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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhanced colonic tumorigenesis in alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) knockout mice.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) generates ceramide and inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) and is previously suggested to have anticancer properties. The direct evidence is still lacking. We studied colonic tumorigenesis in alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice. Formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was examined after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Tumor was induced by AOM alone, a conventional AOM/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment, and an enhanced AOM/DSS method. beta-catenin was determined by immunohistochemistry, PAF levels by ELISA and sphingomyelin metabolites by mass spectrometry. Without treatment, spontaneous tumorigenesis was not identified but the intestinal mucosa appeared thicker in KO than in wild type (WT) littermates. AOM alone induced more ACF in KO mice but no tumors 28 weeks after injection. However, combination of AOM/DSS treatments induced colonic tumors and the incidence was significantly higher in KO than in WT mice. By the enhanced AOM/DSS method tumor number per mouse increased 4.5 times and tumor size 1.8 times in KO compared to WT mice. While all tumors were adenomas in WT mice, 32% were adenocarcinomas in KO mice. Compared to WT mice, cytosol expression of beta-catenin was significantly decreased and nuclear translocation in tumors was more pronounced in KO mice. Lipid analysis showed decreased ceramide in small intestine and increased sphingosine-1-phosphate in both small intestine and colon in nontreated KO mice. PAF levels in feces were significantly higher in the KO mice after AOM/DSS treatment. In conclusion lack of alk-SMase markedly increases AOM/DSS induced colonic tumorigenesis associated with decreased ceramide and increased sphingosine-1-phosphate and PAF levels.
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[Expression and clinical signification of IL-10 and IL-17 in endometrial cancer].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To explore the expression of IL-10 and IL-17 in endometrial cancer and their relationships with tumor progression.
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[The construction and application of a novel apparatus for detecting oxygen consumption of mice under normobaric hypoxia].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To establish a method for real-time recording the oxygen consumption of mice under normobaric hypoxia.
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Meroterpenoids and isoberkedienolactone from endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. associated with Dysosma versipellis.
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Seven meroterpenoids and five small-molecular precursors were isolated from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus from Dysosma versipellis. The structures of new compounds, 11beta-acetoxyisoaustinone (1) and isoberkedienolactone (2) were elucidated based on analysis of the spectral data, and the absolute configuration of 2 was established by TDDFT ECD calculation with satisfactory match to its experimental ECD data. Meroterpenoids originated tetraketide and pentaketide precursors, resepectively, were found to be simultaneously produced in specific fungus of Penicillium species. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-116, HepG2, BGC-823, NCI-H1650, and A2780 cell lines with IC 50 > 10 micromol x L(-1).
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Moving source localization with a single hydrophone using multipath time delays in the deep ocean.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Localizing a source of radial movement at moderate range using a single hydrophone can be achieved in the reliable acoustic path by tracking the time delays between the direct and surface-reflected arrivals (D-SR time delays). The problem is defined as a joint estimation of the depth, initial range, and speed of the source, which are the state parameters for the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The D-SR time delays extracted from the autocorrelation functions are the measurements for the EKF. Experimental results using pseudorandom signals show that accurate localization results are achieved by offline iteration of the EKF.
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[Genome-wide association study of high altitude pulmonary edema].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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High altitue pulmonary edema (HAPE) impacts seriously people's health at high altitude. Screening of susceptibility genes for HAPE will be used for the evaluation and protection of susceptible people.
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Alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) promotes cholesterol absorption by affecting sphingomyelin levels in the gut: A study with NPP7 knockout mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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We previously showed that dietary sphingomyelin (SM) inhibited cholesterol absorption in animals. The key enzyme hydrolyzing SM in the gut is alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 7). Here using the fecal dual-isotope ratio method we compared cholesterol absorption in the wild-type (WT) and alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice. The animals were fed an emulsion containing [(14)C]cholesterol and [(3)H]sitosterol. The radioactivities in the lipids of the fecal samples collected 4, 8, and 24 h thereafter were determined, and the ratio of (14)C/(3)H was calculated. We found that the fecal [(14)C]cholesterol recovery in the KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT mice. A maximal 92% increase occurred 8 h after feeding. Recovery of [(3)H]sitosterol did not differ between the two groups. Accordingly, the (14)C-to-(3)H ratio of fecal lipids was 133% higher at 8 h and 75% higher at 24 h in the KO than in the WT mice. Decreased [(14)C]cholesterol was also found in the serum of the KO mice 4 h after feeding. Supplement of SM in the emulsion reduced the differences in fecal [(14)C]cholesterol recovery between the WT and KO mice because of a greater increase of [(14)C]cholesterol recovery in the WT mice. Without treatment, the KO mice had significantly higher SM levels in the intestinal content and feces, but not in the intestinal mucosa or serum. The expression of Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein in the small intestine was not changed. In conclusion, alk-SMase is a physiological factor promoting cholesterol absorption by reducing SM levels in the intestinal lumen.
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Abnormal expression of synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin 1 in the hippocampus of kainic acid-exposed rats with behavioral deficits.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and associated with behavioral problems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these problems are not yet clear. In this study, kainic acid (KA) was systemically administered to immature male Wistar rats to induce SRS. The behavior of the immature rats was evaluated with a water maze, elevated-plus mazes, and open field tests. The expression patterns of synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. KA-treated rats with SRS demonstrated learning and memory deficits, reduced anxiety, and increased locomotor activity, compared with placebo-treated rats and KA-treated rats without SRS. No neuronal cell loss was observed in the hippocampus 6 weeks after exposure to KA. However, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed decreased synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt 1 expression in KA-treated rats with SRS. Synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt1 expression levels were found to be positively correlated with learning and memory but negatively correlated with anxiety and locomotor activity. These data suggested that SRS may induce changes in synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and Syt1 expression and may be functionally related to SRS-induced behavioral deficits.
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Synthesis, identification and in vivo studies of tumor-targeting agent peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer with similar efficacy but reduced toxicity.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC).
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Histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) acetylation facilitates DNA repair in a positioned nucleosome by stabilizing the binding of the chromatin Remodeler RSC (Remodels Structure of Chromatin).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Histone H3 acetylation is induced by UV damage in yeast and may play an important role in regulating the repair of UV photolesions in nucleosome-loaded genomic loci. However, it remains elusive how H3 acetylation facilitates repair. We generated a strongly positioned nucleosome containing homogeneously acetylated H3 at Lys-14 (H3K14ac) and investigated possible mechanisms by which H3K14 acetylation modulates repair. We show that H3K14ac does not alter nucleosome unfolding dynamics or enhance the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by UV photolyase. Importantly, however, nucleosomes with H3K14ac have a higher affinity for purified chromatin remodeling complex RSC (Remodels the Structure of Chromatin) and show greater cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair compared with unacetylated nucleosomes. Our study indicates that, by anchoring RSC, H3K14 acetylation plays an important role in the unfolding of strongly positioned nucleosomes during repair of UV damage.
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Changes of activity and isoforms of alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 7) in bile from patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) is an ecto-enzyme expressed in intestinal mucosa, which hydrolyses sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide and inactivates platelet activating factor. It is also expressed in human liver and released in the bile. The enzyme may have anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory effects in colon and its levels are decreased in patients with colon cancer and ulcerative colitis. Active NPP7 is translated from a transcript of 1.4 kb, whereas an inactive form from a 1.2 kb mRNA was found in colon and liver cancer cell lines. While the roles of NPP7 in colon cancer have been intensively studied, less is known about the function and implications of NPP7 in the bile. The present study examines the changes of NPP7 in bile of patients with various hepatobiliary diseases.
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Therapeutic potential of atorvastatin-modified dendritic cells in experimental autoimmune neuritis by decreased Th1/Th17 cytokines and up-regulated T regulatory cells and NKR-P1(+) cells.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Statins have pleiotropic effects which include anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, dendritic cells treated with atorvastatin (statin-DCs) could be induced into tolerogenic DCs. Administration of these tolerogenic DCs ameliorated clinical symptoms in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), which was associated with reduced number of inflammatory cells in sciatic nerves, inhibited CD4(+) T cells proliferation, down-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, decreased levels of IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-17A, increased number of NKR-P1(+) cells (including NK and NKT cells), up-regulated number of Treg cells in lymph node MNC as well as increased Foxp3 expression in the thymus. These data indicated that statin-DCs could develop as a new therapeutic strategy to GBS in the future.
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Effect of acupuncture on inflammatory cytokines expression of spastic cerebral palsy rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To To investigate the effect of acupuncture on the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) content and muscular tension of spasticity cerebral palsy rat model.
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The application of graphene in lithium ion battery electrode materials.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Graphene is composed of a single atomic layer of carbon which has excellent mechanical, electrical and optical properties. It has the potential to be widely used in the fields of physics, chemistry, information, energy and device manufacturing. In this paper, we briefly review the concept, structure, properties, preparation methods of graphene and its application in lithium ion batteries. A continuous 3D conductive network formed by graphene can effectively improve the electron and ion transportation of the electrode materials, so the addition of graphene can greatly enhance lithium ion battery's properties and provide better chemical stability, higher electrical conductivity and higher capacity. In this review, some recent advances in the graphene-containing materials used in lithium ion batteries are summarized and future prospects are highlighted.
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Up-regulation of miR-630 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with lower overall survival.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that regulate multiple cellular processes during cancer progression. MiR-630 has recently been identified to be involved in tumorigenesis of several cancers such as lung cancer and gastric cancer. However, the regulation of miR-630 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not yet been reported before.
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Study on the interaction of ?-cyclodextrin and berberine hydrochloride and its analytical application.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The fluorescence enhancement of berberine hydrochloride (BBH) as a result of complex with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is investigated. The mechanism of the inclusion was studied and discussed by spectrofluoremetry and infrared spectrograms. The results showed that a 1?1 (?-CD: BBH) complex was formed with an apparent association constant of 4.23×10(2) L/mol. Based on the enhancement of the fluorescent intensity of berberine hydrochloride, a new spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of BBH in the presence of ?-CD was developed. The linear range was 1.00?4.00 µg/mL with the detection limit of 5.54 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BBH in tablets.
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Non-medical prescription sedative use among adult Latina mothers and daughters.
J Psychoactive Drugs
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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This study examines correlates of non-medical prescription sedative, tranquilizer, and hypnotics use (hereafter NPSU) among a non-clinical, community-based sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads. Participants were 316 Latina mothers and daughters enrolled in a study of intergenerational transmission of drug abuse and HIV/AIDS risk behaviors in South Florida. Interviewers administered a questionnaire containing study variables such as age, education, time in the U.S., Spanish language proficiency, health insurance status, wellness behaviors, perceived health condition, alcohol use, NPSU, and other drug use. Correlates of NPSU across mothers and daughters were determined using a dyadic model analysis. Daughters health status, age, wellness, and illicit drug use were associated with mothers NPSU. Mothers who reported being uninsured, having higher levels of education, and indicating poorer health statuses reported more NPSU. Daughters wellness behaviors, age, illicit drug use, and insurance status were associated with their NPSU. Insured mothers and mothers who engaged in illicit drug use had daughters who reported more NPSU. The studys findings provide a modest understanding of family dynamics surrounding NPSU, and it suggests that as women age and their perceived health status worsens, their NPSU may increase.
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[The selective dilatation effects of iptakalim on pulmonary arterioles in hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive rat].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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To study the selective dilatation effects of iptakalim (Ipt), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, on pulmonary arterioles in hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive rat.
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Multiple anticancer effects of damsin and coronopilin isolated from Ambrosia arborescens on cell cultures.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Terpenoids in plants are important sources for drug discovery. In this study, we extracted damsin and coronopilin, two sesquiterpene lactones, from Ambrosia arborescens and examined their anticancer effects on cell cultures. Damsin and coronopilin inhibited cell proliferation, DNA biosynthesis and formation of cytoplasmic DNA histone complexes in Caco-2 cells, with damsin being more potent than coronopilin. Further studies using the luciferase reporter system showed that damsin and coronopilin also inhibited expressions of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), indicating that these sesquiterpenes can interfere with NF-?B and STAT3 pathways. Finally, we examined the effects of two synthetic dibrominated derivatives of damsin, 11?,13-dibromodamsin and 11?,13-dibromodamsin. While bromination appeared to weaken the antiproliferative effects of damsin, the ? epimer had strong inhibitory effects on STAT3 activation. In conclusion, the sesquiterpene lactones damsin and coronopilin have inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, DNA biosynthesis and NF-?B and STAT3 pathways, thus being potentially important for discovery of drugs against cancer.
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Characterisation of acid-soluble and pepsin-solubilised collagen from jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye).
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Annual outbreaks of the Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye) in the waters of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are regarded as a nuisance. Thus, utilizing this jellyfish species is of great significance to reduce harm to fisheries and marine environments. The yield of the acid-soluble collagens (ASCs) from the C. nozakii umbrella was 13.0% (dry weight) and that of the pepsin-solubilised collagens (PSCs) was 5.5% (dry weight). The SDS-PAGE patterns of the ASCs and PSCs differed from that of type I collagen, which indicate the presence of (?1)3. The denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagens was approximately 23.8°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved that the ASCs and PSCs retained their helical structures and the As, Pb, and Hg content of the collagens, detected by ICP-MS, were considerably lower than the national standards. The results suggest that collagens isolated from C. nozakii can potentially be used as an alternative source of collagen for use in various applications.
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Actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions promote fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.
Science
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Cell-cell fusion is critical for the conception, development, and physiology of multicellular organisms. Although cellular fusogenic proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are implicated in cell-cell fusion, it remains unclear whether and how they coordinate to promote plasma membrane fusion. We reconstituted a high-efficiency, inducible cell fusion culture system in the normally nonfusing Drosophila S2R+ cells. Both fusogenic proteins and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements were necessary for cell fusion, and in combination they were sufficient to impart fusion competence. Localized actin polymerization triggered by specific cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion molecules propelled invasive cell membrane protrusions, which in turn promoted fusogenic protein engagement and plasma membrane fusion. This de novo cell fusion culture system reveals a general role for actin-propelled invasive membrane protrusions in driving fusogenic protein engagement during cell-cell fusion.
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Atorvastatin-modified dendritic cells in vitro ameliorate experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by up-regulated Treg cells and shifted Th1/Th17 to Th2 cytokines.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Conventional therapies for autoimmune diseases produce nonspecific immune suppression, which are usually continued lifelong to maintain disease control, and associated with a variety of adverse effects. In this study, we found that spleen-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from the ongoing experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) rats can be induced into tolerogenic DCs by atorvastatin in vitro. Administration of these tolerogenic DCs to EAMG rats on days 5 and 13 post immunization (p.i.) resulted in improved clinical symptoms, which were associated with increased numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells and Foxp3 expression, decreased lymphocyte proliferation among lymph node mononuclear cells (MNC), shifted cytokine profile from Th1/Th17 to Th2 type cytokines, decreased level of anti-R97-116 peptide (region 97-116 of the rat acetylcholine receptor ? subunit) IgG antibody in serum. These tolerogenic DCs can migrate to spleen, thymus, popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes after they were injected into the EAMG rats intraperitoneally. Furthermore, these tolerogenic DCs played their immunomodulatory effects in vivo mainly by decreased expression of CD86 and MHC class II on endogenous DCs. All these data provided us a new strategy to treat EAMG and even human myasthenia gravis (MG).
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Attributions about Addiction among Latina Women.
J Soc Work Pract Addict
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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This cross-sectional, secondary analysis study utilizes data from a prior study of intergenerational substance use among Latina women (n = 316). We explored the influence of substance use frequency and type, as well as cultural and socioeconomic factors on attributions about addiction among a predominantly immigrant sample of Latina women. Women who were less proficient in English (an indicator of adoption of the receiving culture in the acculturation process) and more proficient in Spanish (an indicator of heritage-culture retention) endorsed more spiritual model attributions than women who were more proficient in English and less proficient in Spanish. Women were more proficient in Spanish more frequently endorsed the disease attribution model. Alcohol, marijuana use and non-medical sedative use were linked with spiritual, moral /character and disease attribution models respectively. Participants reporting higher education levels indicated less agreement with the moral/character model of addiction. Implications for culturally tailored social work interventions for Latina women are discussed.
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Rehabilitation of vision disorder and improved quality of life in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a common cause of irreversible blindness. The variable etiology of POAG poses significant challenges for treatment and rehabilitation. We analyzed a large POAG patient cohort during treatment to reveal possible causes of vision disorder, assess vision-related quality of life (VRQL), and to evaluate the efficacy of rehabilitative treatments.
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[Apparatus for the measurement of the oxygen uptake of rats subjected to hypobaric hypoxia].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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To construct an apparatus for the oxygen uptake measurement of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia at different simulated altitude.
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[The study of plasma proteomic changes in a patient with high-altitude cerebral edema].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is one of the most serious acute mountain sickness and its underlying mechanism is still unknown clearly. The aim of this study was to determine the changes of plasma proteins in high altitude cerebral edema patients for discovering essential biomarkers used for the routine prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment.
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[The first exploration of a minimally invasive lysis subcutaneouly for the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture based on relatively safe region around standard injection point of gluteal muscle].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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To explore the solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site for gluteal muscle contracture patient based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle.
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Association of the antihypertensive response of iptakalim with KCNJ11 (Kir6.2 gene) polymorphisms in Chinese Han hypertensive patients.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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To study the relationship between the antihypertensive response of iptakalim and KCNJ11 polymorphisms in Chinese Han hypertensive patients.
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Atorvastatin ameliorates experimental autoimmune neuritis by decreased Th1/Th17 cytokines and up-regulated T regulatory cells.
Cell. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Statins have anti-inflammatory and immune-regulating properties. To investigate the effects of atorvastatin on experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), atorvastatin was administered to Lewis rats immunized with bovine peripheral myelin in complete Freunds adjuvant. We found that atorvastatin ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAN, decreased the numbers of inflammatory cells as well as IFN-?(+) and IL-17(+) cells in sciatic nerves, decreased the CD80 expression and increased the number of CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells in mononuclear cells (MNC), and decreased the levels of IFN-? in MNC culture supernatants. These data provide strong evidence that atorvastatin can act as an inhibitor in EAN by inhibiting the immune response of Th1 and Th17, decreasing the expression of co-stimulatory molecule, and up-regulating the number of T regulatory cells. These data demonstrated that statins could be used as a therapeutic strategy in human GBS in future.
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Memantine attenuates the impairment of spatial learning and memory of pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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Cognitive disorders after epilepsy can have a great impact on the quality of life of epileptic patients, though it has not drawn much attention. Even after identified, it is often undertreated or has gone untreated. Memantine has been approved to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (AD), which is characterized by cognitive impairment. In present study, we determined the effects of memantine on PTZ-kindled rats, which can mimic the postseizure dysfunction that resembles symptoms observed in human epilepsy. We found that memantine can ameliorate the spatial learning and memory of epileptic rats. But contrary to previous claims that memantine can improve cognition in AD patients, without serious side effects on normal learning and memory abilities, we found that rats treated only with memantine exhibited the impaired spatial learning and memory ability. We conclude that memantine can improve cognition related to an excitotoxicity-induced pathologic state, but the potential side effects of memantine on the physiological processes should be considered.
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Physiological functions and clinical implications of sphingolipids in the gut.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Studies of sphingolipids have become one of the most rapidly advancing fields in the last two decades. These highly diverse lipids have been known to have multiple physiological functions and clinical implications in several diseases, including tumorigenesis, inflammation, atherosclerosis and neural degenerative diseases. Unlike other organs, sphingolipids in the intestinal tract are present not only as lipid constituents in the cells but also as dietary compositions for digestion in the lumen. The present review focuses on the presence of sphingolipids and their catalytic enzymes in the gut; the metabolism and the signaling effects of the metabolites and their impacts on barrier functions, cholesterol absorption, inflammatory diseases and tumor development in the gut.
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Competition between Blown fuse and WASP for WIP binding regulates the dynamics of WASP-dependent actin polymerization in vivo.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton play a key role in numerous cellular processes. In Drosophila, fusion between a muscle founder cell and a fusion competent myoblast (FCM) is mediated by an invasive, F-actin-enriched podosome-like structure (PLS). Here, we show that the dynamics of the PLS is controlled by Blown fuse (Blow), a cytoplasmic protein required for myoblast fusion but whose molecular function has been elusive. We demonstrate that Blow is an FCM-specific protein that colocalizes with WASP, WIP/Solitary, and the actin focus within the PLS. Biochemically, Blow modulates the stability of the WASP-WIP complex by competing with WASP for WIP binding, leading to a rapid exchange of WASP, WIP and G-actin within the PLS, which, in turn, actively invades the adjacent founder cell to promote fusion pore formation. These studies identify a regulatory protein that modulates the actin cytoskeletal dynamics by controlling the stability of the WASP-WIP complex.
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Crucial role of alkaline sphingomyelinase in sphingomyelin digestion: a study on enzyme knockout mice.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
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Alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) hydrolyses sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide in the gut. To evaluate the physiological importance of the enzyme, we generated alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice by the Cre-recombinase-Locus of X-over P1(Cre-LoxP) system and studied SM digestion. Both wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed ³H-palmitic acid labeled SM together with milk SM by gavage. The lipids in intestinal content, intestinal tissues, serum, and liver were analyzed by TLC. In KO mice, nondigested ³H-SM in the intestinal content increased by 6-fold and the formation of ³H-ceramide decreased markedly, resulting in 98% reduction of ³H-ceramide/³H-SM ratio 1 h after gavage. The absorbed ³H-palmitic acid portion was decreased by 95%. After 3 h, a small increase in ³H-ceramide was identified in distal intestine in KO mice. In feces, ³H-SM was increased by 243% and ceramide decreased by 74% in the KO mice. The KO mice also showed significantly decreased radioactivity in liver and serum. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity in the mucosa was reduced by 50% and histological comparison of two female littermates preliminarily suggested mucosal hypertrophy in KO mice. This study provides definite proof for crucial roles of alk-SMase in SM digestion and points to possible roles in regulating mucosal growth and alkaline phosphatase function.
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Mixed micelles loaded with silybin-polyene phosphatidylcholine complex improve drug solubility.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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To prepare a novel formulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC)-bile salts (BS)-mixed micelles (MMs) loaded with silybin (SLB)-PC complex for parenteral applications.
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An invasive podosome-like structure promotes fusion pore formation during myoblast fusion.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2010
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Recent studies in Drosophila have implicated actin cytoskeletal remodeling in myoblast fusion, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Here we show that actin polymerization occurs in an asymmetric and cell type-specific manner between a muscle founder cell and a fusion-competent myoblast (FCM). In the FCM, a dense F-actin-enriched focus forms at the site of fusion, whereas a thin sheath of F-actin is induced along the apposing founder cell membrane. The FCM-specific actin focus invades the apposing founder cell with multiple finger-like protrusions, leading to the formation of a single-channel macro fusion pore between the two muscle cells. Two actin nucleation-promoting factors of the Arp2/3 complex, WASP and Scar, are required for the formation of the F-actin foci, whereas WASP but not Scar promotes efficient foci invasion. Our studies uncover a novel invasive podosome-like structure (PLS) in a developing tissue and reveal a previously unrecognized function of PLSs in facilitating cell membrane juxtaposition and fusion.
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[Preventive strategies of secondary spinal cord injury caused by subaxial cervical trauma].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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To summarize and analyze preventive strategies of secondary spinal cord injury caused by subaxial cervical trauma.
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Understanding the molecular activity of alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) by computer modeling.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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The enzymes in the nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) family have various substrates such as nucleotides, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. The substrate specificity in relation to their structures is largely unknown because no mammalian NPP complex has been crystallized. NPP7, also called alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase), is a NPP family member that may have important implications in carcinogenesis and cholesterol absorption. The sequence of NPP7 is 36% similar to that of the closest NPP member, but NPP7 has no activity against nucleotides. In this work, we predict the three-dimensional structure of NPP7 by homology modeling using a recently crystallized NPP from bacteria. Using the model, we studied the substrate specificity of the enzyme by docking. The model generated explains the functional changes in previous mutagenesis studies and rationalizes the structural basis for the lack of activity toward nucleotides. An effort to shift the substrate specificity from sphingomyelin (SM) to nucleotide was not successful but revealed a site-directed mutation that increased activity toward SM. In conclusion, this is the first study to predict the structure of a mammalian NPP and its substrate specificity by molecular modeling. The information may be helpful in understanding the functional differences of NPP members.
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UV damage in DNA promotes nucleosome unwrapping.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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The association of DNA with histones in chromatin impedes DNA repair enzymes from accessing DNA lesions. Nucleosomes exist in a dynamic equilibrium in which portions of the DNA molecule spontaneously unwrap, transiently exposing buried DNA sites. Thus, nucleosome dynamics in certain regions of chromatin may provide the exposure time and space needed for efficient repair of buried DNA lesions. We have used FRET and restriction enzyme accessibility to study nucleosome dynamics following DNA damage by UV radiation. We find that FRET efficiency is reduced in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the presence of UV photoproducts enhances spontaneous unwrapping of DNA from histones. Furthermore, this UV-induced shift in unwrapping dynamics is associated with increased restriction enzyme accessibility of histone-bound DNA after UV treatment. Surprisingly, the increased unwrapping dynamics is even observed in nucleosome core particles containing a single UV lesion at a specific site. These results highlight the potential for increased "intrinsic exposure" of nucleosome-associated DNA lesions in chromatin to repair proteins.
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Low cholesterol? Dont brag yet ... hypocholesterolemia blunts HAART effectiveness: a longitudinal study.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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In vitro studies suggest that reducing cholesterol inhibits HIV replication. However, this effect may not hold in vivo, where other factors, such as cholesterols immunomodulatory properties, may interact.
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Antiproliferative effects of curcuphenol, a sesquiterpene phenol.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Curcuphenol is a sesquiterpene isolated from sponges and plants having several significant biological activities. The present study explored its effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells. It was demonstrated that curcuphenol in concentrations in the range of 29-116 µg/ml inhibited cell proliferation and DNA replication and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was associated with a stimulation of the activity of caspase-3. The findings presented here suggest that curcuphenol has antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic properties.
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Generating ceramide from sphingomyelin by alkaline sphingomyelinase in the gut enhances sphingomyelin-induced inhibition of cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Background Sphingomyelin (SM) is present in dietary products and cell plasma membranes. We previously showed that dietary SM inhibited cholesterol absorption in rats. In the intestinal tract, SM is mainly hydrolyzed by alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) to ceramide.Aims We investigated the influence of SM and its hydrolytic products ceramide and sphingosine on cholesterol uptake in intestinal Caco-2 cells.Methods Micelles containing bile salt, monoolein, and (14)C-cholesterol were prepared with or without SM, ceramide,or sphingosine. The micelles were incubated with Caco-2 cells, and uptake of radioactive cholesterol was quantified.Results We found that confluent monolayer Caco-2 cells expressed NPC1L1, and the uptake of cholesterol in the cells was inhibited by ezetimibe, a specific inhibitor of NPC1L1. Incorporation of SM in the cholesterol micelles inhibited cholesterol uptake dose-dependently; 38% inhibition occurred at an equal mole ratio of SM and cholesterol.The inhibition was further enhanced to 45% by pretreating the cholesterol/SM micelles with recombinant alk-SMase, which hydrolyzed SM in the micelles by 85%, indicating ceramide has stronger inhibitory effects on cholesterol uptake. To confirm this, we further replaced SM in the micelles with ceramide and sphingosine, and found that at equal mole ratio to cholesterol, ceramide exhibited stronger inhibitory effect (50% vs 38%) on cholesterol uptake than SM, whereas sphingosine only had a weak effect at high concentrations.Conclusion Both SM and ceramide inhibit cholesterol uptake, the effect of ceramide being stronger than that of SM. Alk-SMase enhances SM-induced inhibition of cholesterol uptake by generating ceramide in the intestinal lumen.
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Assembly of Anionic Conjugated Polymer with 6-O-Modified PNP-?-Galactoside for Fluorescence Logic-signal-based Multiplex Detections of Enzymes.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Anionic conjugated polymer (PFP-SO?3-) was assembled with a novel enzymatic substrate 6-O-modified PNP-?-galactoside (1) for sensitive multiplex enzyme detections. The PFP-SO?3-/1/lipase/?-galactosidase system has two chemical input signals which are Input 1 (lipase) and Input 2 (?-galactosidase), and output optical signals such as fluorescence emission at 416?nm or 450?nm. Four types of logic gates, including YES, INH, NAND and AND, were successfully constructed and utilized for multiplex detections of lipase and ?-galactosidase in one tube.
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Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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Curcumin is a polyphenol and the one of the principle curcuminoids of the spice turmeric. Its antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects have been intensively studied. Previous in vivo studies showed that administration of curcumin also decreased cholesterol levels in the blood, and the effects were considered to be related to upregulation of LDL receptor. However, since plasma cholesterol levels are also influenced by the uptake of cholesterol in the gut, which is mediated by a specific transporter Niemann-Pick Cl-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, the present study is to investigate whether curcumin affects cholesterol uptake in the intestinal Caco-2 cells.
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US Latina age of sexual debut: long-term associations and implications for HIV and drug abuse prevention.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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This cross-sectional study explored associations among (a) age of sexual debut; (b) drug abuse; and (c) sexual risk behaviors among an urban community-based sample of 158 predominantly immigrant, Latina adults. Time in the USA and having a mother who used drugs during the participants childhood or adolescence were significantly related to age of sexual debut. In turn, younger ages of sexual debut were associated with drug abuse and more sexual risk behaviors (greater number of sexual partners, more frequent alcohol and drug use before or during sex, greater levels of intoxication from alcohol or drugs during sex). Implications for HIV/AIDS and drug abuse clinical services and future research with US Latina populations are discussed.
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Sphingolipids in human ileostomy content after meals containing milk sphingomyelin.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Sphingomyelin occurs in modest amounts in the diet, in sloughed mucosal cells, and in bile. It is digested by the mucosal enzymes alkaline sphingomyelinase and ceramidase. In humans, alkaline sphingomyelinase is also secreted in bile. The digestion of sphingomyelin is slow and incomplete, which has been linked to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and colonic carcinogenesis.
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Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes.
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Acyclovir susceptibility and genetic characteristics of sequential herpes simplex virus type 1 corneal isolates from patients with recurrent herpetic keratitis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2009
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The incidence and clinical significance of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir resistance were determined in patients with recurrent herpetic keratitis (RHK).
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LY294002 enhances boswellic acid-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Boswellic acids, a type of pentacyclic triterpenoids, have been shown to induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway is crucial for cell proliferation and survival. Whether the apoptotic effects of boswellic acid could be affected by inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway was examined.
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Expression of alkaline sphingomyelinase in yeast cells and anti-inflammatory effects of the expressed enzyme in a rat colitis model.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Alkaline sphingomyelinase (Alk-SMase) is a key enzyme in the intestinal tract for digestion of dietary sphingomyelin (SM), which generates lipid messengers with cell-cycle regulating effects. The enzyme is significantly decreased in ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Based on this information, we wanted to investigate whether the enzyme had preventive effects against murine colitis. We report herein a method to express a biologically active Alk-SMase from Pichia pastoris yeast cells. By using the expressed enzyme to treat a rat colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium, we found that intrarectal instillation of Alk-SMase once daily for 1 week significantly reduced the inflammation score and protected the colonic epithelium from inflammatory destruction. We found a tendency for decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha expression in the Alk-SMase-treated group. This study, for the first time, provides a method to produce the enzyme and shows the potential applicability of the enzyme in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
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Lycopene suppresses LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and NF-kappaB in macrophages.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Lycopene has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects with molecular mechanisms not fully identified.
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Metabolism of sphingolipids in the gut and its relation to inflammation and cancer development.
Prog. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Sphingolipids are abundant in the microvillar membrane of intestinal epithelial cells where they are essential for structural integrity and may act as receptors for toxins, virus and bacteria. Metabolism of dietary and membrane sphingolipids in the intestine generates ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and ceramide-1-phosphate, via the action of alkaline sphingomyelinase, neutral ceramidase, sphingosine-1-kinase, and ceramide-1-kinase. These intermediary metabolites act as bioactive lipid messengers, influencing numerous cellular functions including growth, differentiation and apoptosis of both epithelial and immunocompetent cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and also the progress of inflammation and responsiveness of the mucosal cells to pathogens. This review summarizes background and recent progress in the metabolism of dietary and endogenous sphingolipids in the gut and its pathophysiological implications.
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Prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in human cornea tissues.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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We determined the prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in cornea tissues obtained after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed.
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Validating the Multidimensional Measure of Cultural Identity Scales for Latinos among Latina mothers and daughters.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Measure of Cultural Identity Scales for Latinos (MMCISL; Félix-Ortiz, Newcomb, & Myers, 1994) have never been examined in an adult Latina sample representing various levels of nativity and nationality. The rationale for the study was to confirm the factor structure and psychometric properties of the MMCISL with a predominantly immigrant sample of Latina mothers and daughters (n = 316). Adequate reliability estimates were found for 6 of the original 10 scales. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of construct validity for the reliable scales. The Preferred Latino Affiliation scale was the only scale to meet strict measurement invariance criteria across mothers and daughters. Criterion validity was evidenced by relations between the Familiarity with Latino Culture scale and all criterion variables. Implications for acculturation and cultural identity research involving the MMCISL are discussed.
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Ezetimibe inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in liver and intestine.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Sphingomyelin has strong interactions with cholesterol. We investigated the effects of ezetimibe on Sphingomyelinase (SMase) expression in intestine and liver. After feeding rats with ezetimibe (5 mg/kg per day) for 14 days, acid SMase activities in the liver and in the proximal part of small intestine were reduced by 34 and 25%, respectively. Alkaline SMase (alk-SMase) was increased in the proximal part of the small intestine. Administration of lower doses of ezetimibe reduced acid SMase only in the liver by 14% (P < 0.05). In cell culture studies, ezetimibe decreased acid SMase activity in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells dose-dependently. The reductions were more rapid for Hep G2 cells than for Caco-2 cells. Western blot showed that acid SMase protein was decreased in both Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells by 100 microM ezetimibe. The SM content was increased in Hep G2 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and total cholesterol content was increased in both cell lines 24 h after stimulation with 100 microM ezetimibe. Mevastatin, the inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, induced a mild increase in acid SMase activity in Hep G2 cells but not Caco-2 cells. Following the reduction of acid SMase, ezetimibe at high dose slightly increased alk-SMase activity. In conclusion, the study demonstrates an inhibitory effect of ezetimibe on acid SMase activity and expression in both liver and intestine.
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Latina mother-daughter dyads: relations between attachment and sexual behavior under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughters sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother-daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and non-substance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mothers substance abuse all influenced the daughters sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed.
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Dependence of myoblast fusion on a cortical actin wall and nonmuscle myosin IIA.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Cell-cell fusion is a fundamental cellular process that is essential for development as well as fertilization. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated skeletal muscle myotubes is a well studied, yet incompletely understood example of cell-cell fusion that is essential for formation of contractile skeletal muscle tissue. Studies in this report identify several novel cytoskeletal events essential to an early phase of myoblast fusion among cultured murine myoblasts. During myoblast pairing and alignment, cortical actin filaments organize into a dense actin wall structure that parallels and extends the length of the plasma membrane of the bipolar, aligned cells. As fusion progresses, gaps appear within the actin wall at sites of vesicle accumulation, the vesicles pair across the aligned myoblasts, cell-cell contacts and fusion pores form. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-MHC-IIA) motor activity prevents formation of this cortical actin wall, as well as the appearance of vesicles at a membrane proximal location, and myoblast fusion. These results suggest that early formation of a subplasmalemmal actin wall during myoblast alignment is a critical event for myoblast fusion that supports bipolar membrane alignment and temporally regulates trafficking of vesicles to the nascent fusion sites during skeletal muscle myoblast differentiation.
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Embryo and anther regulation of the mabinlin II sweet protein gene in Capparis masaikai Lévl.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Mabinlin II is one of the major sweet proteins stored in the seeds of Capparis masaikai Lévl. Its promoter region (779 bp) located 5 upstream of the mabinlin II gene has been isolated and named as MBL-779 (GenBank accession number, EU014073). This promoter contains two typical TATA box regions and a series of motifs related to seed-specific promoters, such as ACGT motifs, RY motif, napin motif, and G box. The MBL-779 promoter drove GUS gene to transiently express in the embryos of bean, maize, and rice seeds or to constantly express in the embryos and anthers of the transgenic Arabidopsis. The MBL-779 promoter regulated gene expression from approximately the 12th day and peaked on approximately the 16th day after flowering in Arabidopsis. The -300-bp promoter region is a minimal sequence required to functionally regulate gene expression. The CAATs at -325 to -322 bp and -419 to -416 bp and the region at -485 to -770 bp play a role in the quantitative regulation of gene expression. The RY motif, CATGAC, at -117 to -112 bp and the ACGT within the G box (CACGTG) at -126 to -123 bp positively regulate gene expression.
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Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant adrenal steroid in serum of humans, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and certain immune-regulating properties. Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a Th1 cell-mediated animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in humans. In the present study, DHEA was administered subcutaneously to Lewis rats immunized with bovine peripheral myelin (BPM) in Freunds complete adjuvant. Rats treated with DHEA displayed significant delay in onset, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in the PNS. Benefit was associated with significant decreases in numbers of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expressing cells in the PNS, BPM-stimulated T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha-secretion in the spleen cells. Only 2 mg DHEA-treated EAN rats decreased peak clinical score. No significant difference of supernatant IL-10 was found among the treatment and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA can ameliorate the severity of EAN by suppressing the proliferation of autoreactive T cell and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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Alterations of NR2B and PSD-95 expression in hippocampus of kainic acid-exposed rats with behavioural deficits.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS), is associated with behavioural problems, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly identified. In the present study, kainic acid (KA) was administered systemically in adult male Wistar rats to induce SRS. Behavioural performance analyses at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-status epilepticus (post-SE) showed spatial learning memory deficit, anxiety and increased locomotor activity in rats with long-term SRS compared with rats without SRS after normal saline (NS) or KA-valproate (KA-VPA) treatment. No neuronal cell loss was observed in the hippocampus at 6 weeks post-SE. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses revealed that down-regulation of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) expression in adult hippocampus was found at 4 weeks post-SE and a further decrease at 6 weeks post-SE compared with rats without SRS after NS or KA-VPA treatment. Furthermore, the decreased expression of NR2B and PSD-95 was correlated with the representatively behavioural deficit. These findings suggest that long-term SRS might decrease NR2B/PSD-95 expression in adult hippocampus and consequently cause behavioural deficits, including spatial learning memory deficit, anxiety and increased locomotor activity. Maintaining the expression of NR2B/PSD-95 might partially contribute to the normal behaviour in rats with long-term SRS.
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Isopentenyl transferase gene (ipt) downstream transcriptionally fused with gene expression improves the growth of transgenic plants.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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This research reports a promising approach to increase a plants physiological cytokinin content. This approach also enables the increase to play a role in plant growth and development by introducing the ipt gene to downstream transcriptionally fuse with other genes under the control of a CaMV35S promoter, in which the ipt gene is far from the 35S promoter. According to Kozaks ribosome screening model, expression of the ipt gene is reduced by the terminal codon of the first gene and the internal untranslated nucleotides between the fused genes. In the transgenic plants pVKH35S-GUS-ipt, pVKH35S-AOC-ipt, and pVKH35S-AtGolS2-ipt, cytokinins were increased only two to threefold, and the plants grew more vigorously than the pVKH35S-AOC or pVKH35S-AtGolS2 transgenic plants lacking the ipt gene. The vigorous growth was reflected in rapid plant growth, a longer flowering period, a greater number of flowers, more seed product, and increased chlorophyll synthesis. The AOC and AtGolS2 genes play a role in a plants tolerance of salt or cold, respectively. When the ipt gene transcriptionally fuses with AOC or AtGolS2 in the frame of AOC-ipt and AtGolS2-ipt, slight cytokinin increases were obtained in their transgenic plants; furthermore, those increases played a positive role in improvements of plant growth. Notably, an increased cytokinin volume at the physiological level, in concert with AtGolS2 expression, enhances a plants tolerance to cold.
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Lycopene suppresses proinflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages by inhibiting ROS-induced trafficking of TLR4 to lipid raft-like domains.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
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We recently showed that lycopene inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced productions of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages by mechanisms related to inhibition of ERK and nuclear factor-?B. Since the assembly of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in lipid rafts is a key element in LPS induced signaling, we investigated whether this process would be influenced by lycopene. We found that pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with lycopene inhibited LPS-induced recruitment of TLR4 into fractions - enriched with lipid raft marker. By the methods of immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, we also found that lycopene inhibited the subsequent formation of the complex of TLR4 with its adaptors including myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 and TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-?. We also found that the lycopene induced inhibition was associated with reduced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was an upstream mechanism for the effects of lycopene, because treating the cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride significantly inhibited LPS-induced recruitment of TLR4 into lipid raft-like domains as well as the production of proinflammatory molecule NO and IL-6. Thus, our findings suggest that lycopene may prevent LPS-induced TLR4 assembly into lipid rafts through reducing intracellular ROS level.
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Group I PAKs function downstream of Rac to promote podosome invasion during myoblast fusion in vivo.
J. Cell Biol.
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The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) play essential roles in diverse cellular processes and are required for cell proliferation, apoptosis, polarity establishment, migration, and cell shape changes. Here, we have identified a novel function for the group I PAKs in cell-cell fusion. We show that the two Drosophila group I PAKs, DPak3 and DPak1, have partially redundant functions in myoblast fusion in vivo, with DPak3 playing a major role. DPak3 is enriched at the site of fusion colocalizing with the F-actin focus within a podosome-like structure (PLS), and promotes actin filament assembly during PLS invasion. Although the small GTPase Rac is involved in DPak3 activation and recruitment to the PLS, the kinase activity of DPak3 is required for effective PLS invasion. We propose a model whereby group I PAKs act downstream of Rac to organize the actin filaments within the PLS into a dense focus, which in turn promotes PLS invasion and fusion pore initiation during myoblast fusion.
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[Study on the HPLC fingerprint of toad skin from different regions].
Zhong Yao Cai
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To study the HPLC fingerprint of toad skin and provide a reliable method for quality control and identification.
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Polycistronic coexpression and nondenaturing purification of histone octamers.
Anal. Biochem.
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Histone octamers are the basic building blocks of chromatin and are platforms for diverse genetic mechanisms. We report a simple method for preparing recombinant histone octamers by overexpressing all four histones from a single polycistronic vector followed by standard chromatography under native conditions. This approach reduces the time needed for the octamer preparation to a single day and should be applicable to making a variety of unmodified and modified histone octamers.
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Ursolic acid inhibits acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells.
Phytother Res
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Ursolic acid (UA) has antiinflammatory and anticancer effects on mammalian cells. Increase in acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) is associated with several inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. The enzyme has become a target for drug discovery. The present study examined the roles of UA on acid SMase in intestinal cells. We found that UA specifically inhibited acid SMase activity in both human colon cancer Caco-2 cells and rat nontransformed IEC-6 intestinal cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% inhibition occurred at 30??M for Caco-2 cells and less than 20??M for IEC-6 cells. In comparison with some chemicals known to inhibit acid SMase, UA appeared most effective. The decreased acid SMase activity was not associated with significant accumulation of cellular sphingomyelin but significant increase in phosphatidylcholine, the donor of choline for sphingomyelin synthesis. Western blot analysis showed a decreased enzyme levels in the cells after UA stimulation, but real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) failed to show a parallel reduction of acid SMase mRNA after UA stimulation. Finally, UA had no direct effect on acid SMase activity in cell-free extracts. In conclusion, UA has inhibitory effects on acid SMase synthesis and the effect occurs presumably at posttranslational levels.
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[Genetic polymorphisms of six Y chromosome short tandem repeat loci in Chinese Korean ethnic group].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
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To determine the allelic sequences and genetic polymorphism of six short tandem repeats (STRs) loci on Y chromosome, including DYS441, DYS442, DYS443, DYS444, DYS445 and DYS446 in Chinese Korean ethnic males from Yanbian region of Jilin province, China, and to construct a preliminary database.
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