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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Growth and properties of Li, Ta modified (K,Na)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric single crystals.
Phys Status Solidi Rapid Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Li, Ta modified (K,Na)NbO3 single crystals with the size of 18 mm × 18 mm × 10 mm were successfully grown by top-seeded solution growth method, with orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition temperature ~79 °C and Curie temperature ~276 °C. The electromechanical coupling factors k 33 and k t were found to be ~88% and ~65%, respectively. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33 for the [001]c poled crystals reached 255 pC/N. In addition, the electromechanical coupling factor exhibited high stability over the temperature range of -50 °C to 70 °C, making these lead free crystals good candidates for electromechanical applications.
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Up-Regulation of miR-21 and miR-23a Contributes to As2 O3 -induced hERG Channel Deficiency.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. However, the cardiotoxicity of long QT syndrome restricts its clinical application. Previous studies showed that As2 O3 can damage the hERG current via disturbing its trafficking to cellular membrane. Consistent with these findings, in this study we reported that As2 O3 inhibited hERG channel at both protein and mRNA levels, damage hERG current but did not affect channel kinetics. Further, we demonstrated that As2 O3 up-regulated miR-21 and miR-23a expression in hERG-HEK293 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes. In addition, knockdown of miR-21 by its specific antisense molecules AMO-21 was able to rescue Sp1 and hERG inhibition caused by As2 O3 . Consistently, phosphorylation of NF-?B, the upstream regulatory factor of miR-21, was significantly up-regulated by As2 O3 . This finding revealed that regulation of the NF-?B-miR-21-Sp1 signalling pathway is a novel mechanism for As2 O3 -induced hERG inhibition. Meanwhile, the expression of HSP90 and hERG was rescued by transfection with AMO-23a. And the hERG channel inhibition induced by As2 O3 was rescued after being transfected with AMO-23a, which may be a molecular mechanism for the role of As2 O3 in hERG trafficking deficiency. In brief, our study revealed that miR-21 and miR-23a are involved in As2 O3 -induced hERG deficiency at transcriptional and transportational levels. This discovery may provide a novel mechanism of As2 O3 -induced hERG channel deficiency and these miRNAs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the handling of As2 O3 cardiotoxicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Construction of a lncRNA-PCG bipartite network and identification of cancer-related lncRNAs: a case study in prostate cancer.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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LncRNAs are involved in a wide range of biological processes, such as chromatin remodeling, mRNA splicing, mRNA editing and translation. They can either upregulate or downregulate gene expression, and play key roles in the progression of various human cancers. However, the functional mechanisms of most lncRNAs still remain unknown at present. This paper aims to provide space for the understanding of lncRNAs by proposing a new method to obtain protein-coding genes (PCGs) regulated by lncRNAs, thus identifying candidate cancer-related lncRNAs using bioinformatics approaches. This study presents a method based on sample correlation, which is applied to the expression profiles of lncRNAs and PCGs in prostate cancer in combination with protein interaction data to build a lncRNA-PCG bipartite network. Candidate cancer-related lncRNAs were extracted from the bipartite network by using a random walk. 14 prostate cancer-related lncRNAs were acquired from the LncRNADisease database and MNDR, of which 6 lncRNAs were present in our network. As one of the seed nodes, ENSG00000234741 achieved the highest score among them. The other two cancer-related lncRNAs (ENSG00000225937 and ENSG00000236830) were ranked within the top 30. In addition, the top candidate lncRNA ENSG00000261777 shares an intron with DDX19, and interacts with IGF2 P1, indicating its involvement in prostate cancer. In this paper, we described a new method for predicting candidate lncRNA targets, and obtained candidate therapeutic targets using this method. We hope that this study will bring a new perspective in future lncRNA studies.
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Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel SAR11 Clade Species Abundant in a Tibetan Lake.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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SAR11 clade bacteria are abundant and play a key role in the nutrient cycles of marine and, presumably, inland aquatic environments. We report here the draft genome sequence of a novel species in the SAR11 cluster, reconstructed from a metagenomic data set obtained from a Tibetan lake.
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Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.
Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas R Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen, Frank Friedrich, Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Carola Greve, Peter Grobe, Shengchang Gu, Ying Huang, Lars S Jermiin, Akito Y Kawahara, Lars Krogmann, Martin Kubiak, Robert Lanfear, Harald Letsch, Yiyuan Li, Zhenyu Li, Jiguang Li, Haorong Lu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Pashalia Kapli, Duane D McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Yasutaka Nakagaki, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia, Michael Ott, Yanxiang Ou, Günther Pass, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Björn M von Reumont, Kai Schütte, Kaoru Sekiya, Shota Shimizu, Adam Slipinski, Alexandros Stamatakis, Wenhui Song, Xu Su, Nikolaus U Szucsich, Meihua Tan, Xuemei Tan, Min Tang, Jingbo Tang, Gerald Timelthaler, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Michelle Trautwein, Xiaoli Tong, Toshiki Uchifune, Manfred G Walzl, Brian M Wiegmann, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Benjamin Wipfler, Thomas K F Wong, Qiong Wu, Gengxiong Wu, Yinlong Xie, Shenzhou Yang, Qing Yang, David K Yeates, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Qing Zhang, Rui Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Yunhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Chengran Zhou, Lili Zhou, Tanja Ziesmann, Shijie Zou, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Karl M Kjer, Xin Zhou.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects.
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Obesity and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus: a mendelian randomization study.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Data from observational studies suggest that body mass index (BMI) is causally related to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, the relationships may be affected by bias and confounding.
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Formal [4+2] annulation of enaminones and cyanomethyl sulfur ylide: one-pot access to polysubstituted pyridin-2(1H)-ones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A facile and efficient one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted pyridin-2(1H)-ones from readily available enaminones and the cyanomethyl sulfonium bromide salt in the presence of cesium carbonate is developed, and a mechanism involving sequential nucleophilic vinylic substitution (SNV), intramolecular nucleophilic cyclization and dealkylation reactions is proposed.
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Lysyl oxidase promotes bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis through modulating inflammation.
J Mol Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Enzymes involved in collagen biosynthesis, including lysyl oxidase (LOX), have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. LOX expression is significantly upregulated in bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis, and knockdown of LOX expression or inhibition of LOX activity alleviates the lung fibrosis. Unexpectedly, treatment of the mice with LOX inhibitor at the inflammatory stage, but not the fibrogenic stage, efficiently reduces collagen deposition and normalizes lung architecture. Inhibition of LOX impairs inflammatory cell infiltration, TGF-? signaling, and myofibroblast accumulation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LOX sensitizes the fibrosis-resistant Balb/c mice to BLM-induced inflammation and lung fibrosis. These results suggest that LOX is indispensable for the progression of BLM-induced experimental lung fibrosis by aggravating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis process after lung injury.
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[Research Progress of Epigenetic Drug Decitabine in AML].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Epigenetics is a gene regulation mechanism that can be reversible and heritable, but do not involve the DNA sequence changes. DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications, which is closely correlate with tumorigenesis. Decitabine is a methylation inhibitor, which has different action mechanism and targeting characteristics from the traditional chemotherapy, representing a new therapeutic strategy. This review mainly focuses on the anti-leukemia mechanism of decitabine and its clinical efficacy for AML.
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[A new system for noninvasive esophageal varices pressure measurement based on airflow and laser technology].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Combined the optical principle with automatic control technology and computer real-time image detection technology to develop a non-contact system for noninvasive esophageal varices pressure measurement.
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Phosphor-in-glass for high-powered remote-type white AC-LED.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The high-powered alternating current (AC) light emitting diode (LED) (AC-LED), featuring with low cost, high energy utilization efficiency, and long service life, will become a new economic growth point in the field of semiconductor lighting. However, flicker of AC-LED in the AC cycles is not healthy for human eyes, and therefore need to be restrained. Herein we report an innovation of persistent "phosphor-in-glass" (PiG) for the remote-type AC-LED, whose afterglow can be efficiently activated by the blue light. It is experimentally demonstrated that the afterglow decay of PiG in the microsecond range can partly compensate the AC time gap. Moreover, the substitution of inorganic glass for organic resins or silicones as the encapsulants would bring out several technological benefits to AC-LED, such as good heat-dissipation, low glare, and excellent physical/chemical stability.
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The C-terminal elongation of NS1 of H9N2 influenza virus induces a high level of inflammatory cytokines and increases transmission.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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H9N2 avian influenza viruses are enzootic around the world, and can infect many different avian and mammalian hosts, including humans. Unlike the H9N2 viruses, which mainly originated in other countries and possess an non-structural protein 1( NS1) of 230 amino acids (aa), 98% of the H9N2 viruses isolated in China lack the 13 aa at the C-terminus of NS1 (217 aa in total). The biological significance of NS1 elongation remains elusive. In the current study, reverse genetics was used to generate a wild-type avian influenza H9N2 virus containing a 217 aa NS1 (H9N2NS1217) and two mutant viruses with elongated NS1s of 230 aa and 237 aa (H9N2NS1230 and H9N2NS1237), in order to examine the effect NS1 C-terminal elongation in the influenza virus. The C-terminal elongation of NS1 did not have significant impact on virus replication in MDCK or DF-1 cells. Although the three variants exhibited similar replicability in mice, the H9N2NS1230 and H9N2NS1237 up-regulated the level of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, both the H9N2NS1230 and H9N2NS1237 viruses increased replication and induced a high level of inflammatory cytokines and transmission in chickens, compared to the wild-type virus. These findings suggest that the NS1 extension conferred a gain of fitness to some extent.
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Cationic Conjugated Polymer/Fluoresceinamine-Hyaluronan Complex for Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of CD44 and Tumor-Targeted Cell Imaging.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of CD44 is of paramount importance since it plays pivotal roles in tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. Herein, we describe a novel method for sensitive, visual and facile fluorescence detection of CD44 and CD44-mediated cancer cell imaging, using a probe based on cationic conjugated polymer (CCP)-PFEP and fluoresceinamine-hyaluronan (FA-HA). HA is an anionic natural glycosaminoglycan that can specifically bind to the overexpressed CD44 on various kinds of cancer cells. PFEP and FA-HA formed a complex through electronic interactions, resulting in a highly efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PFEP to FA-HA; moreover, the efficiencies of FRET correlated with the concentrations of CD44 because the specific binding of HA-CD44 would separate FA-HA away from PFEP. This method did not require laborious and expensive dual-labeling or protein-labeling needed in previously reported detection methods of CD44. Just mix the sample and test solution containing the PFEP/FA-HA complex, and the results allowed naked-eye detection by observing fluorescent color of solutions with the assistance of a UV lamp. Most importantly, the use of a conjugated polymer with excellent amplification property as well as the specific binding of HA-CD44 endowed this method with high sensitivity and specificity, making it applicable for reliable quantitative detection of CD44. Furthermore, the PFEP/FA-HA complex formed nanoparticles in aqueous solution, and the nanoparticles can be selectively taken up by MCF-7 cells (cancer cell) through the HA-CD44 interaction, thereby giving rise to a dual-color tumor-targeted imaging probe with good photostability. The development of this fluorescent probe showed promising potential to make a reliable and routine method available for early diagnosis of cancer.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Three Escherichia coli Strains Investigated for the Effects of Lysogeny on Niche Diversification.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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During the course of investigating the effects of lysogeny on niche diversification of Escherichia coli, we used the temperate phages induced from one E. coli strain to infect another and created an isogenic lysogen of the latter. The draft genome sequences of the three E. coli strains are reported herein.
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Normal-pressure microwave rapid synthesis of hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures with superhigh surface areas as high-quality gas-sensing and electrochemical active materials.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures with superhigh surface areas are synthesized via a simple redox reaction between Sn(2+) ions and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets under microwave irradiation. XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, TG-DTA and N2 adsorption-desorption are used to characterize the compositions and microstructures of the SnO2@rGO samples obtained. The SnO2@rGO nanostructures are used as gas-sensing and electroactive materials to evaluate their property-microstructure relationship. The results show that SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with particle sizes of 3-5 nm are uniformly anchored on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets through a heteronucleation and growth process. The as-obtained SnO2@rGO sample with a hierarchically sesame cake-like microstructure and a superhigh specific surface area of 2110.9 m(2) g(-1) consists of 92 mass% SnO2 NPs and ?8 mass% rGO nanosheets. The sensitivity of the SnO2@rGO sensor upon exposure to 10 ppm H2S is up to 78 at the optimal operating temperature of 100 °C, and its response time is as short as 7 s. Compared with SnO2 nanocrystals (5-10 nm), the hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures have enhanced gas-sensing behaviors (i.e., high sensitivity, rapid response and good selectivity). The SnO2@rGO nanostructures also show excellent electroactivity in detecting sunset yellow (SY) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH = 2.0). The enhancement in gas-sensing and electroactive performance is mainly attributed to the unique hierarchical microstructure, high surface areas and the synergistic effect of SnO2 NPs and rGO nanosheets.
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[Determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in pollens by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A method was established for the determination of streptomycin (STR) and dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) in pollens based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted and cleaned-up by a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge. The separation was carried out on a Protemix WCX-NP5 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) with a gradient elution using 5% (v/v) formic acid, 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate and methanol as mobile phases. The analysis of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin was performed under electrospray positive ionization mode. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) for the both were 5 microg/kg and 10 microg/kg, respectively. Good linearities (r > 0.99) were achieved for the target compounds over the range of 10-200 microg/L. The recoveries at three spiked levels (10, 20, 50 microg/kg) in the blank matrices, such as pollen pini, corn pollen, camellia pollen, sunflower pollen, rape pollen and bee pollen, were from 76.8% to 100.3% with the relative standard deviations varied from 3.70% to 12.6%. The method is accurate, practical, and can be applied to most of the contaminated matrices. With this method, heptafluorobutyric acid is not required as mobile phase which is harmful to MS spectrometer.
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[Determination of four insecticide residues in honey and royal jelly by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A method was developed for the determination of four insecticide residues in honey and royal jelly by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS). The honey and royal jelly samples were treated with different preparation methods as the result of the different components. The honey sample was extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up with primary second amine, and the royal jelly sample was extracted with acetonitrile-water (1:1, v/v), and cleaned up with a C18 solid-phase extraction column. Finally, the extracts of the honey and royal jelly were analyzed by GC-NCI/MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode separately. External standard calibration method was used for quantification. The linearities of calibration curves of the four insecticides were good with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 in the range of 50-500 microg/L. The limits of the detection (LODs) of the four insecticides were in the range of 0.12- 5.0 microg/kg, and the limits of the quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.40-16.5 microg/kg. The recoveries of the four insecticides spiked in honey and royal jelly at three spiked levels (10, 15 and 20 microg/kg) were in the range of 78.2 -110.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were all below 14%. The sensitivity and selectivity of this method were good with no interfering peaks. The proposed method is simple quick and effective to analyze the four insecticide residues in honey and royal jelly.
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[Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential elicited by different types of stimulus among normal young Chinese people].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To observe waveform differences among ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (ACS-oVEMP) elicited by different types of air conducted sound in normal young Chinese subjects.
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Ionic liquid foam floatation coupled with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the separation and determination of estrogens in water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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An ionic liquid foam floatation coupled with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was proposed for the extraction and concentration of 17-?-estradiol, 17-?-estradiol-benzoate, and quinestrol in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate was applied as foaming agent in the foam flotation process and dispersive solvent in microextraction. The introduction of the ion-pairing and salting-out agent NH4 PF6 was beneficial to the improvement of recoveries for the hydrophobic ionic liquid phase and analytes. Parameters of the proposed method including concentration of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, flow rate of carrier gas, floatation time, types and concentration of ionic liquids, salt concentration in samples, extraction time, and centrifugation time were evaluated. The recoveries were between 98 and 105% with relative standard deviations lower than 7% for lake water and well water samples. The isolation of the target compounds from the water was found to be efficient, and the enrichment factors ranged from 4445 to 4632. This developing method is free of volatile organic solvents compared with regular extraction. Based on the unique properties of ionic liquids, the application of foam floatation, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was widened.
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[Research on increasing X-ray protection capability based on photonic crystal technology].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Light cannot be propagated within the range of photonic crystal band gaps. Based on this unique property, we proposed a method to improve anti-radiation capability through one-dimensional photonic crystal coating. Using transmission matrix method, we determined the appropriate dielectric materials, thickness and periodic numbers of photonic crystals through Matlab programming simulation. Then, compound one-dimensional photonic crystal coating was designed which was of high anti-radiation rate within the range of X-ray. As is shown through simulation experiments, the reflection rate against X-ray was higher than 90 percent, and the desired anti-radiation effect was achieved. Thus, this method is able to help solve the technical problems facing the inorganic lead glass such as thickness, weightiness, costliness, high lead equivalent, low transparency and high cost. This method has won China's national invention patent approval, and the patent number is 201220228549.2.
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Preliminary identification of palaeofloods with the alkane ratio C31/C17 and their potential link to global climate changes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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A major challenge in palaeohydrology is the extraction of continuous palaeoflood information from geophysical records. A high-resolution sediment core off the Minjiang estuary area in the Taiwan Strait, SE China, records the sedimentation history from approximately 1660 to the present. The alkane ratio C31/C17, a classic organic geochemical indicator of terrestrial/aquatic matter, peaks in the layers dating as 1876-1878 and 1968-1970, suggesting the large terrestrial input to the Minjiang estuary area by huge flood transporting during the each peak interval. Historical archives are consistent with this interpretations and record catastrophic floods in the Minjiang River during both intervals. Furthermore between 1876-1878 there were floods in southern China and droughts in northern China, as well as throughout Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Americas. The 1876-1878 catastrophic flood of the Minjiang River may therefore has been the local response to global climate anomalies during that time interval.
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Activation of avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor and inter-species sensitivity variations by polychlorinated diphenylsulfides.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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It was hypothesized that polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) can potentially interact with an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and thereby cause adverse effects in wildlife like birds. A recently developed avian AHR1-luciferase report gene (LRG) assay was used to assess the interaction between avian AHR1 and 18 PCDPSs and to compare the interspecies sensitivity among chicken, ring-necked pheasant, and Japanese quail by PCDPSs. Most of the tested PCDPSs could activate the AHR1-mediated pathways in avian species, and the relative potency (ReP) of the PCDPSs increased with the increasing number of substituted Cl atoms. The rank orders of PCDPSs potency were generally similar among birds, although the ReP varied. In addition, not all the sensitivity rank orders of avian AHR1 constructs for PCDPSs were consistent with that of TCDD. ReP values of PCDPSs suggested that some PCDPSs like 2,3,3',4,5,6-hexa-CDPS and 2,2',3,3',4,5,6-hepta-CDPS are higher than the avian WHO-TEFs of OctaCDD, OctaCDF, and most of the coplanar PCBs. Our results report for the first time the activation of an AHR1-mediated molecular toxicological mechanism by PCDPSs, and provide the ranking of ReP and relative sensitivity values of different congeners, which could guide the further toxicity test of this group of potential high priority environmental pollutants.
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miR-337 regulates the proliferation and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by targeting HOXB7.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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miRNAs are involved in coordinating a variety of cellular processes by regulating their target genes. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is correlated with various cancers. Previous studies have shown that miR-337 is significantly down-regulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and that its expression is negatively correlated to the expression of HOXB7. Both miR-337 and HOXB7 are associated with the prognosis of PDAC patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms by which miR-337 acts as a tumor suppressor in PDAC.
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Opposing activities of the Ras and Hippo pathways converge on regulation of YAP protein turnover.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Cancer genomes accumulate numerous genetic and epigenetic modifications. Yet, human cellular transformation can be accomplished by a few genetically defined elements. These elements activate key pathways required to support replicative immortality and anchorage independent growth, a predictor of tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we provide evidence that the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway is a key barrier to Ras-mediated cellular transformation. The Hippo pathway targets YAP1 for degradation via the ?TrCP-SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. In contrast, the Ras pathway acts oppositely, to promote YAP1 stability through downregulation of the ubiquitin ligase complex substrate recognition factors SOCS5/6. Depletion of SOCS5/6 or upregulation of YAP1 can bypass the requirement for oncogenic Ras in anchorage independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Through the YAP1 target, Amphiregulin, Ras activates the endogenous EGFR pathway, which is required for transformation. Thus, the oncogenic activity of Ras(V12) depends on its ability to counteract Hippo pathway activity, creating a positive feedback loop, which depends on stabilization of YAP1.
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[Comparison of clinical characteristics and survival on patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and familial pulmonary arterial hypertension during conventional therapy era and targeted therapy era].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To compare the clinical characteristics and survival on Chinese patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and familiar pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) during conventional therapy era and targeted therapy era.
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A novel molecule Me6TREN promotes angiogenesis via enhancing endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and recruitment.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Critical limb ischaemia is the most severe clinical manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. The circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play important roles in angiogenesis and ischemic tissue repair. The increase of circulating EPC numbers by using mobilization agents is critical for obtaining a better therapeutic outcome in patients with ischemic disease. Here, we firstly report a novel small molecule, Me6TREN (Me6), can efficiently mobilize EPCs into the blood circulation. Single injection of Me6 induced a long-lasting increase in circulating Flk-1(+) Sca-1(+) EPC numbers. In a mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model, local intramuscular transplantation of these Me6-mobilized cells accelerated the blood flow restoration in the ischemic muscles. More importantly, systemic administration of Me6 notably increased the capillary density, arteriole density and regenerative muscle weight in the ischemic tissue of HLI. Mechanistically, we found Me6 reduced stromal cell-derived factor-1? level in bone marrow by up-regulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression, which allowed the dissemination of EPCs into peripheral blood. These data indicate that Me6 may represent a potentially useful therapy for ischemic disease via enhancing autologous EPC recruitment and promote angiogenesis.
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Investigation of MicroRNA Expression in Human Serum During the Aging Process.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Although serum microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the diagnosis of various diseases, little is known about circulating miRNAs in the aging process.
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[Clinicopathological characteristics and imaging features of primary spinal Ewing's/PNET].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the clinicopathological and imaging features of Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in vertebral column and to improve knowledge of the disease.
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Integrase-Deficient Lentivirus: Opportunities and Challenges for Human Gene Therapy.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Lentivirus are powerful tools for gene delivery and have been widely used for the dissection of gene functions in both replicating and quiescent cells. Recently, they have also been used for delivering target sequences in gene therapy. Although lentiviral system provides sustained exogenous gene expression, serious concerns have been raised due to its unfavourable insertion-mediated mutagenesis effect, thereby leading to silence or activation of some unexpected genes. Accordingly, an array of modifications of the original vectors has been made to reduce the risks. Here, we briefly review the structure of integrase protein, which is an essential protein for viral insertion and integration, the mechanisms of integrase-mediated integration and the effects of the modification of integrase. Following this, we discuss the advantages resulting from integrase modifications and their future applications. Taken together, the generation of integrase-deficient lentivirus (IDLV) not only provides us with an opportunity to reduce the risk of virus-mediated insertions, which would improve the safety of gene therapy, but also favours gene correction and vaccine development.
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Beneficial effects of deferoxamine against astrocyte death induced by modified oxygen glucose deprivation.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) is efficacious in ameliorating hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, the effect of DFX worked in the ischemic and the mechanism is still unclear. Recent studies have shown that apoptosis and oncosis may be the pathways of cell death accountable for astrocytic death in the ischemic core. The effect of DFX on primary cultures of rat astrocytes later subjected to modified oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), which can mimic the circumstances in the ischemic core, was evaluated in this study. DFX pretreatment significantly suppressed cell death and ameliorated the cellular swelling of astrocytes in the ischemic core, especially after 3h of OGD. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reduced by DFX pretreatment. DFX reduced the expression level of active caspase-3 and increased the expression level of HIF-1? in astrocytes induced by 3h of OGD, but had no effect on aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression. We conclude that DFX suppresses both apoptosis and oncosis in astrocytes in an in vitro model of the ischemic core.
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Lower mitochondrial proton leak and decreased glutathione redox in primary muscle cells of obese diet-resistant versus diet-sensitive humans.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Weight loss success in response to energy restriction is highly variable. This may be due in part to differences in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.
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Application of HTB-SiHa cells transfected with a recombinant plasmid for external quality assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis PCR.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The participation of laboratories in external quality assessment (EQA) programs is required for the quality assurance of nucleic acid amplification of Chlamydia trachomatis. This study aimed to construct a new quality control (QC) material applicated in EQA of C. trachomatis PCR.
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[Abnormal calcium re-uptake in myocardium sarcoplasmic reticulum in rabbits with heart failure and the influencing factors].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the abnormal calcium re-uptake function of myocardium sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in rabbits with heart failure, as well as potential mechanisms. Heart failure model was established in rabbits through aortic insufficiency and constriction of abdominal aorta. The SR Ca(2+) re-uptake function was measured with a calcium imaging device. The activity of myocardium SR calcium adenodine triphosphatase 2a (SERCA2a) was measured by inorganic phosphate. The protein expressions of SERCA2a, CaMKII, PKA, PP1?, phospholamban (PLB), PLB-Ser(16) and PLB-Thr(17) were evaluated by Western blot. The activities of PKA and CaMKII were detected by ?-(32)P substrate incorporation. The results showed that, compared with the sham operation group, the heart failure group exhibited reduced Ca(2+) re-uptake amount (P < 0.01) and the expression and activity of SERCA2a (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), decreased expression of PLB and its phosphorylation status in sites of Ser(16) and Thr(17) (P < 0.05), increased expressions and activities of PKA and CaMKII (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and increased expression of PP1? (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the abnormal Ca(2+) re-uptake function in heart failure is related with reduced expression and activities of SERCA2a, as well as reduced expression of PLB and its phosphorylation status. Both PLB-Ser(16) and -Thr(17) may be involved in the regulation of myocardium SR calcium pump activity in heart failure.
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The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H) and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at p<0.05 level in the non-KOH-extractable only, suggesting their tight association to form the minor wall-networks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.
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Attenuated Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction by XQ-1H Following Ischemic Stroke in Hyperlipidemic Rats.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Following ischemic stroke, blood-brain barrier (BBB) is disrupted and is further aggravated with the corresponding incidence of hyperlipidemia. BBB breakdown promotes inflammation infiltration into the brain, which exacerbates cerebral ischemic injury as a result. Here, we report that 10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methanesulfonate (XQ-1H), a novel analog of ginkgolide B, alleviates BBB breakdown in hyperlipidemic rats and protects endothelial cells against inflammatory response. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) modeled ischemic stroke in rats. Before surgery, these rats were fed a cholesterol-rich diet to induce an experimental hyperlipidemic condition. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) incubation with rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) was applied to mimic hyperlipidemia-induced inflammatory injury of BBB. The results indicated more severe infarct size, increased BBB permeability, excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and exaggerated inflammation infiltration of the brain in hyperlipidemic rats following MCAO when compared to rats fed with normal diet. XQ-1H protected BBB integrity, lessoned brain edema and inflammation penetration, downregulated MMP-9 and VCMA-1 expressions, and extenuated ischemic infarction. XQ-1H alleviated LPS-induced inflammatory response in rBMECs, characterized by promoting cell viability, inhibiting TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 releasing, and downregulating NF-?B inflammatory signal and downstream proteins, such as VCAM-1 and iNOS. In conclusion, the present study shows that XQ-1H stabilizes BBB function following ischemic stroke in hyperlipidemic rats, and the possible mechanisms may be related to inflammation inhibition.
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What is the meaning of a nonresolved viral nucleic acid test-reactive minipool?
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA among hepatitis?B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations by cobas TaqScreen MPX test (Roche Molecular Systems) and discussing the meaning of a reactive minipool (MP) that does not resolve to an individual donation (ID)-reactive result.
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[Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates.
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A comparative study on the risks of radiogenic second cancers and cardiac mortality in a set of pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated with photon or proton craniospinal irradiation.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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To compare the risks of radiogenic second cancers and cardiac mortality in 17 pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated with passively scattered proton or field-in-field photon craniospinal irradiation (CSI).
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Binding mode investigations on the interaction of lead(II) acetate with human chorionic gonadotropin.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Lead exposure could induce endocrine disruption and hormonal imbalance of humans, resulting in detrimental effects on the reproductive system even at low doses. However, mechanisms of lead actions remain unknown. This article investigated lead interactions with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) as a conceivable mechanism of its reproductive toxicity by spectroscopic technique, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), molecular docking study, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fluorescence measurements showed that lead acetate dynamically quenched intrinsic fluorescence of HCG through collisional mechanism with the association constant (KSV) in the magnitude of 10(3) L/mol at the detected temperatures (298, 303, and 310 K). ITC and molecular docking results revealed lead acetate could bind into 5 binding sites of HCG through electrostatic effects (?H < 0, ?S > 0) and hydrophobic forces (?H > 0, ?S > 0). The conformational investigation of HCG by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and ELISA indicated lead acetate changed the secondary structure of HCG by loosening and destruction of HCG skeleton and increasing the hydrophobicity around Tyr residues and resulted in the decreased bioactivities of HCG. This work presents direct interactions of lead with sex hormones and obtains a possible mechanism on lead induced reproductive toxicity at the molecular level.
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Sequential combination therapy of ovarian cancer with degradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer paclitaxel and gemcitabine conjugates.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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For rapid and effective clinical translation, polymer-based anticancer therapeutics need long circulating conjugates that produce a sustained concentration gradient between the vasculature and solid tumor. To this end, we designed second-generation backbone-degradable diblock N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer carriers and evaluated sequential combination therapy of HPMA copolymer-paclitaxel and HPMA copolymer-gemcitabine conjugates against A2780 human ovarian carcinoma xenografts. First, extensive in vitro assessment of administration sequence impact on cell cycle, viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion revealed that treatment with paclitaxel conjugate followed by gemcitabine conjugate was the most effective scheduling strategy. Second, in an in vivo comparison with first-generation (nondegradable, molecular weight below the renal threshold) conjugates and free drugs, the second-generation degradable high-molecular weight conjugates showed distinct advantages, such as favorable pharmacokinetics (three- to five-times half-life compared with the first generation), dramatically enhanced inhibition of tumor growth (complete tumor regression) by paclitaxel and gemcitabine conjugate combination, and absence of adverse effects. In addition, multimodality imaging studies of dual-labeled model conjugates confirmed the efficacy of second-generation conjugates by visualizing more than five-times enhanced tumor accumulation, rapid conjugate internalization, and effective intracellular release of payload. Taken together, the results indicate that the second-generation degradable HPMA copolymer carrier can provide an ideal platform for the delivery of a range of antitumor compounds, which makes it one of the most attractive candidates for potential clinical application.
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In vivo bio-distribution and homing of endothelial outgrowth cells in a tumour model.
Nucl. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been reported to have the potential for advancing revascularization of ischemic tissue. However, the heterogeneous nature of these cells calls for specification of the angiogenic potential of each subtype. The purpose of this study was to gain additional insight on the homing capacity of the EPC subtype, endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) in tumours using a well-established tumour model.
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Anonymization of DICOM electronic medical records for radiation therapy.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a cancer clinic. In addition to this we were unable to find a commercial software tool that met the minimum requirements for anonymization and preservation of data integrity for radiation therapy research. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype software code to meet the requirements for the anonymization of radiation therapy treatment plans and to develop a way to validate that code and demonstrate that it properly anonymized treatment plans and preserved data integrity. We extended an open-source code to process all relevant PHI and to allow for the automatic anonymization of multiple EMRs. The prototype code successfully anonymized multiple treatment plans in less than 1min/patient. We also tested commercial optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms for the detection of burned-in text on the images, but they were unable to reliably recognize text. In addition, we developed and tested an image filtering algorithm that allowed us to isolate and redact alpha-numeric text from a test radiograph. Validation tests verified that PHI was anonymized and data integrity, such as the relationship between DICOM unique identifiers (UID) was preserved.
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Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Multidomain Xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. GN16 Isolated from the Feces of Grus nigricollis.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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A novel glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) xylanase (XynAGN16), consisting of five domains, was revealed from the genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. GN16 isolated from the feces of Grus nigricollis. XynAGN16 and its truncated derivatives XynAGN16L (GH 10 domain at N-terminus) and XynAGN16Lpd (GH 10 domain at N-terminus and polysaccharide deacetylases domain) were expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. Biochemical characterizations and hydrolysis products analyses of recombinant XynAGN16L and XynAGN16Lpd showed similar features, including showing catalytic activities at 0 °C, thermolabilities at temperatures of more than 50 °C, and similar substrate specificity. However, the polysaccharide deacetylases domain improved the affinity and catalytic efficiency towards xylans of the recombinant XynAGN16Lpd. The K m and k cat/K m values of recombinant XynAGN16L towards birchwood xylan were 2.6 mg/mL and 19.5 mL/mg/s, respectively, while the two values of recombinant XynAGN16Lpd were 1.2 mg/mL and 42.7 mL/mg/s, respectively. Towards beechwood xylan, the K m and k cat/K m values of recombinant XynAGN16L were 1.8 mg/mL and 27.1 mL/mg/s, respectively, while the two values of recombinant XynAGN16Lpd were 1.0 mg/mL and 35.3 mL/mg/s, respectively. Compared with three thermophilic endoxylanases, XynAGN16L has a surface loop from A57 to Y77 and a decreased number of salt bridges.
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Alteration of interictal brain activity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in the left dominant hemisphere: a resting-state MEG study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Resting MEG activities were compared between patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and normal controls. Using SAMg2, the activities of MEG data were reconstructed and normalized. Significantly elevated SAMg2 signals were found in LTLE patients in the left temporal lobe and medial structures. Marked decreases of SAMg2 signals were found in the wide extratemporal lobe regions, such as the bilateral visual cortex. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between the seizure frequency and brain activities of the abnormal regions after the multiple linear regression analysis. These results suggested that the aberrant brain activities not only were related to the epileptogenic zones, but also existed in other extratemporal regions in patients with LTLE. The activities of the aberrant regions could be further damaged with the increase of the seizure frequency. Our findings indicated that LTLE could be a multifocal disease, including complex epileptic networks and brain dysfunction networks.
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Upregulated microRNA-199a-5p inhibits nuclear receptor corepressor 1 translation in mice with non?alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Mounting evidence indicates that dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are important in the etiology and pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. However, the functions of miRNAs in the pathophysiological process of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are poorly understood. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed a methionine-choline?deficient (MCD) diet for eight weeks in order to induce hepatic steatohepatitis. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the hepatic expression levels of miR-199a-5p, miR-122 and miR-221 in the mice were examined. Bioinformatic analysis of dysregulated miR-199a-5p was performed to predict the potential role of miR?199a?5p in NASH. The MCD diet was found to significantly reduce miR-122 expression levels and significantly increase miR?199a-5p expression levels in mouse livers, compared with those of mice fed a control diet. In the bioinformatic analysis, miR?199a?5p was identified to be predominantly involved in transcription, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, insulin signaling, and the Wnt and mitogen?activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The regulation of nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1) by miR?199a-5p was also examined by silencing and overexpressing this miRNA in LX-2 cells. The data revealed that NCOR1 protein levels were significantly reduced and enhanced by miR-199a-5p mimic and inhibitor, respectively. These findings suggest a key role for miR-199a-5p in the progression of NASH through inhibition of NCOR1 translation, and provide novel insights into NASH pathogenesis.
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Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic neurons in mice with Alzheimer's disease-like lesions.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are unavailable. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane (an activator of NF-E2-related factor 2) on mice with AD-like lesions induced by combined administration of aluminum and D-galactose. Step-down-type passive avoidance tests showed sulforaphane ameliorated cognitive impairment in AD-like mice. Immunohistochemistry results indicated sulforaphane attenuated cholinergic neuron loss in the medial septal and hippocampal CA1 regions in AD-like mice. However, spectrophotometry revealed no significant difference in acetylcholine level or the activity of choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase in the cerebral cortex among groups of control and AD-like mice with and without sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane significantly increased the numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive neurons in the subventricular and subgranular zones in AD-like mice which were significantly augmented compared with controls. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed significantly lower aluminum levels in the brains of sulforaphane-treated AD-like mice than in those that did not receive sulforaphane treatment. In conclusion, sulforaphane ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits by reducing cholinergic neuron loss in the brains of AD-like mice, and the mechanism may be associated with neurogenesis and aluminum load reduction. These findings suggest that phytochemical sulforaphane has potential application in AD therapeutics.
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Coexistence of t(15;17) and t(15;16;17) detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia: A case report and literature review.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17)(q22;q21), which results in the fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene at 15q22 with the retinoic acid ?-receptor (RARA) gene at 17q21. The current study presents the case of a 54-year-old female with APL carrying the atypical PML/RARA fusion signal due to a novel complex variant translocation t(15;16;17)(q22;q24;q21), as well as the classical PML/RARA fusion signal. Subsequent array comparative genomic hybridization revealed somatic, cryptic deletions on 3p25.3, 8q23.1 and 12p13.2-p13.1, and a duplication on 8q11.2; however, no genetic material loss or gain was observed in the breakpoint regions of chromosomes 15, 16 or 17. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the coexistence of two abnormal clones, one classical and one variant, presenting simultaneously in addition to cryptic chromosome segmental imbalances in an adult APL patient.
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Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs).
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Highly anisotropic metasurface: a polarized beam splitter and hologram.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Two-dimensional metasurface structures have recently been proposed to reduce the challenges of fabrication of traditional plasmonic metamaterials. However, complex designs and sophisticated fabrication procedures are still required. Here, we present a unique one-dimensional (1-D) metasurface based on bilayered metallic nanowire gratings, which behaves as an ideal polarized beam splitter, producing strong negative reflection for transverse-magnetic (TM) light and efficient reflection for transverse-electric (TE) light. The large anisotropy resulting from this TE-metal-like/TM-dielectric-like feature can be explained by the dispersion curve based on the Bloch theory of periodic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. The results indicate that this photon manipulation mechanism is fundamentally different from those previously proposed for 2-D or 3-D metastructures. Based on this new material platform, a novel form of metasurface holography is proposed and demonstrated, in which an image can only be reconstructed by using a TM light beam. By reducing the metamaterial structures to 1-D, our metasurface beam splitter exhibits the qualities of cost-efficient fabrication, robust performance, and high tunability, in addition to its applicability over a wide range of working wavelengths and incident angles. This development paves a foundation for metasurface structure designs towards practical metamaterial applications.
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KLF8 is required for bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) belongs to the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors. Recently, it is affirmed that KLF8 plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a key process occurs during cancer metastasis. Although the overexpression of KLF8 has been observed in several types of human cancers, the functional role of KLF8 in human bladder cancer remains unknown. Here we investigated the effects of KLF8 knockdown on bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Lentivirus-mediated siRNA targeting KLF8 specifically down-regulated its expression in T24 and BT5637 bladder cancer cells. Knockdown of KLF8 significantly inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation. Cell cycle analysis showed that knockdown of KLF8 arrested T24 cells in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, cell migration was attenuated in T24 cells after KLF8 knockdown. Furthermore, knockdown of KLF8 resulted in a reduction in Vimentin and N-cadherin expression and an increase in ?-catenin expression. These results indicate that KLF8 plays a crucial role in proliferation and migration of bladder cancer cells, and inhibition of KLF8 by siRNA may provide a potential therapeutic approach for gene therapy in bladder cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A marine inducible prophage vB_CibM-P1 isolated from the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A prophage vB_CibM-P1 was induced by mitomycin C from the epipelagic strain Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354, a member of the alpha-IV subcluster of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB). The induced bacteriophage vB_CibM-P1 had Myoviridae-like morphology and polyhedral heads (approximately capsid 60-100?nm) with tail fibers. The vB_CibM-P1 genome is ~38?kb in size, with 66.0% GC content. The genome contains 58 proposed open reading frames that are involved in integration, DNA packaging, morphogenesis and bacterial lysis. VB_CibM-P1 is a temperate phage that can be directly induced in hosts. In response to mitomycin C induction, virus-like particles can increase to 7 × 10(9) per ml, while host cells decrease an order of magnitude. The vB_CibM-P1 bacteriophage is the first inducible prophage from AAPB.
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Double-balloon catheter vs. dinoprostone vaginal insert for induction of labor with an unfavorable cervix.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To compare a double-balloon catheter and dinoprostone vaginal insert for induction of labor with an unfavorable cervix.
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An efficient frequency recognition method based on likelihood ratio test for SSVEP-based BCI.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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An efficient frequency recognition method is very important for SSVEP-based BCI systems to improve the information transfer rate (ITR). To address this aspect, for the first time, likelihood ratio test (LRT) was utilized to propose a novel multichannel frequency recognition method for SSVEP data. The essence of this new method is to calculate the association between multichannel EEG signals and the reference signals which were constructed according to the stimulus frequency with LRT. For the simulation and real SSVEP data, the proposed method yielded higher recognition accuracy with shorter time window length and was more robust against noise in comparison with the popular canonical correlation analysis- (CCA-) based method and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator- (LASSO-) based method. The recognition accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) obtained by the proposed method was higher than those of the CCA-based method and LASSO-based method. The superior results indicate that the LRT method is a promising candidate for reliable frequency recognition in future SSVEP-BCI.
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Histochemical localization of Dickkopf-1 in induced rat periapical lesions.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), a secreted antagonist of the Wnt (wingless)/beta-catenin signaling pathway, during the development of periapical lesions in rats.
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Microfluidic sterilization.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Nowadays, microfluidics is attracting more and more attentions in the biological society and has provided powerful solutions for various applications. This paper reported a microfluidic strategy for aqueous sample sterilization. A well-designed small microchannel with a high hydrodynamic resistance was used to function as an in-chip pressure regulator. The pressure in the upstream microchannel was thereby elevated which made it possible to maintain a boiling-free high temperature environment for aqueous sample sterilization. A 120?°C temperature along with a pressure of 400?kPa was successfully achieved inside the chip to sterilize aqueous samples with E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus inside. This technique will find wide applications in portable cell culturing, microsurgery in wild fields, and other related micro total analysis systems.
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The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 facilitates hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of acute and chronic liver diseases, fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC accounts for more than 85% of primary liver cancers and is the seventh most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanism by which HBV induces HCC is largely unknown. Collagen triple helixes repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein and has characteristics of a circulating hormone with potentially broad implications for cell metabolism and physiology. CTHRC1 is associated with human cancers, but its effect on HCC is unknown. Here, we revealed that CTHRC1 expression is highly correlated with HCC progression in HBV-infected patients, and demonstrated that HBV stimulates CTHRC1 expression by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), through extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (ERK/c-JNK) pathway. In addition, CTHRC1 activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through regulating phosphoinosmde-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI-3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. More interestingly, CTHRC1 enhances colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells by regulating p53 and stimulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, knock-down of CTHRC1 results in the repression of HBV-associated carcinogenesis in nude mice. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism by which HBV facilitates HCC development through activating the oncoprotein CTHRC1, which in turn enhances HBV-related HCC progression by stimulates colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Cold-active and NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase from a cold-adapted Arthrobacter sp. MN8 and its potential for use in the production of fructose at low temperatures.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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An exo-inulinase gene was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. MN8, a cold-adapted bacterium isolated from lead-zinc-rich soil. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The resultant 505-residue polypeptide (InuAMN8) showed the highest identity (81.1%) with the putative levanase from Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Sphe3 (ADX73279) and shared 57.8% identity with the exo-inulinase from Bacillus sp. snu-7 (AAK00768). The purified recombinant InuAMN8 (rInuAMN8) showed an apparently optimal activity at 35°C, and 75.3%, 39.4%, and 15.8% of its maximum activity at 20°C, 10°C, and 0°C, respectively. After pre-incubation for 60 min at 50°C and 55°C, the rInuAMN8 exhibited 69.8% and 17.7% of its initial activity, respectively. The apparent Km values of rInuAMN8 towards inulin were 2.8, 1.5, 1.2, 5.3, and 8.2 mM at 0°C, 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, and 35°C, respectively. Inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tubers were effectively hydrolyzed to release fructose by rInuAMN8 at 0°C, 10°C, and 35°C. Compared with its hyperthermophilic and thermophilic counterparts, the exo-inulinase had less aromatic amino acid F and more hydrophobic amino acid A. In addition, the purified rInuAMN8 retained 127.9%-88.4% inulinase activity at 3.5%-15.0% (w/v) NaCl concentrations. Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) at 10 mM exhibited little or no effect on the enzyme activity. This paper is the first to report a cold-active and/or NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase from the genus Arthrobacter. The exo-inulinase rInuAMN8 shows a potential for use in the production of fructose at low temperatures.
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miR-622 suppresses proliferation, invasion and migration by directly targeting activating transcription factor 2 in glioma cells.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumors in adults. The rapid invasion of tumor cells into the adjacent normal brain tissues is a major cause of treatment failure, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as regulators of invasion and metastasis by acting on multiple signaling pathways. In this study, we found that miR-622 is significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Functional experiments showed that increased miR-622 expression reduced glioma cell invasion and migration, whereas decreased miR-622 expression enhanced cell invasion and migration. Moreover, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), an important transcription factor that regulate tumor invasion, was identified as a direct target of miR-622. Knockdown of ATF2 using small interefering RNA recapitulated the anti-invasive function of miR-622, whereas restoring the ATF2 expression attenuated the function of miR-622 in glioma cells. Furthermore, clinical data indicated that miR-622 and ATF2 were inversely expressed in glioma specimens. Our findings provide insight into the specific biological behavior of miR-622 in tumor invasion and migration. Targeting miR-622/ATF2 axis is a novel therapeutic approach for blocking glioma invasion.
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Prediction of post-earthquake depressive and anxiety symptoms: a longitudinal resting-state fMRI study.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Neurobiological markers of stress symptom progression for healthy survivors from a disaster (e.g., an earthquake) would greatly help with early intervention to prevent the development of stress-related disorders. However, the relationship between the neurobiological alterations and the symptom progression over time is unclear. Here, we examined 44 healthy survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake in China in a longitudinal resting-state fMRI study to observe the alterations of brain functions related to depressive or anxiety symptom progression. Using multi-variate pattern analysis to the fMRI data, we successfully predicted the depressive or anxiety symptom severity for these survivors in short- (25 days) and long-term (2 years) and the symptom severity changes over time. Several brain areas (e.g., the frontolimbic and striatal areas) and the functional connectivities located within the fronto-striato-thalamic and default-mode networks were found to be correlated with the symptom progression and might play important roles in the adaptation to trauma.
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Velocity slip on curved surfaces.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The Navier boundary condition for velocity slip on flat surfaces, when expressed in tensor form, is readily extended to surfaces of any shape. We test this assertion using molecular dynamics simulations of flow in channels with flat and curved walls and for rotating cylinders and spheres, all for a wide range of solid-liquid interaction strengths. We find that the slip length as conventionally measured at a flat wall in Couette flow is the same as that for all other cases with curved and rotating boundaries, provided the atomic interactions are the same and boundary shape is properly taken into account. These results support the idea that the slip length is a material property, transferable between different flow configurations.
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia: prostatic arterial embolization versus transurethral resection of the prostate--a prospective, randomized, and controlled clinical trial.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To compare prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in the care of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
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miR-33a promotes glioma-initiating cell self-renewal via PKA and NOTCH pathways.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor in adults. Glioma-initiating cells (GICs) are stem-like cells that have been implicated in glioblastoma progression and recurrence; however, the distinct properties of GICs and non-GICs within GBM tumors are largely uncharacterized. Here, we evaluated stem cell-associated microRNA (miR) expression in GICs from GBM patients and GICs derived from xenografted human glioma cell lines and determined that miR-33a promotes GIC growth and self-renewal. Moreover, evaluation of a GBM tissue array revealed that higher miR-33a expression was associated with poor prognosis of GBM patients. Antagonizing miR-33a function in GICs reduced self-renewal and tumor progression in immune-compromised mice, whereas overexpression of miR-33a in non-GICs promoted the display of features associated with GICs. We identified the mRNAs encoding phosphodiesterase 8A (PDE8A) and UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG) as direct miR-33a targets. PDE8A and UVRAG negatively regulated the cAMP/PKA and NOTCH pathways, respectively; therefore, miR-33a-dependent reduction of these proteins promoted growth and self-renewal of GICs by enhancing PKA and NOTCH activity. Furthermore, in GBM specimens, there was an inverse correlation between the expression levels of miR-33a and PDE8A and UVRAG expression. These findings reveal a miR-33a-centered signaling network that promotes GIC maintenance and has potential as a therapeutic target for GBM treatment.
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Characterization and phylogenetic identification of a species of spherical multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes that produces both magnetite and greigite crystals.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria synthesizing magnetic crystals that allow them aligning along magnetic field lines. They have diverse morphologies including cocci, rods, vibrio, spirilla, and multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes (MMPs). MMPs are composed of 10-57 cells with peritrichous flagella on their outer surfaces and swim as an entire unit. Here, we describe a species of spherical MMPs isolated from intertidal sediments of Lake Yuehu (Yellow Sea, China). They were mainly found in the subsurface layer of gray-black sediments. Microscopy revealed that these spherical MMPs were 5.6 ± 0.9 ?m in diameter and composed of approximately 16-32 ovoid cells with a helical arrangement and peritrichous flagellation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that the MMPs contained both bullet-shaped magnetite and irregular greigite magnetosomes that were arranged in chains or clusters. These MMPs displayed typical escape motility and negative phototaxis. The 16S rRNA genes of micromanipulation-purified spherical MMPs were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MMP species was affiliated with Deltaproteobacteria and displayed >2.8% sequence divergence with respect to previously reported MMPs. This is the first phylogenetic identification of a spherical MMP that produces both magnetite and greigite magnetosomes.
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Screening of microRNAs associated with Alzheimer's disease using oxidative stress cell model and different strains of senescence accelerated mice.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the molecular mechanisms that control the neuron response to oxidative stress have been extensively studied. However, the effects of oxidative stress on miRNA expression in hippocampal neurons has not been investigated, and little is known about the roles of ROS-modulated miRNAs in cell function as yet. In this study, miRNA microarray technology was used to analyze the expression of miRNAs in the oxidative stressed primary hippocampal neurons, hippocampus of senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and prone 10 (SAMP10). The targets of co-regulated microRNAs were also selected for computational prediction using miRWalk software and functional analysis by the DAVID software. In addition, the changes of co-regulated microRNA expression were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results of microarray analysis showed that miR-329, miR-193b, miR-20a, miR-296, and miR-130b were all upregulated in H2O2-induced primary hippocampal neurons and different strains of senescence accelerated mice. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that these co-regulated microRNAs may be involved in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, signal transmission and cancer development. In which, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was one of the most significant pathways to be affected by 83 target genes of miR-329, miR-193b, miR-20a miR-296, and miR-130b. The quantitative real-time PCR data confirmed the alterations of the co-upregulated miRNAs. These results suggested that oxidative stress alters the miRNA expression profile of hippocampal neurons, and the deregulated miRNAs might play potential roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study provided a strong basis for the future study aiming at contributions of miRNAs induced by oxidative stress in AD.
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Synthesis, crystal structure, photoluminescence property and photoelectronic behavior of two uranyl-organic frameworks constructed from 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid as ligand.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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By using 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid as organic ligands, two uranyl coordination complexes, (UO2)2(bta)(DMA)2 (1) and [(UO2)2(bta)(?3-OH2)]·2[HN(CH3)2]·H2O (2) (H4bta=1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, DMA=N,N-Dimethylacetamide) were synthesized. The X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that complex 1 exhibits a 3-demensional framework, while complex 2 exhibits a 2-demensional framework. In order to furthermore characterize the two complexes and extend their functional properties, spectroscopies of IR, UV-vis, photoluminescence and surface photovoltage were also studied primarily. In addition, thermogravimetric analyses and photocatalytic studies for complexes 1 and 2 were discussed in detail.
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Reporting quality of systematic reviews/meta-analyses of acupuncture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The QUOROM and PRISMA statements were published in 1999 and 2009, respectively, to improve the consistency of reporting systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) of clinical trials. However, not all SRs/MAs adhere completely to these important standards. In particular, it is not clear how well SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies adhere to reporting standards and which reporting criteria are generally ignored in these analyses.
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Seed Dormancy, Seedling Establishment and Dynamics of the Soil Seed Bank of Stipa bungeana (Poaceae) on the Loess Plateau of Northwestern China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studying seed dormancy and its consequent effect can provide important information for vegetation restoration and management. The present study investigated seed dormancy, seedling emergence and seed survival in the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana, a grass species used in restoration of degraded land on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. Dormancy of fresh seeds was determined by incubation of seeds over a range of temperatures in both light and dark. Seed germination was evaluated after mechanical removal of palea and lemma (hulls), chemical scarification and dry storage. Fresh and one-year-stored seeds were sown in the field, and seedling emergence was monitored weekly for 8 weeks. Furthermore, seeds were buried at different soil depths, and then retrieved every 1 or 2 months to determine seed dormancy and seed viability in the laboratory. Fresh seeds (caryopses enclosed by palea and lemma) had non-deep physiological dormancy. Removal of palea and lemma, chemical scarification, dry storage (afterripening), gibberellin (GA3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) significantly improved germination. Dormancy was completely released by removal of the hulls, but seeds on which hulls were put back to their original position germinated to only 46%. Pretreatment of seeds with a 30% NaOH solution for 60 min increased germination from 25% to 82%. Speed of seedling emergence from fresh seeds was significantly lower than that of seeds stored for 1 year. However, final percentage of seedling emergence did not differ significantly for seeds sown at depths of 0 and 1 cm. Most fresh seeds of S. bungeana buried in the field in early July either had germinated or lost viability by September. All seeds buried at a depth of 5 cm had lost viability after 5 months, whereas 12% and 4% seeds of those sown on the soil surface were viable after 5 and 12 months, respectively.
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Exploiting Literature-derived Knowledge and Semantics to Identify Potential Prostate Cancer Drugs.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we report on the performance of an automated approach to discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs from the biomedical literature. We used the semantic relationships in SemMedDB, a database of structured knowledge extracted from all MEDLINE citations using SemRep, to extract potential relationships using knowledge of cancer drugs pathways. Two cancer drugs pathway schemas were constructed using these relationships extracted from SemMedDB. Through both pathway schemas, we found drugs already used for prostate cancer therapy and drugs not currently listed as the prostate cancer medications. Our study demonstrates that the appropriate linking of relevant structured semantic relationships stored in SemMedDB can support the discovery of potential prostate cancer drugs.
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Horizontal and vertical distribution of marine virioplankton: a basin scale investigation based on a global cruise.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite the fact that marine viruses have been increasingly studied in the last decade, there is little information on viral abundance and distribution on a global scale. In this study, we report on a global-scale survey covering the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans on viral distribution using flow cytometry. Viruses were stained with the SYBR Green I, which targets only dsDNA viruses. The average viral abundance was 1.10±0.73×107 ml-1 in global surface oceans and decreased from the areas with high chlorophyll concentration (on average, 1.47±0.78×107 ml-1) to the oligotrophic subtropical gyres (on average, 6.34±2.18×106 ml-1). On a large-spatial-scale, viruses displayed significant relationships with both heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton abundance, suggesting that viral distribution is dependent on their host cell abundance. Our study provided a basin scale pattern of marine viral distributions and their relationship with major host cells, indicating that viruses play a significant role in the global marine ecosystem.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.