Furthermore, mice co-treated with PEP 19-2.5 were protected against an otherwise 100% lethal H7N7 influenza virus infection. These findings show that SALPs exhibit antiviral activity against influenza viruses by blocking virus attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, SALPs present a new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides for further development for influenza virus therapy.
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The cell-type specific uptake of polymer-coated or micelle-embedded QDs and SPIOs does not provoke an acute pro-inflammatory response in the liver.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIO) have exceptional physical properties that are well suited for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. For future applications, the direct injection of nanocrystals for imaging and therapy represents an important entry route into the human body. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate biological responses of the body to nanocrystals to avoid harmful side effects. In recent years, we established a system to embed nanocrystals with a hydrophobic oleic acid shell either by lipid micelles or by the amphiphilic polymer poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAOD). The goal of the current study is to investigate the uptake processes as well as pro-inflammatory responses in the liver after the injection of these encapsulated nanocrystals. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies using wild type mice, we show that 30 min after injection polymer-coated nanocrystals are primarily taken up by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In contrast, by using wild type, Ldlr (-/-) as well as Apoe (-/-) mice we show that nanocrystals embedded within lipid micelles are internalized by Kupffer cells and, in a process that is dependent on the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein E, by hepatocytes. Gene expression analysis of pro-inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (Cxcl10) indicated that 48 h after injection internalized nanocrystals did not provoke pro-inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, internalized nanocrystals at least in mouse liver cells, namely endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatocytes are at least not acutely associated with potential adverse side effects, underlining their potential for biomedical applications.
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Visualization and analysis of hepatitis C virus structural proteins at lipid droplets by super-resolution microscopy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cytosolic lipid droplets are central organelles in the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) life cycle. The viral capsid protein core localizes to lipid droplets and initiates the production of viral particles at lipid droplet-associated ER membranes. Core is thought to encapsidate newly synthesized viral RNA and, through interaction with the two envelope proteins E1 and E2, bud into the ER lumen. Here, we visualized the spatial distribution of HCV structural proteins core and E2 in vicinity of small lipid droplets by three-color 3D super-resolution microscopy. We observed and analyzed small areas of colocalization between the two structural proteins in HCV-infected cells with a diameter of approximately 100 nm that might represent putative viral assembly sites.
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Selectins mediate small cell lung cancer systemic metastasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Metastasis formation is the major reason for the extremely poor prognosis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. The molecular interaction partners regulating metastasis formation in SCLC are largely unidentified, however, from other tumor entities it is known that tumor cells use the adhesion molecules of the leukocyte adhesion cascade to attach to the endothelium at the site of the future metastasis. Using the human OH-1 SCLC line as a model, we found that these cells expressed E- and P-selectin binding sites, which could be in part attributed to the selectin binding carbohydrate motif sialyl Lewis A. In addition, protein backbones known to carry these glycotopes in other cell lines including PSGL-1, CD44 and CEA could be detected in in vitro and in vivo grown OH1 SCLC cells. By intravital microscopy of murine mesenterial vasculature we could capture SCLC cells while rolling along vessel walls demonstrating that SCLC cells mimic leukocyte rolling behavior in terms of selectin and selectin ligand interaction in vivo indicating that this mechanism might indeed be important for SCLC cells to seed distant metastases. Accordingly, formation of spontaneous distant metastases was reduced by 50% when OH-1 cells were xenografted into E-/P-selectin-deficient mice compared with wild type mice (p = 0.0181). However, as metastasis formation was not completely abrogated in selectin deficient mice, we concluded that this adhesion cascade is redundant and that other molecules of this cascade mediate metastasis formation as well. Using several of these adhesion molecules as interaction partners presumably make SCLC cells so highly metastatic.
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Bone Ablation without Thermal or Acoustic Mechanical Injury via a Novel Picosecond Infrared Laser (PIRL).
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Background and ObjectiveA precise means to cut bone without significant thermal or mechanical injury has thus far remained elusive. A novel non-ionizing ultrafast pulsed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) may provide the solution. Tissue ablation with the PIRL occurs via a photothermal process with thermal and stress confinement, resulting in efficient material ejection greatly enhanced through front surface spallation photomechanical effects. By comparison, the Er:YAG laser (EYL) ablates via photothermal and cavitation-induced photomechanical effects without thermal or acoustic confinement, leading to significant collateral tissue injury. This study compared PIRL and EYL bone ablation by infrared thermography (IRT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and histology.Study DesignProspective, comparative, ex vivo animal model.SettingOptics laboratory.Subjects and MethodsTen circular area defects were ablated in ex vivo chicken humeral cortex using PIRL and EYL at similar average power (~70 mW) under IRT. Following fixation, ESEM and undecalcified light microscopy images were obtained and examined for signs of cellular injury.ResultsPeak rise in surface temperature was negligible and lower for PIRL (1.56°C; 95% CI, 0.762-2.366) compared to EYL ablation (12.99°C; 95% CI, 12.189-13.792) (P < .001). ESEM and light microscopy demonstrated preserved cortical microstructure following PIRL ablation in contrast to diffuse thermal injury seen with EYL ablation. Microfractures were not observed.ConclusionAblation of cortical bone using the PIRL generates negligible and significantly less heat than EYL ablation while preserving cortical microstructure. This novel laser has great potential in advancing surgical techniques where precision osseous manipulation is required.
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Intraperitoneal Injection Improves the Uptake of Nanoparticle Labeled HDL to Atherosclerotic Plaques Compared to Intravenous Injection: A Multimodal Imaging Study in ApoE-/- Mice.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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-The aim of this study was to assess high density lipoprotein (HDL) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) and quantum dots (QDs) for the detection of atherosclerotic lesions in mice after intravenous (iv) and intraperitoneal (ip) injection by multimodal imaging.
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Use of a microsecond Er:YAG laser in laryngeal surgery reduces collateral thermal injury in comparison to superpulsed CO2 laser.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Despite causing significant thermocoagulative insult, use of the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is considered gold standard in surgery for early stage larynx carcinoma. Limited attention has been paid to the use of the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser in laryngeal surgery as a means to reduce thermal tissue injury. The objective of this study is to compare the extent of thermal injury and precision of vocal fold incisions made using microsecond Er:YAG and superpulsed CO2 lasers. In the optics laboratory ex vivo porcine vocal folds were incised using Er:YAG and CO2 lasers. Lateral epithelial and subepithelial thermal damage zones and cutting gap widths were histologically determined. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images were examined for signs of carbonization. Temperature rise during Er:YAG laser incisions was determined using infrared thermography (IRT). In comparison to the CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser incisions showed significantly decreased epithelial (236.44 ?m) and subepithelial (72.91 ?m) damage zones (p < 0.001). Cutting gaps were significantly narrower for CO2 (878.72 ?m) compared to Er:YAG (1090.78 ?m; p = 0.027) laser. ESEM revealed intact collagen fibres along Er:YAG laser cutting edges without obvious carbonization, in comparison to diffuse carbonization and tissue melting seen for CO2 laser incisions. IRT demonstrated absolute temperature rise below 70 °C for Er:YAG laser incisions. This study has demonstrated significantly reduced lateral thermal damage zones with wider basal cutting gaps for vocal fold incisions made using Er:YAG laser in comparison to those made using CO2 laser.
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Picosecond infrared laser (PIRL): an ideal phonomicrosurgical laser?
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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A comparison of tissue cutting effects in excised cadaver human vocal folds after incisions with three different instruments [scalpel, CO2 laser and the picosecond infrared laser-(PIRL)] was performed. In total, 15 larynges were taken from human cadavers shortly after death. After deep freezing and thawing for the experiment, the vocal folds suspended in the hemilarynx were incised. Histology and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analyses were performed. Damage zones after cold instrument cuts ranged from 51 to 135 ?m, as compared to 9-28 ?m after cutting with the PIRL. It was shown that PIRL incision had smaller zones of tissue coagulation and tissue destruction, when compared with scalpel and CO2 laser cuts. The PIRL technology provides an (almost) atraumatic laser, which offers a quantum jump towards realistic micro-phonosurgery on a factual cellular dimension, almost entirely avoiding coagulation, carbonization, or other ways of major tissue destruction in the vicinity of the intervention area. Although not available for clinical use yet, the new technique appears promising for future clinical applications, so that technical and methodological characteristics as well as tissue experiments seem worthwhile to be communicated at this stage of development.
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Structure determination from a single high-pressure-frozen virus crystal.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Successful cryogenic X-ray structure determination from a single high-pressure-frozen bovine enterovirus 2 crystal is reported. The presented high-pressure-freezing procedure is based on a commercially available device and allows the cryocooling of macromolecular crystals directly in their mother liquor without the time- and crystal-consuming search for optimal cryoconditions. The method is generally applicable and will allow cryogenic data collection from all types of macromolecular crystals.
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Replication, gene expression and particle production by a consensus Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2011
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Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) genomes are clonally integrated in tumor tissues of approximately 85% of all Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cases, a highly aggressive tumor of the skin which predominantly afflicts elderly and immunosuppressed patients. All integrated viral genomes recovered from MCC tissue or MCC cell lines harbor signature mutations in the early gene transcript encoding for the large T-Antigen (LT-Ag). These mutations selectively abrogate the ability of LT-Ag to support viral replication while still maintaining its Rb-binding activity, suggesting a continuous requirement for LT-Ag mediated cell cycle deregulation during MCC pathogenesis. To gain a better understanding of MCPyV biology, in vitro MCPyV replication systems are required. We have generated a synthetic MCPyV genomic clone (MCVSyn) based on the consensus sequence of MCC-derived sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Here, we demonstrate that transfection of recircularized MCVSyn DNA into some human cell lines recapitulates efficient replication of the viral genome, early and late gene expression together with virus particle formation. However, serial transmission of infectious virus was not observed. This in vitro culturing system allows the study of viral replication and will facilitate the molecular dissection of important aspects of the MCPyV lifecycle.
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Investigations on the usefulness of CEACAMs as potential imaging targets for molecular imaging purposes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Members of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) family are the prototype of tumour markers. Classically they are used as serum markers, however, CEACAMs could serve as targets for molecular imaging as well.In order to test the anti CEACAM monoclonal antibody T84.1 for imaging purposes, CEACAM expression was analysed using this antibody. Twelve human cancer cell lines from different entities were screened for their CEACAM expression using qPCR, Western Blot and FACS analysis. In addition, CEACAM expression was analyzed in primary tumour xenografts of these cells. Nine of 12 tumour cell lines expressed CEACAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Pancreatic and colon cancer cell lines showed the highest expression levels with good correlation of mRNA and protein level. However, when grown in vivo, the CEACAM expression was generally downregulated except for the melanoma cell lines. As the CEACAM expression showed pronounced expression in FemX-1 primary tumours, this model system was used for further experiments. As the accessibility of the antibody after i.v. application is critical for its use in molecular imaging, the binding of the T84.1 monoclonal antibody was assessed after i.v. injection into SCID mice harbouring a FemX-1 primary tumour. When applied i.v., the CEACAM specific T84.1 antibody bound to tumour cells in the vicinity of blood vessels. This binding pattern was particularly pronounced in the periphery of the tumour xenograft, however, some antibody binding was also observed in the central areas of the tumour around blood vessels. Still, a general penetration of the tumour by i.v. application of the anti CEACAM antibody could not be achieved despite homogenous CEACAM expression of all melanoma cells when analysed in tissue sections. This lack of penetration is probably due to the increased interstitial fluid pressure in tumours caused by the absence of functional lymphatic vessels.
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Cellular prion protein localizes to the nucleus of endocrine and neuronal cells and interacts with structural chromatin components.
Eur. J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Several physiological processes have been purported for cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). However, the physiological function of PrP(C) is still unclear and the cellular localization of PrP(C) remains a subject of debate. PrP(C) is expressed in a wide range of tissues including islets of Langerhans. We previously demonstrated that the function of PrP(C) is associated with blood glucose regulation. Little is known of the function of PrP(C) in islet cells and specifically in ?-cells. To get first insight into the putative role of PrP(C) in ?-cells, we used far-Western immunoblotting and MS to identify candidate PrP(C)-interacting proteins. We also used Western blot, immunofluorescence (IF) and protein overlay IF to characterize the sub-cellular localization of PrP(C). Here we demonstrate in vivo that PrP(C) is abundant in the nuclear lamina of endocrine and neuronal cells and interacts with histone H1(0), histone H3 and lamin B1. The interaction of PrP(C) with histone H3 suggests that it is involved in transcriptional regulation in the nucleus. This study reveals new avenues for the elucidation of the physiological function of PrP(C) in endocrine and neuronal cells as well as the molecular mechanisms leading to prion diseases.
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Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to be present in humans. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport lipids in the bloodstream, where the fatty acid moieties are liberated by the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant particles are cleared by the liver. Elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and prolonged circulation of cholesterol-rich remnants, especially in diabetic dyslipidemia, are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the precise biological role of BAT for TRL clearance remains unclear. Here we show that increased BAT activity induced by short-term cold exposure controls TRL metabolism in mice. Cold exposure drastically accelerated plasma clearance of triglycerides as a result of increased uptake into BAT, a process crucially dependent on local LPL activity and transmembrane receptor CD36. In pathophysiological settings, cold exposure corrected hyperlipidemia and improved deleterious effects of insulin resistance. In conclusion, BAT activity controls vascular lipoprotein homeostasis by inducing a metabolic program that boosts TRL turnover and channels lipids into BAT. Activation of BAT might be a therapeutic approach to reduce elevated triglyceride concentrations and combat obesity in humans.
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High expression of the immature laminin receptor protein correlates with mutated IGVH status and predicts a favorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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The immature laminin receptor (iLR) is a tumor-associated antigen. We analyzed the expression of iLR on malignant B cells of 134 unselected patient samples with CLL and hypothesized that iLR expression would have prognostic significance due to a differential expression pattern. High ILR expression (cut-off value 30%) was correlated with mutated IGVH status (p<0.0001). Patients with high iLR-expression had a significantly longer time to progression (p=0.039). Combination of CD38, ZAP-70, and iLR by flow cytometry can be used to construct a diagnostic score identifying patients with a median progression free survival of 80 months, if no adverse marker is present.
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A flow cytometry-based FRET assay to identify and analyse protein-protein interactions in living cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Försters resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is widely used for the analysis of protein interactions in intact cells. However, FRET microscopy is technically challenging and does not allow assessing interactions in large cell numbers. To overcome these limitations we developed a flow cytometry-based FRET assay and analysed interactions of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) Nef and Vpu proteins with cellular factors, as well as HIV Rev multimer-formation.
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Beta1 integrin-dependent engulfment of Yersinia enterocolitica by macrophages is coupled to the activation of autophagy and suppressed by type III protein secretion.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Autophagy is a central lysosomal degradation process that is essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy has furthermore emerged as integral part of the host immune response. Autophagic processes promote the separation and degradation of intracellular microorganisms which contributes to the development of innate and adaptive immunity. Some pathogenic microbes have therefore evolved mechanisms to evade or impede autophagy. We analyzed the effects of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica on autophagy in macrophages. Yersiniae use a number of defined adhesins and secreted proteins to manipulate host immune responses. Our results showed that Y. enterocolitica defective in type III protein secretion efficiently activated autophagy in macrophages. Autophagy was mediated by the Yersinia adhesins invasin and YadA and particularly depended on the engagement of beta(1) integrin receptors. Several autophagy-related events followed beta(1) integrin-mediated engulfment of the bacteria including the formation of autophagosomes, processing of the marker protein LC3, redistribution of GFP-LC3 to bacteria-containing vacuoles, and the segregation of intracellular bacteria by autophagosomal compartments. These results provide direct evidence for the linkage of beta(1) integrin-mediated phagocytosis and autophagy induction. Multiple microbes signal through integrin receptors, and our results suggest a general principle by which the sensing of an extracellular microbe triggers autophagy. Owing to the importance of autophagy as host defense response, wild-type Y. enterocolitica suppressed autophagy by mobilizing type III protein secretion. The subversion of autophagy may be part of the Y. enterocolitica virulence strategy that supports bacterial survival when beta(1) integrin-dependent internalization and autophagy activation by macrophages are deleterious for the pathogen.
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Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and ubiquitin-proteasome system regulate cardiac myosin-binding protein C mutant levels in cardiomyopathic mice.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein (cMyBP)-C are frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the mechanisms leading from mutations to disease remain elusive.
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Nestin modulates glucocorticoid receptor function by cytoplasmic anchoring.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Nestin is the characteristic intermediate filament (IF) protein of rapidly proliferating progenitor cells and regenerating tissue. Nestin copolymerizes with class III IF-proteins, mostly vimentin, into heteromeric filaments. Its expression is downregulated with differentiation. Here we show that a strong nestin expression in mouse embryo tissue coincides with a strong accumulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a key regulator of growth and differentiation in embryonic development. Microscopic studies on cultured cells show an association of GR with IFs composed of vimentin and nestin. Cells lacking nestin, but expressing vimentin, or cells expressing vimentin, but lacking nestin accumulate GR in the nucleus. Completing these networks with an exogenous nestin, respectively an exogenous vimentin restores cytoplasmic anchoring of GR to the IF system. Thus, heteromeric filaments provide the basis for anchoring of GR. The reaction pattern with phospho-GR specific antibodies and the presence of the chaperone HSC70 suggest that specifically the unliganded receptor is anchored to the IF system. Ligand addition releases GR from IFs and shifts the receptor into the nucleus. Suppression of nestin by specific shRNA abolishes anchoring of GR, induces its accumulation in the nucleus and provokes an irreversible G1/S cell cycle arrest. Suppression of GR prior to that of nestin prevents entry into the arrest. The data give evidence that nestin/vimentin specific anchoring modulates growth suppression by GR. We hypothesize that expression of nestin is a major determinant in suppression of anti-proliferative activity of GR in undifferentiated tissue and facilitates activation of this growth control in a precise tissue and differentiation dependent manner.
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Real-time magnetic resonance imaging and quantification of lipoprotein metabolism in vivo using nanocrystals.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2009
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Semiconductor quantum dots and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals have physical properties that are well suited for biomedical imaging. Previously, we have shown that iron oxide nanocrystals embedded within the lipid core of micelles show optimized characteristics for quantitative imaging. Here, we embed quantum dots and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals in the core of lipoproteins--micelles that transport lipids and other hydrophobic substances in the blood--and show that it is possible to image and quantify the kinetics of lipoprotein metabolism in vivo using fluorescence and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. The lipoproteins were taken up by liver cells in wild-type mice and displayed defective clearance in knock-out mice lacking a lipoprotein receptor or its ligand, indicating that the nanocrystals did not influence the specificity of the metabolic process. Using this strategy it is possible to study the clearance of lipoproteins in metabolic disorders and to improve the contrast in clinical imaging.
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Inhibition of inflammatory CD4 T cell activity by murine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.
J. Hepatol.
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The liver can mitigate the inflammatory activity of infiltrating T cells by mechanisms that are not entirely clear. Here we investigated the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in regulating the activity of inflammatory CD4 T cells.
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A simple and widely applicable method to 59Fe-radiolabel monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for in vivo quantification studies.
ACS Nano
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A simple, fast, efficient, and widely applicable method to radiolabel the cores of monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) with (59)Fe was developed. These cores can be used as precursors for a variety of functionalized nanodevices. A quality control using filtration techniques, size-exclusion chromatography, chemical degradation methods, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the nanoparticles were stably labeled with (59)Fe. Furthermore, the particle structure and the magnetic properties of the SPIOs were unchanged. In a second approach, monodisperse SPIOs stabilized with (14)C-oleic acid were synthesized, and the stability of this shell labeling was studied. In proof of principle experiments, the (59)Fe-SPIOs coated with different shells to make them water-soluble were used to evaluate and compare in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters such as blood half-life. It could also be shown that our radiolabeled SPIOs embedded in recombinant lipoproteins can be used to quantify physiological processes in closer detail than hitherto possible. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the (59)Fe label is stable enough to be applied in vivo, whereas the (14)C label is rapidly removed from the iron core and is not adequate for in vivo studies. To obtain meaningful results in in vivo experiments, only (59)Fe-labeled SPIOs should be used.
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High interstitial fluid pressure is associated with low tumour penetration of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies applied for molecular imaging purposes.
PLoS ONE
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The human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is highly expressed in a variety of clinical tumour entities. Although an antibody against EpCAM has successfully been used as an adjuvant therapy in colon cancer, this therapy has never gained wide-spread use. We have therefore investigated the possibilities and limitations for EpCAM as possible molecular imaging target using a panel of preclinical cancer models. Twelve human cancer cell lines representing six tumour entities were tested for their EpCAM expression by qPCR, flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemistry. In addition, EpCAM expression was analyzed in vivo in xenograft models for tumours derived from these cells. Except for melanoma, all cell lines expressed EpCAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Although they exhibited different mRNA levels, all cell lines showed similar EpCAM protein levels upon detection with monoclonal antibodies. When grown in vivo, the EpCAM expression was unaffected compared to in vitro except for the pancreatic carcinoma cell line 5072 which lost its EpCAM expression in vivo. Intravenously applied radio-labelled anti EpCAM MOC31 antibody was enriched in HT29 primary tumour xenografts indicating that EpCAM binding sites are accessible in vivo. However, bound antibody could only be immunohistochemically detected in the vicinity of perfused blood vessels. Investigation of the fine structure of the HT29 tumour blood vessels showed that they were immature and prone for higher fluid flux into the interstitial space. Consistent with this hypothesis, a higher interstitial fluid pressure of about 12 mbar was measured in the HT29 primary tumour via "wick-in-needle" technique which could explain the limited diffusion of the antibody into the tumour observed by immunohistochemistry.
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Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
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High-pressure freezing (HPF) is a method which allows sample vitrification without cryoprotectants. In the present work, protein crystals were cooled to cryogenic temperatures at a pressure of 210 MPa. In contrast to other HPF methods published to date in the field of cryocrystallography, this protocol involves rapid sample cooling using a standard HPF device. The fast cooling rates allow HPF of protein crystals directly in their mother liquor without the need for cryoprotectants or external reagents. HPF was first attempted with hen egg-white lysozyme and cubic insulin crystals, yielding good to excellent diffraction quality. Non-cryoprotected crystals of the membrane protein photosystem II have been successfully cryocooled for the first time. This indicates that the presented HPF method is well suited to the vitrification of challenging systems with large unit cells and weak crystal contacts.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.