In mammals, the ??T cell receptor (TCR) signaling complex is composed of a TCR?? heterodimer that is noncovalently coupled to three dimeric signaling molecules, CD3??, CD3??, and CD3??. The nature of the TCR signaling complex and subunit arrangement in different species remains unclear however. Here we present a structural and biochemical analysis of the more primitive ancestral form of the TCR signaling complex found in chickens. In contrast to mammals, chickens do not express separate CD3? and CD3? chains but instead encode a single hybrid chain, termed CD3?/?, that is capable of pairing with CD3?. The NMR structure of the chicken CD3??/? heterodimer revealed a unique dimer interface that results in a heterodimer with considerable deviation from the distinct side-by-side architecture found in human and murine CD3?? and CD3??. The chicken CD3??/? heterodimer also contains a unique molecular surface, with the vast majority of surface-exposed, nonconserved residues being clustered to a single face of the heterodimer. Using an in vitro biochemical assay, we demonstrate that CD3??/? can assemble with both chicken TCR? and TCR? via conserved polar transmembrane sites. Moreover, analogous to the human TCR signaling complex, the presence of two copies of CD3??/? is required for ?? assembly. These data provide insight into the evolution of this critical receptor signaling apparatus.
The semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor (NKT TCR) recognizes CD1d-lipid antigens. Although the TCR alpha chain is typically invariant, the beta chain expression is more diverse, where three V beta chains are commonly expressed in mice. We report the structures of V alpha 14-V beta 8.2 and V alpha 14-V beta 7 NKT TCRs in complex with CD1d-alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) and the 2.5 A structure of the human NKT TCR-CD1d-alpha-GalCer complex. Both V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 NKT TCRs and the human NKT TCR ligated CD1d-alpha-GalCer in a similar manner, highlighting the evolutionarily conserved interaction. However, differences within the V beta domains of the V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 NKT TCR-CD1d complexes resulted in altered TCR beta-CD1d-mediated contacts and modulated recognition mediated by the invariant alpha chain. Mutagenesis studies revealed the differing contributions of V beta 8.2 and V beta 7 residues within the CDR2 beta loop in mediating contacts with CD1d. Collectively we provide a structural basis for the differential NKT TCR V beta usage in NKT cells.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.