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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Wave propagation in bianisotropic metamaterials: angular selective transmission.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We investigate the basic features of wave propagation in bianisotropic metamaterials characterized by asymmetric magnetoelectric tensors with zero diagonal elements. The wave propagation is described by a biquadratic dispersion relation with two elliptically polarized eigenwaves. In particular, the bianisotropic media may possess a hybrid character of the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersions. For a wave incident from vacuum onto a bianisotropic medium, there exist an ordinary and an inversion critical angle, leading to angular selective transmission. A standard and a complementary type of angular selective transmissions are illustrated with the incidence of Gaussian beams based on Fourier integral formulation.
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Adjacent disc and facet joint degeneration in young adults with low-grade spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: A magnetic resonance imaging study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Premature adjacent-level degeneration has been attributed to vertebral fusion, but spondylolisthesis has not been reported as a pathological factor responsible for the degeneration of adjacent disc and facet joint. We hypothesized that the degeneration of disc and facet joints in the adjacent levels is correlated with spondylolisthesis.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Effect of thermal stimulation on corticomotor excitability in patients with stroke.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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This study examined the immediate effects of noxious and innocuous thermal stimulation intervention on corticomotor excitability for the paretic arm in patients with stroke.
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Effects of metabolic syndrome, apolipoprotein E, and CYP46 on cognition among Taiwanese Chinese.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The combined effects of metabolic syndrome and the apolipoprotein E and CYP46 genotypes on the risk of cognitive decline has yet to be determined among Taiwanese Chinese. Two hundred and nine mentally healthy middle-aged and older adults were assessed for metabolic syndrome, cognitive function using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Mini-Mental State Examination, ApoE, and CYP46 polymorphisms. There were no differences in cognitive performance, ApoE epsilon4 (?4) carrier status, or CYP46 genotypes between participants with and those without metabolic syndrome. The ?4 carriers and participants with the AA allele of CYP46 had significantly lower mental manipulation score. Metabolic syndrome and ?4 had synergistic effects on cognitive decline. Therefore, the ?4 carriers and participants with the AA allele of CYP46 have decreased mental manipulation ability. The metabolic syndrome may play a role in subtle cognitive dysfunction in ?4 carriers among Taiwanese Chinese.
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Nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Based on the effective medium model, nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers with the period much less than the wavelength are investigated. Strong nonlocal effects are found in a broad frequency range for TM polarization, where the effective permittivity tensor exhibits the Lorentzian resonance. The resonance frequency varies with the wave vector and coincides well with the polaritonic mode. Nonlocal features are manifest on the emergence of additional wave and the occurrence of negative refraction. By examining the characters of the eigenmode, the nonlocal optical properties are attributed to the excitation of plasmons on the graphene surfaces.
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A novel oncogenic role of inositol phosphatase SHIP2 in ER-negative breast cancer stem cells: involvement of JNK/vimentin activation.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Overexpression of SH2-containing-5'-inositol phosphatase-2 (SHIP2) correlates with poor survival in breast cancer. However, its role in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) remains unclear. Here, we showed that the percentage of SHIP2(+) cells was positively correlated with that of CD24(-) CD44(+) cells in 60 breast cancer specimens. Among 20 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative samples, 17 had greater SHIP2 expression in CD24(-) CD44(+) subpopulation than the remaining subpopulation. Data mining of microarray analysis of 295 breast tumors showed a significant correlation of higher SHIP2 expression with distant metastasis. Examination of patient-derived mouse xenografts revealed that SHIP2 protein and its tyrosine 1135 phosphorylation were significantly higher in BCSCs, identified as CD24(-) CD44(+) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(+)), than non-BCSCs. SHIP2 silencing or inhibitor of SHIP2 phosphatase significantly decreased mammosphere-forming efficiency, ALDH(+) subpopulation in vitro and tumorigenicity of BCSCs in vivo. Overexpression of SHIP2 enhanced the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers including vimentin (VIM), which was mainly expressed in ER-negative breast cancer cells with higher level in mammospheres than monolayer culture. Ablation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), JNK2, or VIM diminished the increased ALDH(+) population and tumorigenicity, induced by SHIP2 overexpression. BCSCs displayed greater expression of phospho-JNK than non-BCSCs and silencing of JNK suppressed SHIP2-mediated upregulation of VIM. Furthermore, SHIP2 overexpression enhanced Akt activation, but Akt inhibition failed to influence SHIP2-induced phospho-JNK/VIM upregulation. In conclusion, SHIP2 plays a key role in BCSCs of ER-negative breast cancers through activation of Akt and JNK with upregulation of VIM and may serve as a target for therapy directed at BCSCs.
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Low birth weight and environmental tobacco smoke increases the risk of wheezing in adolescents: a retrospective cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Low birth weight (LBW) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure are each associated with wheezing in children. This study was designed to examine the combined association of LBW and ETS with wheezing.
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Malignant phyllodes tumors display mesenchymal stem cell features and aldehyde dehydrogenase/disialoganglioside identify their tumor stem cells.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Although breast phyllodes tumors are rare, there is no effective therapy other than surgery. Little is known about their tumor biology. A malignant phyllodes tumor contains heterologous stromal elements, and can transform into rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and osteosarcoma. These versatile properties prompted us to explore their possible relationship to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to search for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in phyllodes tumors.
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Advances in noninvasive functional imaging of bone.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The demand for functional imaging in clinical medicine is comprehensive. Although the gold standard for the functional imaging of human bones in clinical settings is still radionuclide-based imaging modalities, nonionizing noninvasive imaging technology in small animals has greatly advanced in recent decades, especially the diffuse optical imaging to which Britton Chance made tremendous contributions. The evolution of imaging probes, instruments, and computation has facilitated exploration in the complicated biomedical research field by allowing longitudinal observation of molecular events in live cells and animals. These research-imaging tools are being used for clinical applications in various specialties, such as oncology, neuroscience, and dermatology. The Bone, a deeply located mineralized tissue, presents a challenge for noninvasive functional imaging in humans. Using nanoparticles (NP) with multiple favorable properties as bioimaging probes has provided orthopedics an opportunity to benefit from these noninvasive bone-imaging techniques. This review highlights the historical evolution of radionuclide-based imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, diffuse optics-enabled in vivo technologies, vibrational spectroscopic imaging, and a greater potential for using NPs for biomedical imaging.
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Increased risk of diabetes mellitus in relation to the severity of psoriasis, concomitant medication, and comorbidity: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The association between psoriasis and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been explored previously. However, no studies have been reported regarding the severity of psoriasis, comorbidities, and concomitant medications on the risks of DM in patients with psoriasis.
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Predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography for ischemic stroke-related vertigo.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Vertigo can be a major presentation of posterior circulation stroke and can be easily misdiagnosed because of its complicated presentation. We thus prospectively assessed the predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCS) for the prediction of ischemic stroke-related vertigo. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a sensation of whirling (vertigo); (2) intractable vertigo for more than 1 hour despite appropriate treatment; and (3) those who could complete cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vertebral artery (V2 segment) ECCS studies. Eventually, 76 consecutive participants with vertigo were enrolled from Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan between August 2010 and August 2011. Demographic data, neurological symptoms, neurologic examinations, and V2 ECCS were assessed. We chose the parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), PSV/EDV, mean velocity (MV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) to represent the hemodynamics. Values from both sides of V2 segments were averaged. We then calculated the average RI (aRI), average PI (aPI), average PSV (aPSV)/EDV, and average (aMV). Axial and coronal diffusion-weighted MRI findings determined the existence of acute ischemic stroke. We grouped and analyzed participants in two ways (way I and way II analyses) based on the diffusion-weighted MRI findings (to determine whether there was acute stroke) and neurological examinations. Using way I analysis, the "MRI (+)" group had significantly higher impedance (aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio) and lower velocity (aPSV, aEDV, and aMV(PSV + EDV/2)), compared to the "MRI (-)" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aPSV, aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) and MRI (-) groups were 41.15/61.5/66.0 (p = 0.0101), 14.55/69.2/72.0 (p = 0.0003), 29.10/92.1/38.0 (p = 0.0013), 1.07/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0066), 0.62/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0076), and 2.69/80.8/66.0 (p = 0.0068), respectively. Using way II analysis, lower aEDV and aMV, and higher aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio could determine the "MRI (+) without focal signs" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) without focal signs and MRI (-) groups were 9.10/71.4/96.0 (p = 0.0005), 15.65/57.1/96.0 (p = 0.0124), 1.10/100/70.0 (p = 0.0002), 0.64/100/70.0 (p = 0.0023), and 2.80/100/70.0 (p = 0.0017), respectively. In conclusion, using demographic data and clinical symptoms, it was difficult to determine the patients with ischemic stroke-related vertigo. Although neurological examinations still have diagnostic value, the high impedance and low velocity pattern of V2 ECCS can be an add-on method for the screening of acute ischemic stroke-related vertigo, even for those without focal neurological signs.
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Spatial dispersion and nonlocal effective permittivity for periodic layered metamaterials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The feature of spatial dispersion in periodic layered metamaterials is theoretically investigated. An effective medium model is proposed to derive the nonlocal effective permittivity tensor, which exhibits drastic variations in the wave vector domain. Strong spatial dispersion is found in the frequency range where surface plasmon polaritons are excited. In particular, the nonlocal effect gives rise to additional waves that are identified as the bonding or antibonding modes with symmetric or antisymmetric surface charge alignments. Spatial dispersion is also manifest on the parabolic-like dispersion, a non-standard type of dispersion in the medium. The associated negative refraction and backward wave occur even when the effective permittivity components are all positive, which is considered a property not available in the local medium.
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Bone marrow edema in vertebral compression fractures: detection with dual-energy CT.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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To assess the use of the dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) virtual noncalcium technique in the evaluation of bone marrow edema in vertebral compression fractures.
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The expression and significance of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and its pathway on breast cancer stem/progenitors.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Dysregulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was shown to correlate with breast cancer disease progression. Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation within cancer cells that participate in tumor initiation, radio/chemoresistance and metastasis. In breast cancer, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified as CD24-CD44+ cells or cells with high intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH+). Elucidation of the role of IGF-1R in BCSCs is crucial to the design of breast cancer therapies targeting BCSCs. METHODS: IGF-1R expression in BCSCs and noncancer stem cells sorted from xenografts of human primary breast cancers was examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation. The role of IGF-1R in BCSCs was assessed by IGF-1R blockade with chemical inhibitor and gene silencing. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as the downstream pathway was studied by their phosphorylation status upon IGF-1R inhibition and the effects of chemical inhibitors of these signaling molecules on BCSCs. We also studied 16 clinical specimens of breast cancer for the expression of phosphor-Akt in the BCSCs by FACS. RESULTS: Expression of phosphorylated IGF-1R was greater in BCSCs than in non-BCSCs from xenografts of human breast cancer, which were supported by western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments. The sorted IGF-1R-expressing cells displayed features of cancer stem/progenitors such as mammosphere formation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, both of which were suppressed by knockdown of IGF-1R. A specific inhibitor of the IGF-1R, picropodophyllin suppressed phospho-AktSer473 and preferentially decreased ALDH+ BCSC populations of human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, picropodophyllin inhibited the capacity of CD24-CD44+ BCSCs to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process with downregulation of mesenchymal markers. Inhibitors of signal molecules downstream of IGF-1R including PI3K/Akt/mTOR also reduced the ALDH+ population of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, suppressed BCSCs in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our data support the notion that IGF-1R is a marker of stemness, and IGF-1R and its downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are attractive targets for therapy directed against breast cancer stem/progenitors.
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Negative refraction and backward wave in pseudochiral mediums: illustrations of Gaussian beams.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We investigate the phenomena of negative refraction and backward wave in pseudochiral mediums, with illustrations of Gaussian beams. Due to symmetry breaking intrinsic in pseudochiral mediums, there exist two elliptically polarized eigenwaves with different wave vectors. As the chirality parameter increases from zero, the two waves begin to split from each other. For a wave incident from vacuum onto a pseudochiral medium, negative refraction may occur for the right-handed wave, whereas backward wave may appear for the left-handed wave. These features are illustrated with Gaussian beams based on Fourier integral formulations for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves. Negative refraction and backward wave are manifest, respectively, on the energy flow in space and wavefront movement in time.
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Concordant and discordant regulation of target genes by miR-31 and its isoforms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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It has been shown that imprecise cleavage of a primary or precursor RNA by Drosha or Dicer, respectively, may yield a group of microRNA (miRNA) variants designated as "isomiR". Variations in the relative abundance of isoforms for a given miRNA among different species and different cell types beg the question whether these isomiRs might regulate target genes differentially. We compared the capacity of three miR-31 isoforms (miR-31-H, miR-31-P, and miR-31-M), which differ only slightly in their 5- and/or 3-end sequences, to regulate several known targets and a predicted target, Dicer. Notably, we found isomiR-31s displayed concordant and discordant regulation of 6 known target genes. Furthermore, we validated a predicted target gene, Dicer, to be a novel target of miR-31 but only miR-31-P could directly repress Dicer expression in both MCF-7 breast cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells, resulting in their enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin, a known attribute of Dicer knockdown. This was further supported by reporter assay using full length 3-untranslated region (UTR) of Dicer. Our findings not only revealed Dicer to be a direct target of miR-31, but also demonstrated that isomiRs displayed similar and disparate regulation of target genes in cell-based systems. Coupled with the variations in the distribution of isomiRs among different cells or conditions, our findings support the possibility of fine-tuning gene expression by miRNAs.
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Lack of association between a functional variant of the BRCA-1 related associated protein (BRAP) gene and ischemic stroke.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Atherosclerosis shares common pathogenic features with myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke. BRCA-1 associated protein (BRAP), a newly identified risk gene for MI, aggravates the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to test the association between the BRAP gene and stroke in a Taiwanese population.
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A functional polymorphism of PON1 interferes with microRNA binding to increase the risk of ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at microRNA (miRNA) binding sites (miR-SNPs) can affect the expression of genes. This study aimed to identify the miR-SNPs associated with atherosclerosis and stroke.
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Serum microRNA-21 and microRNA-221 as potential biomarkers for cerebrovascular disease.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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MicroRNA miR-21, miR-221 and miR-145 have been implicated in the cardiovascular system. We aimed to compare the serum levels of the three microRNAs (miRNAs) in different severities of cerebrovascular diseases and evaluate the feasibility of using these miRNAs as biomarkers for stroke.
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Developing functional workspace for the movement of trunk circumduction in healthy young subjects: a reliability study.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The lumbar range of motion has traditionally been used to assess disability in patients with low back disorders. Controversy exists about how movement ranges in static positions or in a single straight plane is related to the functional status of the patients. The trunk circumduction, as the result of neuromuscular coordination, is the integrated movements from three dimensions. The functional workspace stands for the volume of movement configuration from the trunk circumduction and represents all possible positions in three dimensions. By using single quantitative value, the functional workspace substitutes the complicated joint linear or angular motions. The aim of this study is to develop the functional workspace of the trunk circumduction (FWTC) considering possible functional positions in three dimensional planes. The reliability of the trunk circumduction is examined.
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The role of cognitive event-related potentials in executive dysfunction.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Frontal lobes are great and are a late-developing region of the neocortex that play a critical role in human behavior and executive function. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of event-related potentials (ERPs) in executive dysfunction and its relationship between generator mechanism and cognitive significance. We recruited 20 patients with frontal lobe lesion (FLL) and 27 age-matched controls. All patients submitted to comprehensive Frontal Test Battery and auditory ERPs measurement. In comparison with controls, the patients with FLL had significantly decreased executive function and manifested the delay of P300 latency, which reflected a delay of mental processing speed in these patients. Our findings suggest that patients with FLL may have prolonged P300 latency, which has a good correlation with executive dysfunction, poor performance, and longer P300 latencies. P300 ERPs are considered to be a useful method to identify the alteration of frontal-parietal connection.
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Epidemiological survey of quantitative ultrasound in risk assessment of falls in middle-aged and elderly people.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The risk assessment of falls is important, but still unsatisfactory and time-consuming. Our objective was to assess quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the risk assessment of falls. Our study was designed as epidemiological cross-sectional study occurring from March 2009 to February 2010 by community survey at a medical center. The participants were collected from systemic sample of 1,200 community-dwelling people (Male/Female = 524/676) 40 years old and over in Yunlin County, Mid-Taiwan. Structural questionnaires including socioeconomic status, living status, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and medical history were completed. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the non-dominant distal radial area (QUS-R) and the left calcaneal area (QUS-C) were measured. The overall prevalence of falls was 19.8%. In men, the independently associated factors for falls were age (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01~1.06), fracture history (OR: 1.89; 95%CI: 1.12~3.19), osteoarthritis history (OR: 3.66; 95%CI: 1.15~11.64) and speed of sound (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.99~1.00; p<0.05) by QUS-R. In women, the independently associated factors for falls were current drinking (OR: 3.54; 95%CI: 1.35?9.31) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97~0.99; p<0.01) by QUS-C. The cutoffs at -2.5< T-score<-1 derived using QUS-R (OR: 2.85; 95%CI: 1.64~4.96; p<0.01) in men or T-score ?-2.5 derived using QUS-C (OR: 2.72; 95%CI: 1.42~5.21; p<0.01) in women showed an independent association with falls. The lowest T-score derived using either QUS-R or QUS-C was also revealed as an independent factor for falls in both men (OR: 2.13; 95%CI: 1.03~4.43; p<0.05) and women (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.13~4.91; p<0.05).
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Predictors of in-hospital mortality and prognosis in patients with large hemispheric stroke receiving decompressive craniectomy.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Decompressive craniectomy reduces fatality in patients with space-occupying infarctions. However, mortality remains high. We aimed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and outcomes in a cohort of patients with large hemispheric stroke receiving decompressive craniectomy.
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Clinical applications of susceptibility weighted imaging in patients with major stroke.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a newly developed magnetic resonance (MR) protocol. Recent studies have found that SWI may be useful in the field of cerebrovascular diseases, especially for detecting the presence of prominent veins, microbleeds and the susceptibility vessel sign (SVS). Some authors have even suggested that SWI can be used to predict outcome. We conducted a prospective study of patients hospitalized with middle cerebral artery territory infarction receiving MRI within 2 days of stroke onset. The presence of prominent veins, microbleeds and SVS in SWI was analyzed along with hospital characteristics of the patients. A total of 44 patients were enrolled. Among the 44 patients, 15 (34.1%) patients showed prominent veins, 19 (43.2%) showed SVS, and 14 (31.8%) showed microbleeds. The presence of SVS and prominent veins was not associated with prognosis. Though not statistically significant (p = 0.06), patients with SVS were more likely to develop later brain edema. SVS was significantly associated with arterial occlusion (p = 0.008) based on the MR angiogram, and microbleeds were significantly associated with later hemorrhagic transformation (p = 0.018). In our study, SWI could not be used to predict outcome as previously suggested. However, the presence of microbleeds may predict further hemorrhagic transformation, and the presence of SVS could be used to detect intra-arterial thrombus. Patients with SVS were also more likely to develop later brain edema. Including SWI in routine MR protocols for major acute ischemic stroke would be worthwhile.
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A cohort study to investigate hepatocellular carcinoma risk in hepatitis C patients.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently occurs with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. This study tried to identify clinical and laboratory factors affecting development of HCC in a longitudinal follow-up of chronic HCV patients.
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Evaluation of differential representative values between Chinese hamster cells and human lymphocytes in mitomycin C-induced cytogenetic assays and caspase-3 activity.
Toxicol Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, its lung fibroblasts (V79), and human lymphocytes are routinely used in in vitro cytogenetic assays, which include micronuclei (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and chromosome aberration (CA) assays. Mitomycin C (MMC), a DNA cross-link alkylating agent, is both an anticancer medicine and a carcinogen. To study the differential representative values of cell types in MMC-treated cytogenetic assays and its upstream factor, cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease (caspase)-3. Among the chosen cell types, lymphocytes expressed the highest sensitivity in all three MMC-induced assays, whereas CHO and V79 showed varied sensitivity in different assays. In MN assay, the sensitivity of CHO is higher than or equal to V79; in SCE assay, the sensitivity of CHO is the same as V79; and in CA assay, the sensitivity of CHO is higher than V79. In-depth analysis of CA revealed that in chromatid breaks and dicentrics formation, lymphocyte was the most sensitive of all and CHO was more sensitive than V79; and in acentrics and interchanges formation, lymphocyte was much more sensitive than the others. Furthermore, we found caspase-3 activity plays an important role in MMC-induced cytogenetic assays, with MMC-induced caspase-3 activity resulting in more sensitivity in lymphocytes than in CHO and V79. Based on these findings, lymphocyte will make a suitable predictive or representative control reference in cytogenetic assays and caspase-3 activity with its high specificity, positive predictive value, and sensitivity.
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Nearly perfect absorption in intrinsically low-loss grating structures.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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The feature of enhanced absorption in two-layered grating structures is theoretically investigated. The underlying structures make the most use of resonance mechanism to achieve a nearly perfect absorption in an intrinsically low-loss medium. For standalone gratings, the maximum absorption efficiency is shown to be 50%, which is attributed to the coupling of short range (bonding) or long range (antibonding) surface plasmons with cavity resonances. By attaching a dielectric slab on top or bottom to the metallic grating, the maximum absorption efficiency can be raised to nearly 100%. The presence of guided waves in the dielectric slab causes the strong concentration of fields and reinforces the absorption to its extreme value. The efficient absorption mechanism is illustrated with the pattern of resonance fields and the distribution of power loss density. A phenomenological theory is also used to characterize the absorption anomaly in terms of complex pole and zero.
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Indium chloride-induced micronuclei via reactive oxygen species in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79 cells.
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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We study the cytotoxicity of indium chloride (InCl?) in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, the V79 cells, using MTT assay. The results showed that InCl? did not induce significant cytotoxicity at various concentrations tested. In addition, the frequency of micronuclei (MN) was assayed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of InCl? in V79 cells. InCl? at concentrations ranged 0.1-1 ?M significantly increased MN frequency in a concentration-dependent manner. Both catalase and superoxide dismutase at concentrations of 75 and 150 ?g/mL significantly inhibited InCl?-induced MN. Similarly, Germanium oxide (GeO?) and dimercaprol expressed antigenotoxic effects. From these findings, it is concluded that InCl? is a potent genotoxic chemical, which may be mediated partly by inducing oxidative stress. The significance of this study shows that the workers in the semiconductor factories should be cautious in exposing to the hazardous genotoxic InCl?.
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Reappraisal of heart rate variability in acute ischemic stroke.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a common complication after acute ischemic stroke (IS). Prior investigators have emphasized that infarction of brain stem or hemispheres with insular involvement is related to this dysfunction and may predict poor clinical outcome. From the viewpoint of stroke physicians, however, all stroke patients, particularly large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) should be monitored for possible cardiac complications after acute IS. This study aimed to investigate cardiac autonomic impaction in patients with acute IS and to make the comparison between LAA and small-vessel occlusion (SVO) subtypes. Of the 126 acute IS patients prospectively enrolled in this study, 32 had LAA, 56 had SVO, and 38 had undetermined etiology according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Cardiac autonomic function of all patients was assessed by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). The low- and high-frequency components of HRV in all stroke patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects after comparing multivariable models, including additional adjustments for age, gender, and all risk factors. There were no significant differences on HRV between LAA and SVO although post hoc comparisons showed that stroke patients of SVO had increased sympathetic modulation and reduced vagal activity. In conclusion, in acute IS patients, both LAA and SVO are predisposed to have cardiac autonomic dysfunction, manifesting as abnormalities in HRV, whether in hemispheric or brain stem lesions. Stroke patients of SVO are at higher risks of cardiac abnormalities, which might suggest an early cardiac dysfunction because of long-term hypertension. The HF component of HRV thought to be for vagal control might be a cardinal marker for predicting cardiac autonomic dysfunction after acute IS. Short-term HRV spectral analysis is a convenient approach for stroke clinicians to assess autonomic function in acute stroke. Long-term follow-up for HRV and clinical outcome relative to LAA and SVO stroke subtypes is warranted, particularly when an abnormal HRV is found at admission.
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The short-term effects of air pollution on adolescent lung function in Taiwan.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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A mass screening of lung function associated with air pollutants for children is limited. This study assessed the association between air pollutants exposure and the lung function of junior high school students in a mass screening program in Taipei city, Taiwan. Among 10,396 students with completed asthma screening questionnaires and anthropometric measures, 2919 students aged 12-16 received the spirometry test. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow in 1s (FEV(1)) in association with daily ambient concentrations of particulate matter with diameter of 10 ?m or less (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and ozone (O(3)) were assessed by regression models controlling for the age, gender, height, weight, student living districts, rainfall and temperature. FVC, had a significant negative association with short-term exposure to O(3) and PM(10) measured on the day of spirometry testing. FVC values also were reversely associated with means of SO(2), O(3), NO(2), PM(10) and CO exposed 1 d earlier. An increase of 1-ppm CO was associated with the reduction in FVC for 69.8 mL (95% CI: -115, -24.4 mL) or in FEV(1) for 73.7 mL (95% CI: -118, -29.7 mL). An increase in SO(2) for 1 ppb was associated with the reductions in FVC and FEV(1) for 12.9 mL (95% CI: -20.7, -5.09 mL) and 11.7 mL (95% CI: -19.3, -4.16 mL), respectively. In conclusion, the short-term exposure to O(3) and PM(10) was associated with reducing FVC and FEV(1). CO and SO(2) exposure had a strong 1-d lag effect on FVC and FEV(1).
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Chromosome 9p21 genetic variants are associated with myocardial infarction but not with ischemic stroke in a Taiwanese population.
J. Investig. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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Genetic variants on chromosome 9p21 confer a robust risk for coronary artery disease but inconsistent risk for stroke. This study investigated whether such genetic variants exert differential risks on myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke in a Taiwanese population.
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Eligibility and rate of treatment for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke using different criteria.
Acad Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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The rate of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) use for stroke is low among the Chinese-Taiwanese. The study objective was to determine if less restrictive exclusion criteria for rtPA would increase eligibility and the rate of treatment.
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Polarization-independent broad-band nearly perfect absorbers in the visible regime.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Polarization-independent broad-band absorbers in the visible regime are theoretically investigated. The absorbers are three-layered structures consisting of a lossy dielectric grating on top of a low-loss dielectric layer and a substrate of the same lossy dielectric placed at the bottom. Enhanced absorption in the underlying structure is attained over a broad range of frequency for both TE and TM polarizations. In particular, a nearly perfect absorbance (over 99.6%) is achieved at ? ? 600 nm, around which the absorption spectra show a substantial overlap between two polarizations. The enhanced absorption is attributed to cavity resonance and its hybridization with a weakly bound surface wave. This feature is illustrated with the electric field patterns and time-averaged power loss density associated with the resonances.
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Luteolin attenuates the pulmonary inflammatory response involves abilities of antioxidation and inhibition of MAPK and NF?B pathways in mice with endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Acute lung injury (ALI) in critically ill patients remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator of lung injury. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of luteolin in intratracheal instillation of LPS (100?g)-induced ALI in mice. Pretreatment of mice with 70?mol/kg luteolin significantly restores LPS-induced decrease in oxygen pressure and increase in carbon dioxide in arterial blood. The histopathological study established 70?mol/kg luteolin pretreatment markedly attenuates lung histopathological changes, such as haemorrhaging, interstitial edema, and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the lung parenchyma and alveolar spaces. Sufficient evidence for luteolin (35 and 70?mol/kg) suppresses activation and infiltration of PMNs is obtained in expression of surface marker CD11b and Ly6G on cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells and myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue. Furthermore, luteolin reduces the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, and the level of oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation, in lung tissue. In addition, the secretion of TNF-?, KC, and ICAM-1 in the BALF after LPS challenge are also inhibited by luteolin. Moreover, luteolin reduced LPS-induced activation of MAPK and NF?B pathways. Therefore, luteolin is a potential protective antagonists for LPS-induced ALI in mice.
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Higher body mass index may induce asthma among adolescents with pre-asthmatic symptoms: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Limited studies have prospectively examined the role of body mass index (BMI) as a major risk factor for asthma during adolescence. This study investigates whether BMI is associated with increased risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma during 12-month follow-up among adolescents with undiagnosed asthma-like symptoms at baseline.
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Cardioprotective effects of luteolin during ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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Antioxidants effectively reduce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The cardioprotective effects of luteolin, a flavonoid that exhibits antioxidant properties and is widely available in many fruits and vegetables, were examined in rats subjected to myocardial IR injury.
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Anomalous optical absorption in metallic gratings with subwavelength slits.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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The absorption in metallic gratings with subwavelength slits is theoretically investigated. Anomalous optical absorption occurs over a wide range of incident angles for both polarizations. In particular, a nearly perfect absorbance up to 99.5% with a significant bandwidth is attained for TM polarization with compound slits. Enhanced absorption is associated with extreme concentration of fields inside the structure. The respective field pattern depicts a special feature of surface plasmons excited on single interface only, which are identified as semibonding modes. The anomalous absorption is also achieved for TE polarization, when the compound grating is reduced to a simple grating. For this polarization, the nomalous absorption is attributed to the occurrence of trapped modes, with a slightly smaller absorbance (98.4%).
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Signaling mechanisms of inhibition of phospholipase D activation by CHS-111 in formyl peptide-stimulated neutrophils.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
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A selective phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitor 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI) inhibited the O(2)(-) generation and cell migration but not degranulation in formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated rat neutrophils. A novel benzyl indazole compound 2-benzyl-3-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)indazole (CHS-111), which inhibited O(2)(-) generation and cell migration, also reduced the fMLP- but not phorbol ester-stimulated PLD activity (IC(50) 3.9±1.2?M). CHS-111 inhibited the interaction of PLD1 with ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 and Ras homology (Rho) A, and reduced the membrane recruitment of RhoA in fMLP-stimulated cells but not in GTP?S-stimulated cell-free system. CHS-111 reduced the cellular levels of GTP-bound RhoA, membrane recruitment of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 and the downstream myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation, and attenuated the interaction between phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) and Arf6, whereas it only slightly inhibited the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of human Dbs (DH/PH) protein and did not affect the arfaptin binding to Arf6. CHS-111 inhibited the interaction of RhoA with Vav, the membrane association and the phosphorylation of Vav. CHS-111 had no effect on the phosphorylation of Src family kinases (SFK) but attenuated the interaction of Vav with Lck, Hck, Fgr and Lyn. CHS-111 also inhibited the interaction of PLD1 with protein kinase C (PKC) ?, ?I and ?II isoenzymes, and the phosphorylation of PLD1. These results indicate that inhibition of fMLP-stimulated PLD activity by CHS-111 is attributable to the blockade of RhoA activation via the interference with SFK-mediated Vav activation, attenuation of the interaction of Arf6 with PLD1 and PIP5K, and the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC in rat neutrophils.
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Get With the Guidelines-Stroke performance indicators: surveillance of stroke care in the Taiwan Stroke Registry: Get With the Guidelines-Stroke in Taiwan.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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Stroke is a leading cause of death around the world. Improving the quality of stroke care is a global priority, despite the diverse healthcare economies across nations. The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Get With the Guidelines-Stroke program (GWTG-Stroke) has improved the quality of stroke care in 790 US academic and community hospitals, with broad implications for the rest of the country. The generalizability of GWTG-Stroke across national and economic boundaries remains to be tested. The Taiwan Stroke Registry, with 30 599 stroke admissions between 2006 and 2008, was used to assess the applicability of GWTG-Stroke in Taiwan, which spends ? 1/10 of what the United States does in medical costs per new or recurrent stroke.
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microRNA signature and expression of Dicer and Drosha can predict prognosis and delineate risk groups in neuroblastoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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Neuroblastoma is a common childhood tumor and accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. To investigate the microRNA (miRNA) profile and role of Dicer and Drosha in neuroblastoma, we assessed the expression of 162 human miRNAs, Dicer and Drosha in 66 neuroblastoma tumors by using real-time PCR methods. We found global downregulation of miRNA expression in advanced neuroblastoma and identified 27 miRNAs that can clearly distinguish low- from high-risk patients. Furthermore, expression levels of Dicer or Drosha were low in high-risk neuroblastoma tumors, which accounted for global downregulation of miRNAs in advanced disease and correlated with poor outcome. Notably, for patients with non-MYCN-amplified tumors, low expression of Dicer can serve as a significant and independent predictor of poor outcome (hazard ratio, 9.6; P = 0.045; n = 52). Using plausible neural networks to select a combination of 15 biomarkers that consist of 12 miRNAs signature, expression levels of Dicer and Drosha, and age at diagnosis, we were able to segregate all patients into four distinct patterns that were highly predictive of clinical outcome. In vitro studies also showed that knockdown of either Dicer or Drosha promoted the growth of neuroblastoma cell lines. Our results reveal that a combination of 15 biomarkers can delineate risk groups of neuroblastoma and serve as a powerful predictor of clinical outcome. Moreover, our findings of growth promotion by silencing Dicer/Drosha implied their potential use as therapeutic targets for neuroblastoma.
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Sex differential genetic effect of chromosome 9p21 on subclinical atherosclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2010
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Chromosome 9p21 has recently been shown to be a risk region for a broad range of vascular diseases. Since carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque are independent predictors for vascular diseases, the association between 9p21 and these two phenotypes was investigated.
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miR-149* induces apoptosis by inhibiting Akt1 and E2F1 in human cancer cells.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in several biological processes, including apoptosis, by negatively regulating the expression of target genes. The molecular mechanisms of the key survival signal, Akt family, have been widely explored. However, it remains to be ascertained whether Akt1, the predominant isoform in most tissue, is a direct target of miRNA. In this study, we identified Akt1 and E2F1 to be two direct targets of miR-149* and b-Myb to be an indirect target by reporter assays and Western blot analyses. Ectopic expression of miR-149*-induced apoptosis in Be2C, a neuroblastoma cell line, and in HeLa cells. Silencing of Akt1 or E2F1 expression also led to similar apoptotic changes in these two cell lines, suggesting that the pro-apoptotic effects of miR-149* were exerted by repressing Akt1 and E2F1 expressions. Importantly, analysis of primary neuroblastoma samples revealed a significant inverse correlation of miR-149* with E2F1 expressions (P=0.026). Interestingly, using the reporter assays, excess miR-149 introduced by transfection to simulated its preponderance in the in vivo condition, could not overcome the repressive function of miR-149* on the target genes. This implies that the pro-apoptotic function of miR-149* may not be dampened by its predominant cognate, miR-149, in vivo. Our findings not only provided the first evidence that Akt1 is a direct target of miRNA but also demonstrated that miR-149* is a pro-apoptotic miRNA by repressing the expression of Akt1 and E2F1.
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Biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine on facet joint force and intradiscal pressure--a finite element study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Finite element analysis results will show significant differences if the model used is performed under various material properties, geometries, loading modes or other conditions. This study adopted an FE model, taking into account the possible asymmetry inherently existing in the spine with respect to the sagittal plane, with a more geometrically realistic outline to analyze and compare the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine with regard to the facet force and intradiscal pressure, which are associated with low back pain symptoms and other spinal disorders. Dealing carefully with the contact surfaces of the facet joints at various levels of the lumbar spine can potentially help us further ascertain physiological behaviour concerning the frictional effects of facet joints under separate loadings or the responses to the compressive loads in the discs.
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Carotid intima-media thickness and stiffness are independent risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases.
J. Investig. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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We assessed the correlation between intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness and test whether they are independent risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases.
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Anti-atherogenic effect of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang, a traditional Chinese medicine, in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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San-huang-xie-xin-tang (SHXXT) is a traditional Chinese medicine and it has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect. Since inflammation is one of the major mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate anti-atherosclerotic effect of SHXXT in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).
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Protective effects of luteolin against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury involves inhibition of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways in neutrophils.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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To investigate whether luteolin, the major polyphenolic components of Lonicera japonica, has beneficial effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and to determine whether the protective mechanism involves anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils.
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Pre-cessation nicotine replacement therapy: pragmatic randomized trial.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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To determine the effectiveness of 2 weeks pre-cessation nicotine patches and/or gum on smoking abstinence at 6 months.
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Multiple Fano resonances in metallic arrays of asymmetric dual stripes.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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Characteristics of Fano resonances in metallic arrays of asymmetric dual stripes are theoretically investigated. The structure consists of two perfect metal stripes with unequal sizes in a unit cell. In addition to the total reflection that usually occurs in single-stripe arrays, the dual-stripe arrays exhibit two extra pairs of reflection peaks and dips, which are identified as the Fano resonance with the reflection line shape characterized by a Fano formula. In particular, the peak-dip pair on the high-frequency side is recognized as the high-order Fano resonance, as compared to its counterpart on the low-frequency side. Features of the Fano resonances are further illustrated with the electric field and surface current patterns at the corresponding frequencies. The underlying mechanism of multiple Fano resonances in the dual-stripe arrays is also discussed.
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A randomized trial of the effects of two novel nicotine replacement therapies on tobacco withdrawal symptoms and user satisfaction.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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To determine effects on craving, user satisfaction, and consumption patterns of two new nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) used for eight hours after overnight tobacco abstinence.
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Who can pass the ISCD professional certification course? The 8-yr experience in Taiwan.
J Clin Densitom
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) launched the professional certification course in early 1996 and was introduced to Taiwan by the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association in 2002. Disclosing the associated factors of passing the certification examination would be valuable to advance the teaching skill of faculties and clinical excellence of professionals. From June 2002 to July 2009, 732 attendees (male/female=621/111) of 12 professional certification courses (11 courses delivered in Chinese) were enrolled for analysis. All subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire including demographics and professional experience at the time of course registration. After certification examination, subjects were dichotomized as either pass or fail group for analyzing the determinants of pass rate statistically. The average pass rate of the 12 examinations was 75.3% (n=551). In univariate analysis, the age (p<0.001) and hospital level (p<0.001) showed significant differences between the pass and fail groups. However, in the multivariate logistic analysis, only the age (odds ratio [OR]=0.907, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.867-0.949, p<0.001) and clinical experience (attending physician vs resident: OR=3.210, 95% CI: 1.215-8.485, p=0.019) were the independent determinants for passing the course. Professionals who are relatively younger or attending physicians have higher pass rate of ISCD course in Taiwan. The fact that only limited predisposing factors might influence the pass rate reflects the efficient design of course delivering. For any knowledge level of professionals who have interest in the excellence of osteoporosis diagnosis and management, the ISCD course is recommended.
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The role of event-related potentials in cognitive decline in Alzheimers disease.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2009
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Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression have become vital in clinical practice as disease modifying treatments for Alzheimers disease (AD) become available. This one-year prospective study aimed to clarify the usefulness of event-related potentials (ERPs) in cognitive decline and elucidate their cognitive significance in AD.
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Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Innovative effective smoking cessation interventions are required to appeal to those who are not accessing traditional cessation services. Mobile phones are widely used and are now well integrated into the daily lives of many, particularly young adults. Mobile phones are a potential medium for the delivery of health programmes such as smoking cessation.
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Effects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids have long been associated with cardiovascular protection. In this trial, we assessed whether treatment with a guideline-recommended moderate-dose fish oil supplement could improve cardiovascular biomarkers, mood- and health-related quality of life in patients with ischemic stroke.
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The risk of the metabolic syndrome on carotid thickness and stiffness: sex and age specific effects.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness reflect structure and functional alterations in arteries. We investigated the relationship of MS on IMT and stiffness and also dissected its gender and age specific effect.
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Psychometric comparisons of 4 measures for assessing upper-extremity function in people with stroke.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Functional limitation of the upper extremities is common in patients with stroke. An upper-extremity measure with sound psychometric properties is indispensable for clinical and research use.
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Dispersion mechanism of surface magnetoplasmons in periodic layered structures.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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We investigate the dispersion mechanism of surface magnetoplasmons for periodic layered structures in the Voigt configuration. An analytical dispersion relation that retains a similar form with ordinary surface plasmons is obtained. The splitting of surface plasma frequency is accompanied with unequal field strengths of surface modes at the two interfaces and is characterized by a simple dynamic model that recasts the role of magnetic force on to the effective mass. The underlying mechanism is illustrated with the transverse currents induced by the cyclotron motion of electrons, which appears as the typical feature of the dynamic Hall effect. In particular, the acoustical and optical branches exhibit an anticrossing scheme for small filling fractions, due to the like symmetry of modes in the two branches. As the parallel wave number changes, the two interaction branches experience a transition of mode pattern from symmetry to antisymmetry, or vice versa.
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Factors affecting disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis of L4-5: evaluation with axially loaded MRI.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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Few studies have investigated the factors related to the disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis using axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of axial loading on the morphology of the spine and the spinal canal in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-5 and to correlate morphologic changes to their disability and physical functions. From March 2003 to January 2004, 32 consecutive cases (26 females, 6 males) with degenerative L4-5 spondylolisthesis, grade 1-2, intermittent claudication, and low back pain without sciatica were included in this study. All patients underwent unloaded and axially loaded MRI of the lumbo-sacral spine in supine position to elucidate the morphological findings and to measure the parameters of MRI, including disc height (DH), sagittal translation (ST), segmental angulation (SA), dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) at L4-5, and lumbar lordotic angles (LLA) at L1-5 between the unloaded and axially loaded condition. Each patients disability was evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire, and physical functioning (PF) was evaluated by the Physical Function scale proposed by Stucki et al. (Spine 21:796-803, 1996). Three patients were excluded due to the presence of neurologic symptoms found with the axially loaded MRI. Finally, a total of 29 (5 males, 24 females) consecutive patients were included in this study. Comparisons and correlations were done to determine which parameters were critical to the patients disability and PF. The morphologies of the lumbar spine changed after axially loaded MRI. In six of our patients, we observed adjacent segment degeneration (4 L3-L4 and 2 L5-S1) coexisting with degenerative spondylolisthesis of L4-L5 under axially loaded MRI. The mean values of the SA under pre-load and post-load were 7.14 degrees and 5.90 degrees at L4-L5 (listhetic level), respectively. The mean values of the LLA under pre-load and post-load were 37.03 degrees and 39.28 degrees , respectively. There were significant correlations only between the ODI, PF, and the difference of SA, and between PF and the post-loaded LLA. The changes in SA (L4-L5) during axial loading were well correlated to the ODI and PF scores. In addition, the LLA (L1-L5) under axial loading was well correlated to the PF of patients with degenerative L4-L5 spondylolisthesis. We suggest that the angular instability of the intervertebral disc may play a more important role than neurological compression in the pathogenesis of disability in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.
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Restenotic hepaticojejunostomy secondary to laparoscopic cholecistectomy bile duct injury treated with self- modified Gianturco-Rosh stents.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered as a standard procedure for symptomatic gallstones. However, the incidence of iatrogenic bile duct injury is higher that the conventional cholecystectomy. In the present study was analyzed the results in 6 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy with restenotic hepaticojejunostomy treated with self-modified Gianturco-Rosch stents.
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A single-blind, randomized, crossover trial of the effects of a nicotine pouch on the relief of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and user satisfaction.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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We compared the effects of a 4-mg oral nicotine pouch (Zonnic pouch), with nicotine chewing gum and placebo pouch, on withdrawal discomfort after overnight tobacco abstinence. We also assessed participants preferences, satisfaction, and consumption patterns.
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Serum free hemoglobin as a novel potential biomarker for acute ischemic stroke.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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Currently, no practical biomarker is available for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has being applied extensively to analyze large biomolecules such as proteins. The technique is likely to be of remarkable value as indicators of systemic processes such as atherosclerosis and stroke. The aim of this study is to identify potential protein biomarkers for ischemic stroke diagnosis utilizing MALDI-TOF MS.
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Cerebral white matter hyperintensities predict functional stroke outcome.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Growing evidence suggests that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are implicated in stroke recurrence and mortality, and their location can be a critical factor. This study evaluated the impact of periventricular WMHs (PVWMHs) and subcortical WMHs (SWMHs) on poststroke functional outcomes.
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The effects of metabolic syndrome and apolipoprotein E4 on cognitive event-related potentials.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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To reduce the care burden of dementia, identifying whether the combined effect of metabolic syndrome and epsilon4 increases the risk of cognitive decline needs to be determined. Using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), 145 mentally healthy middle-aged and older adults were recruited to investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome and epsilon4 on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). The results showed no difference in CASI scores, N100 and P300 measurements and epsilon4 carrier percentage between participants with and without metabolic syndrome. The epsilon4 carriers displayed a significant decrease in P300 amplitude, although the CASI scores and N100 component showed no difference. We conclude that metabolic syndrome exerts little effect on N100 and P300 measurements, and that epsilon4 carrier is an independent predictor of low P300 amplitude.
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Inhibition of superoxide anion generation by CHS-111 via blockade of the p21-activated kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and protein kinase C signaling pathways in rat neutrophils.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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In formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated rat neutrophils, 2-benzyl-3-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)indazole (CHS-111) inhibited superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation, which was not mediated by scavenging the generated O(2)(-) or by a cytotoxic effect, and attenuated migration. CHS-111 had no effect on the arachidonic acid-induced NADPH oxidase activation or the GTPgammaS-stimulated Rac2 membrane translocation in cell-free systems, whereas it effectively attenuated the membrane recruitment of p40(phox), p47(phox) and p67(phox), phosphorylation of Ser residues in p47(phox), association between p47(phox) and p22(phox), and Rac activation in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. Moreover, the phosphorylation and membrane recruitment of p21-activated kinase (PAK), PAK kinase activity and the interaction of PAK with p47(phox) were inhibited by CHS-111. CHS-111 effectively reduced Akt kinase activity and the association between Akt and p47(phox), moderately inhibited the membrane recruitment of Akt and phospho-PDK1, and slightly attenuated Akt (Thr308) phosphorylation, whereas it had no effect on Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation or p110gamma membrane translocation. The membrane recruitment of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -delta and -zeta, PKC phosphorylation and PKC kinase activity was attenuated by CHS-111, whereas CHS-111 did not affect the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or downstream MAPK-activated protein kinase-2. Higher concentrations of CHS-111 were required to decrease fMLP-stimulated intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) elevation in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), and to reduce cellular cyclic AMP but slightly increase cyclic GMP levels. Taken together, these results suggest that CHS-111 inhibits fMLP-stimulated O(2)(-) generation in rat neutrophils through the blockade of PAK, Akt and PKC signaling pathways.
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Interface matching method for solving surface plasmon modes with damping in plasmonic crystals.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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The author proposes an interface matching method for solving surface plasmon modes with damping in plasmonic crystals. The damping constant is considered a crucial parameter instead of a small perturbation to the undamped system. The damping effect is manifest on the complex nature of the eigenfrequency as well as on the eigenfield. For periodic layered structures, the decay factors of the two fundamental modes asymptotically approach gamma/2 in the large-wave-number limit. For two-dimensional plasmonic crystals, the decay factors of surface plasmon modes are gathered around and bounded by gamma/2 .
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Elevated blood pressure, obesity, and hyperlipidemia.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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To investigate the association of blood pressure elevation with body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol levels in children who screened positive for proteinuria, glucosuria, and/or hamaturia.
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A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.
Sensors (Basel)
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Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.
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MRI fluid sign is reliable in correlation with osteonecrosis after vertebral fractures: a histopathologic study.
Eur Spine J
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Magnetic resonance images (MRI) fluid sign and intravertebral vacuum phenomenon of the plain radiograph are considered as the characteristic radiological findings for vertebral osteonecrosis after spinal fractures. We aim to study the association between the radiological and histopathologic findings of vertebral osteonecrosis through the use of an open retrieval of specimens.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.