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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Immunization of Mice with Live-Attenuated Late Liver Stage-Arresting Plasmodium yoelii Parasites Generates Protective Antibody Responses to Preerythrocytic Stages of Malaria.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Understanding protective immunity to malaria is essential for the design of an effective vaccine to prevent the large number of infections and deaths caused by this parasitic disease. To date, whole-parasite immunization with attenuated parasites is the most effective method to confer sterile protection against malaria infection in clinical trials. Mouse model studies have highlighted the essential role that CD8(+) T cells play in protection against preerythrocytic stages of malaria; however, there is mounting evidence that antibodies are also important in these stages. Here, we show that experimental immunization of mice with Plasmodium yoelii fabb/f(-) (Pyfabb/f(-)), a genetically attenuated rodent malaria parasite that arrests late in the liver stage, induced functional antibodies that inhibited hepatocyte invasion in vitro and reduced liver-stage burden in vivo. These antibodies were sufficient to induce sterile protection from challenge by P. yoelii sporozoites in the absence of T cells in 50% of mice when sporozoites were administered by mosquito bite but not when they were administered by intravenous injection. Moreover, among mice challenged by mosquito bite, a higher proportion of BALB/c mice than C57BL/6 mice developed sterile protection (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively). Analysis of the antibody isotypes induced by immunization with Pyfabb/f(-) showed that, overall, BALB/c mice developed an IgG1-biased response, whereas C57BL/6 mice developed an IgG2b/c-biased response. Our data demonstrate for the first time that antibodies induced by experimental immunization of mice with a genetically attenuated rodent parasite play a protective role during the preerythrocytic stages of malaria. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering both the route of challenge and the genetic background of the mouse strains used when interpreting vaccine efficacy studies in animal models of malaria infection.
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Predicting antidisease immunity using proteome arrays and sera from children naturally exposed to malaria.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Malaria remains one of the most prevalent and lethal human infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive characterization of antibody responses to blood stage malaria is essential to support the development of future vaccines, sero-diagnostic tests, and sero-surveillance methods. We constructed a proteome array containing 4441 recombinant proteins expressed by the blood stages of the two most common human malaria parasites, P. falciparum (Pf) and P. vivax (Pv), and used this array to screen sera of Papua New Guinea children infected with Pf, Pv, or both (Pf/Pv) that were either symptomatic (febrile), or asymptomatic but had parasitemia detectable via microscopy or PCR. We hypothesized that asymptomatic children would develop antigen-specific antibody profiles associated with antidisease immunity, as compared with symptomatic children. The sera from these children recognized hundreds of the arrayed recombinant Pf and Pv proteins. In general, responses in asymptomatic children were highest in those with high parasitemia, suggesting that antibody levels are associated with parasite burden. In contrast, symptomatic children carried fewer antibodies than asymptomatic children with infections detectable by microscopy, particularly in Pv and Pf/Pv groups, suggesting that antibody production may be impaired during symptomatic infections. We used machine-learning algorithms to investigate the relationship between antibody responses and symptoms, and we identified antibody responses to sets of Plasmodium proteins that could predict clinical status of the donors. Several of these antibody responses were identified by multiple comparisons, including those against members of the serine enriched repeat antigen family and merozoite protein 4. Interestingly, both P. falciparum serine enriched repeat antigen-5 and merozoite protein 4 have been previously investigated for use in vaccines. This machine learning approach, never previously applied to proteome arrays, can be used to generate a list of potential seroprotective and/or diagnostic antigens candidates that can be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.
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Artesunate versus chloroquine infection-treatment-vaccination defines stage-specific immune responses associated with prolonged sterile protection against both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic Plasmodium yoelii infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Sterile protection against malaria infection can be achieved through vaccination of mice and humans with whole Plasmodium spp. parasites. One such method, known as infection-treatment-vaccination (ITV), involves immunization with wild type sporozoites (spz) under drug coverage. In this work, we used the different effects of antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and artesunate (AS) on blood stage (BS) parasites to dissect the stage-specific immune responses in mice immunized with Plasmodium yoelii spz under either drug, as well as their ability to protect mice against challenge with spz or infected RBCs (iRBCs). Whereas CQ-ITV induced sterile protection against challenge with both spz and iRBCs, AS-ITV only induced sterile protection against spz challenge. Importantly, AS-ITV delayed the onset of BS infection, indicating that both regimens induced cross-stage immunity. Moreover, both CQ- and AS-ITV induced CD8(+) T cells in the liver that eliminated malaria-infected hepatocytes in vitro, as well as Abs that recognized pre-erythrocytic parasites. Sera from both groups of mice inhibited spz invasion of hepatocytes in vitro, but only CQ-ITV induced high levels of anti-BS Abs. Finally, passive transfer of sera from CQ-ITV-treated mice delayed the onset of erythrocytic infection in the majority of mice challenged with P. yoelii iRBCs. Besides constituting the first characterization, to our knowledge, of AS-ITV as a vaccination strategy, our data show that ITV strategies that lead to subtle differences in the persistence of parasites in the blood enable the characterization of the resulting immune responses, which will contribute to future research in vaccine design and malaria interventions.
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The use of CP-EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma in a patient With Maffucci syndrome.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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We report a case of a 52-year-old white woman with Maffucci syndrome, a rare skeletal disorder characterized by multiple cartilage-forming tumors (enchondromas). She was referred for evaluation of an enlarging pulmonary nodule. Her positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed a low-density, tubular lesion in the superior segment of the left lower lobe of the lung. She underwent a convex-probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) that confirmed metastatic chondrosarcoma. Although CP-EBUS-TBNA has become an established tool for diagnosing and staging of non-small cell lung cancer, analysis of samples from rare tumors such as sarcomas by cytology alone is often inadequate and histologic confirmation using more invasive procedures is often required. Interestingly in our case, the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma was established from the cytology specimen obtained with a 21-G needle without the need for further tissue sampling. Moreover, the location of the lesion was the superior segment of the left lower lobe, an area typically not accessible by CP-EBUS, due to the size of the airway. Considering together, the successful diagnosis of a rare tumor such as sarcomas by CP-EBUS-TBNA modality indicates the growing importance of this minimally invasive technology.
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Leishmania genome analysis and high-throughput immunological screening identifies tuzin as a novel vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania species. It is a major health concern affecting 88 countries and threatening 350 million people globally. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens for leishmaniasis. The emerging cases of drug-resistance further aggravate the situation, demanding rapid drug and vaccine development. The genome sequence of Leishmania, provides access to novel genes that hold potential as chemotherapeutic targets or vaccine candidates. In this study, we selected 19 antigenic genes from about 8000 common Leishmania genes based on the Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum genome information available in the pathogen databases. Potential vaccine candidates thus identified were screened using an in vitro high throughput immunological platform developed in the laboratory. Four candidate genes coding for tuzin, flagellar glycoprotein-like protein (FGP), phospholipase A1-like protein (PLA1) and potassium voltage-gated channel protein (K VOLT) showed a predominant protective Th1 response over disease exacerbating Th2. We report the immunogenic properties and protective efficacy of one of the four antigens, tuzin, as a DNA vaccine against Leishmania donovani challenge. Our results show that administration of tuzin DNA protected BALB/c mice against L. donovani challenge and that protective immunity was associated with higher levels of IFN-? and IL-12 production in comparison to IL-4 and IL-10. Our study presents a simple approach to rapidly identify potential vaccine candidates using the exhaustive information stored in the genome and an in vitro high-throughput immunological platform.
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Immunization with genetically attenuated P. falciparum parasites induces long-lived antibodies that efficiently block hepatocyte invasion by sporozoites.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Whole-parasite malaria vaccines have shown promise in clinical trials. We recently reported the first human trial of a malaria vaccine based on Plasmodium falciparum genetically attenuated parasites (PfGAP). Herein we report for the first time that PfGAP induces prolonged functional humoral responses in humans. Six volunteers were exposed to 5 bites of PfGAP-infected mosquitoes followed by approximately 200 bites. Plasma collected from all volunteers 3 months after the last exposure efficiently inhibits invasion of hepatocytes by P. falciparum sporozoites. The level of inhibition observed is comparable to that attained using plasma collected after 4-5 intravenously administrations of high numbers of irradiated sporozoites, validating the potential of PfGAP malaria vaccines. Our data highlight the role of antibody responses in pre-erythrocytic stages of human malaria, and suggests that to be protective, malaria vaccines might need to elicit long-lasting functional antibodies in addition to cellular responses.
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Differential T-cell responses of semi-immune and susceptible malaria subjects to in silico predicted and synthetic peptides of Plasmodium falciparum.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Malaria remains a public health hazard in tropical countries as a consequence of the rise and spread of drug and insecticide resistances; hence the need for a vaccine with widespread application. Protective immunity to malaria is known to be mediated by both antibody and cellular immune responses, though characterization of the latter has been less extensive. The aim of the present investigation was to identify novel T-cell epitopes that may contribute to naturally acquired immune responses against malaria. Using the Microsoft software, Epitome™ T-cell peptide epitopes on 19 Plasmodium falciparum proteins in the Plasmodium Database (www.plasmodb.org.PlasmoDB 9.0) were predicted in-silico. The peptides were synthesized and used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 14 semi-immune and 21 malaria susceptible subjects for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) production ex-vivo. The level of IFN-? production, a marker of T-cell responses, was measured by ELISPOT assay in semi-immune subjects (SIS) and frequently sick subjects (FSS) from an endemic zone with perennial malaria transmission. Of the 19 proteins studied, 17 yielded 27 pools (189 peptides), which were reactive with the subjects' PBMCs when tested for IFN-? production, taking a stimulation index (SI) of ?2 as a cutoff point for a positive response. There were 10 reactive peptide pools (constituting eight protein loci) with an SI of 10 or greater. Of the 19 proteins studied, two were known vaccine candidates (MSP-8 and SSP2/TRAP), which reacted both with SIS and FSS. Similarly the hypothetical proteins (PFF1030w, PFE0795c, PFD0880w, PFC0065c and PF10_0052) also reacted strongly with both SIS and FSS making them attractive for further characterization as mediators of protective immunity and/or pathogenesis.
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Safety and Comparability of Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infection by Mosquito Bite in Malaria-Naïve Subjects at a New Facility for Sporozoite Challenge.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies which recapitulate mosquito-borne infection are a critical tool to identify protective vaccine and drug candidates for advancement to field trials. In partnership with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the CHMI model was established at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute's Malaria Clinical Trials Center (MCTC). Activities and reagents at both centers were aligned to ensure comparability and continued safety of the model. To demonstrate successful implementation, CHMI was performed in six healthy malaria-naïve volunteers.
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Identification of pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens that target hepatocytes for killing in vivo and contribute to protection elicited by whole-parasite vaccination.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines, including those based on whole-parasite approaches, have shown protective efficacy in animal and human studies. However few pre-erythocytic antigens other than the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP) have been studied in depth with the goal of developing potent subunit malaria vaccines that are suited for use in endemic areas. Here we describe a novel technique to identify pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens that contribute to protection elicited by whole-parasite vaccination in the mouse model. Our approach combines immunization with genetically attenuated parasites and challenge with DNA plasmids encoding for potential protective pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens as luciferase fusions by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. After optimizing the technique, we first showed that immunization with Pyfabb/f-, a P. yoelii genetically attenuated parasite, induces killing of CSP-presenting hepatocytes. Depletion of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells diminished the killing of CSP-expressing hepatocytes, indicating that killing is CD8+ T cell-dependent. Finally we showed that the use of heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies that use genetically attenuated parasites and DNA vaccines enabled the characterization of a novel pre-erythrocytic antigen, Tmp21, as a contributor to Pyfabb/f- induced protection. This technique will be valuable for identification of potentially protective liver stage antigens and has the potential to contribute to the understanding of immunity elicited by whole parasite vaccination, as well as the development of effective subunit malaria vaccines.
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Disruption of the complement anaphylatoxin receptor C5L2 exacerbates inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The complement anaphylatoxin C5a is a critical mediator of allergic contact dermatitis, bridging essential aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. This anaphylatoxin functions by interacting with two 7-transmembrane segment receptors, the C5aR and C5L2. The C5aR is a classical G protein coupled receptor, whereas C5L2 is deficient in coupling to G proteins because of variations in the sequence. Our previous work in human neutrophils revealed a unique role for C5L2 in negatively modulating anaphylatoxin receptor mediated cellular activation through interactions with ?-arrestin. When C5L2 is deficient, C5aR-mediated ?-arrestin signaling is greatly enhanced. The work described in this study was undertaken first to determine the effect of C5L2 deficiency in a murine model of contact sensitivity, and second to determine whether the resultant exacerbation of inflammatory parameters reflects a negative modulatory function of C5L2 on the C5aR. First, we find dramatic increases in inflammation in C5L2(-/-) animals compared with wild type mice. Second, these increases are completely reversed following administration of mAb against the C5aR. Thus, in allergic contact sensitivity, as in isolated human neutrophils, C5L2 functions to suppress C5a-C5aR-mediated responses, further underscoring its role as a negative regulator of anaphylatoxin activity.
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Short-lived effector CD8 T cells induced by genetically attenuated malaria parasite vaccination express CD11c.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8(+) T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-?), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8(+) T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8(+) T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3(+) CD8b(+) T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are predominantly CD11a(hi) CD44(hi) CD62L(-), indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8(+) T cells. Coculture of CD11c(+), but not CD11c(-), CD8(+) T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8(+) T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8(+) T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are primarily KLRG1(+) CD127(-) terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1(-) CD127(+) memory precursor effector cells are CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, short-lived, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes.
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Glycan masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for probing protein binding function and vaccine development.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s) lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development.
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First-in-human evaluation of genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by bite of Anopheles mosquitoes to adult volunteers.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Immunization with genetically engineered, attenuated malaria parasites (GAP) that arrest during liver infection confers sterile protection in mouse malaria models. A first generation Plasmodium falciparum GAP (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP) was previously generated by deletion of two pre-erythrocytic stage-expressed genes (P52 and P36) in the NF54 strain.
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Protective effects of hydrogen saline on diabetic retinopathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working population of the developed countries and also a significant cause of blindness in the elderly. This study aimed at examining the protective effect of H(2) saline on diabetic retinopathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.
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Enhanced white-light emission from multiple fluorophores encapsulated in a single layer of diblock copolymer micelles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Enhanced white-light emission was achieved by loading green- and red-light-emitting donor-acceptor pairs in the separate micellar cores and blue-light-emitting polymers around their periphery. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer was enabled between a donor and an acceptor in cores, but was suppressed among these three light-emitting species by micellar coronas, which resulted in their enhanced simultaneous emissions.
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Acquired antibody responses against Plasmodium vivax infection vary with host genotype for duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2010
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Polymorphism of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) is associated with susceptibility to and the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in humans. P. vivax uses DARC to invade erythrocytes. Individuals lacking DARC are resistant to P. vivax erythrocytic infection. However, susceptibility to P. vivax in DARC+ individuals is reported to vary between specific DARC genotypes. We hypothesized that the natural acquisition of antibodies to P. vivax blood stages may vary with the host genotype and the level of DARC expression. Furthermore, high parasitemia has been reported to effect the acquisition of immunity against pre-erythrocytic parasites. We investigated the correlation between host DARC genotypes and the frequency and magnitude of antibodies against P. vivax erythrocytic stage antigens.
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Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of optic nerve crush.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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In this study we tested the hypothesis that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) reduces retinal neuronal death due to optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC accompanied by a contralateral sham operation. HBO-PC was conducted four times by giving 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 1 h every 12 h for 2 days prior to ONC. The rats were euthanized at 1 or 2 weeks after ONC. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density was counted by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of the retina and retrograde labeling with FluoroGold application to the superior colliculus. Visual function was assessed by flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP). TUNEL straining and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity in the retinas were assessed. The RGC density in the retinas of ONC HBO-PC-treated rats was significantly higher than that of the corresponding ONC-only rats (the survival rate was 67.2% versus 49.7% by H&E staining, and 60.3% versus 28.9% by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold, respectively; p < 0.01) at 2 weeks after ONC. FVEP measurements indicated a significantly better preserved latency and amplitude of the P1 wave in the ONC HBO-PC-treated rats than the ONC-only rats (92 +/- 7 msec, 21 +/- 3 microv in the sham-operated group, 117 +/- 12 msec, 14 +/- 2 microv in the HBO-PC-treated group, and 169 +/- 15 msec, 7 +/- 1 microv in the corresponding ONC group; p < 0.01). TUNEL assays showed fewer apoptotic cells in the HBO-PC-treated group, accompanied by the suppression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. These results demonstrate that HBO-PC appears to be neuroprotective against ONC insult via inhibition of neuronal apoptosis pathways.
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Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development.
Expert Rev Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Malaria remains one of the most devastating infectious diseases that threaten humankind. Human malaria is caused by five different species of Plasmodium parasites, each transmitted by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. Plasmodia are eukaryotic protozoans with more than 5000 genes and a complex life cycle that takes place in the mosquito vector and the human host. The life cycle can be divided into pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stages and mosquito stages. Malaria vaccine research and development faces formidable obstacles because many vaccine candidates will probably only be effective in a specific species at a specific stage. In addition, Plasmodium actively subverts and escapes immune responses, possibly foiling vaccine-induced immunity. Although early successful vaccinations with irradiated, live-attenuated malaria parasites suggested that a vaccine is possible, until recently, most efforts have focused on subunit vaccine approaches. Blood-stage vaccines remain a primary research focus, but real progress is evident in the development of a partially efficacious recombinant pre-erythrocytic subunit vaccine and a live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine. It is unlikely that partially effective vaccines will eliminate malaria; however, they might prove useful in combination with existing control strategies. Elimination of malaria will probably ultimately depend on the development of highly effective vaccines.
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Simultaneous blue, green, and red emission from diblock copolymer micellar films: a new approach to white-light emission.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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White-light emission is achieved from a single layer of diblock copolymer micelles containing green- and red-light-emitting dyes in the separate micellar cores and blue-light-emitting polymer around their periphery, in which fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorophores is inhibited due to micelle isolation, resulting in simultaneous emission of these three species.
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Genetically attenuated parasite vaccines induce contact-dependent CD8+ T cell killing of Plasmodium yoelii liver stage-infected hepatocytes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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The production of IFN-gamma by CD8(+) T cells is an important hallmark of protective immunity induced by irradiation-attenuated sporozoites against malaria. Here, we demonstrate that protracted sterile protection conferred by a Plasmodium yoelii genetically attenuated parasite (PyGAP) vaccine was completely dependent on CD8(+) T lymphocytes but only partially dependent on IFN-gamma. We used live cell imaging to document that CD8(+) CTL from PyGAP-immunized mice directly killed hepatocyte infected with a liver stage parasite. Immunization studies with perforin and IFN-gamma knockout mice also indicated that the protection was largely dependent on perforin-mediated effector mechanisms rather than on IFN-gamma. This was further supported by our observation that both liver and spleen CD8(+) T cells from PyGAP-immunized mice induced massive apoptosis of liver stage-infected hepatocytes in vitro without the release of detectable IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Conversely, CD8(+) T cells isolated from naive mice that had survived wild-type P. yoelii sporozoite infection targeted mainly sporozoite-traversed and uninfected hepatocytes, revealing an immune evasion strategy that might be used by wild-type parasites to subvert host immune responses during natural infection. However, CTLs from wild-type sporozoite-challenged mice could recognize and kill infected hepatocytes that were pulsed with circumsporozoite protein. Additionally, protection in PyGAP-immunized mice directly correlated with the magnitude of effector memory CD8(+) T cells. Our findings implicate CTLs as key immune effectors in a highly protective PyGAP vaccine for malaria and emphasize the critical need to define surrogate markers for correlates of protection, apart from IFN-gamma.
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Hydrogen-rich saline prevents early neurovascular dysfunction resulting from inhibition of oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats.
Curr. Eye Res.
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterized by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, both of which lead to neurotoxicity and vascular permeability. Previous studies on a variety of organs indicate that hydrogen-rich saline not only has considerable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but also suppresses oxidative stress-induced injury. In the present study, we assessed the effects of hydrogen-rich saline on neurovascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in an animal model (rat) of DR.
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Clinical trial in healthy malaria-naïve adults to evaluate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy of MuStDO5, a five-gene, sporozoite/hepatic stage Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine combined with escalating dose human GM-CSF DNA.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
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When introduced in the 1990s, immunization with DNA plasmids was considered potentially revolutionary for vaccine development, particularly for vaccines intended to induce protective CD8 T cell responses against multiple antigens. We conducted, in 1997-1998, the first clinical trial in healthy humans of a DNA vaccine, a single plasmid encoding Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), as an initial step toward developing a multi-antigen malaria vaccine targeting the liver stages of the parasite. As the next step, we conducted in 2000-2001 a clinical trial of a five-plasmid mixture called MuStDO5 encoding pre-erythrocytic antigens PfCSP, PfSSP2/TRAP, PfEXP1, PfLSA1 and PfLSA3. Thirty-two, malaria-naïve, adult volunteers were enrolled sequentially into four cohorts receiving a mixture of 500 ?g of each plasmid plus escalating doses (0, 20, 100 or 500 ?g) of a sixth plasmid encoding human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF). Three doses of each formulation were administered intramuscularly by needle-less jet injection at 0, 4 and 8 weeks, and each cohort had controlled human malaria infection administered by five mosquito bites 18 d later. The vaccine was safe and well-tolerated, inducing moderate antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cell interferon-? responses but no antibodies. Although no volunteers were protected, T cell responses were boosted post malaria challenge. This trial demonstrated the MuStDO5 DNA and hGM-CSF plasmids to be safe and modestly immunogenic for T cell responses. It also laid the foundation for priming with DNA plasmids and boosting with recombinant viruses, an approach known for nearly 15 y to enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines.
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Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic-stage antigen discovery: exploiting naturally acquired humoral responses.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy- individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic-stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy- donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria.
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P. falciparum enhances HIV replication in an experimental malaria challenge system.
PLoS ONE
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Co-infection with HIV and P. falciparum worsens the prognosis of both infections; however, the mechanisms driving this adverse interaction are not fully delineated. To evaluate this, we studied HIV-1 and P. falciparum interactions in vitro using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human malaria naïve volunteers experimentally infected with P. falciparum in a malaria challenge trial. PBMCs collected before the malaria challenge and at several time points post-infection were infected with HIV-1 and co-cultured with either P. falciparum infected (iRBCs) or uninfected (uRBCs) red blood cells. HIV p24Ag and TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and MIP-1? were quantified in the co-culture supernatants. In general, iRBCs stimulated more HIV p24Ag production by PBMCs than did uRBCs. HIV p24Ag production by PBMCs in the presence of iRBCs (but not uRBCs) further increased during convalescence (days 35, 56, and 90 post-challenge). In parallel, iRBCs induced higher secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, and MIP-1?) than uRBCs, and production increased further during convalescence. Because the increase in p24Ag production occurred after parasitemia and generalized immune activation had resolved, our results suggest that enhanced HIV production is related to the development of anti-malaria immunity and may be mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR for monitoring of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria human challenge trials.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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To detect pre-patent parasitemia, we developed a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for the asexual 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNAs) of Plasmodium falciparum. Total nucleic acids extracted from whole blood were combined with control RNA and tested by qRT-PCR. The assay quantified > 98.7% of parasite-containing samples to ±0.5 log(10) parasites/mL of the nominal value without false positives. The analytical sensitivity was ? 20 parasites/mL. The coefficient of variation was 0.6% and 1.8% within runs and 1.6% and 4.0% between runs for high and low parasitemia specimens, respectively. Using this assay, we determined that A-type 18S rRNAs are stably expressed at 1 × 10(4) copies per ring-stage parasite. When used to monitor experimental P. falciparum infection of human volunteers, the assay detected blood-stage infections 3.7 days earlier on average than thick blood smears. This validated, internally controlled qRT-PCR method also uses a small (50 ?L) sample volume requiring minimal pre-analytical handling, making it useful for clinical trials.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.