Rad23 was identified as a DNA repair protein; although a role in protein degradation has been described. The protein degradation function of Rad23 contributes to cell cycle progression, stress response, ER proteolysis, DNA repair. Rad23 binds the proteasome through a ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain, and contains ubiquitin-associated (UBA) motifs that bind multiubiquitin chains. These domains allow Rad23 to function as a substrate shuttle-factor. This property is shared by structurally similar proteins (Dsk2 and Ddi1), and is conserved among the human and mouse counterparts of Rad23. Despite much effort, the regulation of Rad23 interactions with ubiquitinated substrates and the proteasome is unknown. We report here that Rad23 is extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro. Serine residues in UbL are phosphorylated, and influence Rad23 interaction with proteasomes. Replacement of these serine residues with acidic residues, to mimic phosphorylation, reduced proteasome binding. We reported that when UbL is overexpressed, it can compete with Rad23 for proteasome interaction and inhibit substrate turnover. This effect is not observed with UbL containing acidic substitutions, consistent with results that phosphorylation inhibits interaction with the proteasome. Loss of both Rad23 and Rpn10 caused pleiotropic defects that were suppressed by overexpressing either Rad23 or Rpn10. Rad23 bearing a UbL domain with acidic substitutions failed to suppress rad23? rpn10?, confirming the importance of regulated Rad23/proteasome binding. Strikingly, Threonine-75 in human HR23B also regulates interaction with the proteasome, suggesting that phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism for controlling Rad23/proteasome interaction.
Upregulation of the metastasis-promoting S100A4 protein has been linked to tumor migration and invasion, and clinical studies have demonstrated that significant expression of S100A4 in primary tumors is indicative of poor prognosis. However, the involvement of S100A4 in the drug responsiveness of gastric cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we used gastric cancer cell lines as a model to investigate the involvement of S100A4 in drug responsiveness. We overexpressed S100A4 in AGS and SCM-1 cells, which are characterized by relatively low-level expression of endogenous S100A4, and found that this significantly enhanced cell migration but did not affect cell survival in the presence of six common anticancer drugs. Moreover, in vitro cell proliferation was unchanged. Using RNA interference, we suppressed S100A4 expression in MKN-45 and TMK-1 cells (which are characterized by high-level expression of endogenous S100A4), and found that knockdown of S100A4 markedly attenuated cell motility but did not affect cell survival in the presence of six common anticancer drugs. Further study revealed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of S100A4 (rs1803245; c.29A>T), which substitutes an Asp residue with Val (D10V), is localized within the conserved binding surface for Annexin II. Cells overexpressing S100A4D10V showed a significant reduction in cell migration ability, but no change in cell survival, upon anticancer drug treatment. Taken together, our novel results indicate that the expression level of S100A4 does not significantly affect cell survival following anticancer drug treatment. Thus, depending on the cell context, the metastasis-promoting effects of S100A4 may not be positively correlated with anticancer drug resistance in the clinic.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess unique properties that have been exploited in several medical applications. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental safety of AuNPs is imperative for use of these nanomaterials. Here, we describe the impacts of AuNPs in various mammalian cell models using an automatic and dye-free method for continuous monitoring of cell growth based on the measurement of cell impedance. Several well-established cytotoxicity assays were also used for comparison. AuNPs induced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell growth. This inhibitory effect was associated with apoptosis induction in Vero cells but not in MRC-5 or NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, cDNA microarray analyses in MRC-5 cells supported the involvement of DNA damage and repair responses, cell-cycle regulation, and oxidative stress in AuNP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Moreover, autophagy appeared to play a role in AuNPs-induced attenuation of cell growth in NIH3T3 cells. In this study, we present a comprehensive overview of AuNP-induced cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian cell lines, comparing several cytotoxicity assays. Collectively, these assays offer convincing evidence of the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and support the value of a systematic approach for analyzing the toxicology of nanoparticles.
Many in vitro studies have revealed that the interference of dye molecules in traditional nanoparticle cytotoxicity assays results in controversial conclusions. The aim of this study is to establish an extensive and systematic method for evaluating biological effects of gold nanoparticles in mammalian cell lines.
TDP-43 is the major pathological protein identified in the cellular inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The pathogenic forms of TDP-43 are processed C-terminal fragments containing a truncated RNA-recognition motif (RRM2) and a glycine-rich region. Although extensive studies have focused on this protein, it remains unclear how the dimeric full-length TDP-43 is folded and assembled and how the processed C-terminal fragments are misfolded and aggregated. Here, using size-exclusion chromatography, pulldown assays, and small angle x-ray scattering, we show that the C-terminal-deleted TDP-43 without the glycine-rich tail is sufficient to form a head-to-head homodimer primarily via its N-terminal domain. The truncated RRM2, as well as two ?-strands within the RRM2, form fibrils in vitro with a similar amyloid-negative staining property to those of TDP-43 pathogenic fibrils in diseases. In addition to the glycine-rich region, the truncated RRM2, but not the intact RRM2, plays a key role in forming cytoplasmic inclusions in neuronal cells. Our data thus suggest that the process that disrupts the dimeric structure, such as the proteolytic cleavage of TDP-43 within the RRM2 that removes the N-terminal dimerization domain, may produce unassembled truncated RRM2 fragments with abnormally exposed ?-strands, which can oligomerize into high-order inclusions.
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