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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A role for versican in the development of leiomyosarcoma.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a mesenchymal cancer that occurs throughout the body. Although LMS is easily recognized histopathologically, the cause of the disease remains unknown. Versican, an extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycan, increases in LMS. Microarray analyses of 80 LMS and 24 leiomyomas show a significant elevated expression of versican in human LMS vs. benign leiomyomas. To explore the importance of versican in this smooth muscle cell tumor, we used versican-directed siRNA to knockdown versican expression in a LMS human cell line, SK-LMS-1. Decreased versican expression was accompanied by slower rates of LMS cell proliferation and migration, increased adhesion, and decreased accumulation of the ECM macromolecule hyaluronan. Addition of purified versican to cells expressing versican siRNA restored cell proliferation to the level of LMS controls, increased the pericellular coat and the retention of hyaluronan, and decreased cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of versican was not only synergistic with hyaluronan in increasing cell proliferation, but the depletion of versican decreased hyaluronan synthase expression and decreased the retention of hyaluronan. When LMS cells stably expressing versican siRNA were injected into nude mice, the resulting tumors displayed significantly less versican and hyaluronan staining, had lower volumes, and reduced levels of mitosis as compared to controls. Collectively, these results suggest a role for using versican as a point of control in the management and treatment of LMS.
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Is uterine depth measurement by trans-vaginal ultrasound alone as accurate as measurement carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasound-guided trial transfer?
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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To assess the reliability of trans-vaginal-scan (TVS) in measuring the uterine depth (UD) in comparison with ultrasound-guided trial-transfer (UTT).
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Levels of angiogenic proteins in plasma and platelets are not different between patients with hepatitis B/C-related cirrhosis and patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that levels of angiogenic proteins within blood platelets change at the earliest stages of cancer development and may thus provide a promising diagnostic and prognostic tool. Patients with cirrhosis have increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to study whether development of HCC in hepatitis-related cirrhosis results in changes in platelet levels of angiogenic proteins. We studied the intraplatelet levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), endostatin, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and thrombospondin type 1 (TSP-1) in 38 consecutive patients with hepatitis B- or C-related liver cirrhosis with or without HCC in addition to plasma levels of the same proteins. Twenty healthy volunteers were included to establish reference values for the various tests. Intraplatelet levels of VEGF, bFGF, HGF and endostatin were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Intraplatelet levels of PDGF, PF4 and TSP-1 were comparable between patients and controls. Plasma levels of VEGF, bFGF and endostatin were comparable between patients and controls. Plasma levels of PDGF, PF4 and TSP-1 were decreased in patients, but this difference disappeared when levels were corrected for platelet count. Intraplatelet and plasma levels of all proteins assessed were comparable between patients with and without HCC. In conclusion, the intraplatelet levels of some angiogenic proteins are elevated in cirrhosis, but do not discriminate between patients with and without HCC. Thus, intraplatelet levels of angiogenic proteins do not seem useful as diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of HCC in cirrhotic patients.
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Production of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin a in raw milk at high temperatures.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Improper processing and storage of raw milk contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus at elevated temperatures can result in the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins, especially type A (SEA), which is most frequently associated with food poisoning outbreaks such as the large one in Osaka, Japan, in 2000. In this study, the characteristics of S. aureus growth and SEA production at various high temperatures in raw milk samples were studied using two raw milk samples naturally containing low and high levels of natural microflora. The optimal temperatures found for SEA production in the two milk types were as high as 40 and 44°C (range, 36 to 48°C), and SEA production was dependent on the initial dose of S. aureus. These high temperatures were close to that of the outbreak in Japan. Thus, it was concluded that temperature was critical for SEA production in raw milk. It was also observed that natural microflora in the milk samples considerably suppressed SEA production but not staphylococcal growth. On the other hand, the amount of toxin in most milk samples decreased after peaking during storage.
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The impact of body mass index on renal functional outcomes following minimally invasive partial nephrectomy.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on perioperative and renal functional outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN).
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Efficacy of transoral fundoplication for treatment of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease incompletely controlled with high-dose proton-pump inhibitors therapy: a randomized, multicenter, open label, crossover study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The aim of this randomized, crossover study was to determine if transoral fundoplication (TF) could further improve clinical outcomes in partial responders to high-dose (HD) proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and to evaluate durability of TF.
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The clinical presentation and early outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis in a Ugandan Tertiary Hospital--a prospective study.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Necrotizing fasciitis is an infectious process characterized by rapidly progressing necrosis of superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue with subsequent necrosis of overlying skin.Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but fatal infection. The worldwide incidence is at 0.4 per 100,000. Mortality is up to 80% with no intervention, and 30-50% with intervention. Delay in intervention is associated with poor outcome. The risk factors for necrotizing fasciitis are diabetes mellitus, HIV, malignancy, illicit drug use, malnutrition among others.The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and early outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis amongst Ugandan patients.
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Preoperative Nuclear Renal Scan Underestimates Renal Function After Radical Nephrectomy.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To compare expected and actual renal function after nephrectomy. Nuclear renal scan estimates differential kidney function and is commonly used to calculate expected postoperative renal function after radical nephrectomy. However, the observed postoperative renal function is often different from the expected.
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Pyelonephritis can be a source of a life-threatening necrotizing myofasciitis.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Necrotizing fasciitis is a progressive, rapidly spreading, inflammatory infection located in deep fascia. It may cause necrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue and can even results in involvement of adjacent soft tissues such as muscles resulting in necrotizing myositis. We report the case of an adult male presenting with necrotizing myofasciitis secondary to left pyelonephritis. We also review the relevant literature.
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Prevailing public perceptions of the ethics of gene therapy.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Gene therapy research is advancing rapidly, and hopes of treating a large number of brain disorders exist alongside ethical concerns. Most surveys of public attitudes toward these ethical issues are already dated and the content of these surveys has been researcher-driven. To examine current public perceptions, we developed an online instrument that is responsive and relevant to the latest research about ethics, gene therapy, and the brain. The 16-question survey was launched with the platform Amazon Mechanical Turk and was made available to residents of Canada and the United States. The survey was divided into six themes: (1) demographic information, (2) general opinions about gene therapy, (3) medical applications of gene therapy, (4) identity and moral/belief systems, (5) enhancement, and (6) risks. We received and analyzed responses from a total of 467 participants. Our results show that a majority of respondents (>90%) accept gene therapy as a treatment for severe illnesses such as Alzheimer disease, but this receptivity decreases for conditions perceived as less severe such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (79%), and for nontherapeutic applications (47%). The greatest area of concern for the application of gene therapy to brain conditions is the fear of not receiving sufficient information before undergoing the treatment. The main ethical concerns with enhancement were the potential for disparities in resource allocation, access to the procedure, and discrimination. When comparing these data with those from the 1990s, our findings suggest that the acceptability of gene therapy is increasing and that this trend is occurring despite lingering concerns over ethical issues. Providing the public and patients with up-to-date information and opportunities to engage in the discourse about areas of research in gene therapy is a priority.
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Long-term Clinical Outcomes Following Resectoscopic Endometrial Ablation of Non-Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia in Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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To determine the feasibility, efficacy, and long-term clinical outcomes of resectoscopic endometrial ablation as primary treatment of simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia without atypia in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
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Diastereoselective synthesis of potent antimalarial cis-?-lactam agents through a [2 + 2] cycloaddition of chiral imines with a chiral ketene.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The effect of double asymmetric induction for the synthesis of new cis-?-lactams by [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of chiral imines with a chiral ketene was investigated. The cycloaddition reaction was found to be totally diastereoselective leading exclusively to the formation of the cis-?-lactam derivatives. The newly synthesized cycloadducts were evaluated for their antimalarial activities against Plasmodium falciparum K14 resistant strain with moderate to excellent IC50 values varying from 8 to 50 ?M. Of the fifteen ?-lactams tested, four showed IC50 ? 11 ?M.
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Seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B and C virus infection in Damietta Governorate, Egypt.
East. Mediterr. Health J.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections remain major public health problems in Egypt and data are needed on risk factors for infection. This study determined the prevalence of anti-HCV and HBV surface antigen seropositivity in Damietta Governorate, Egypt, and evaluated potential risk factors for infection and the impact of HBV vaccination on seroprevalence. A household, cross-sectional study was conducted of 2977 individuals. About 20% were vaccinated against HBV. Only 1.1% were infected with HBV and 9.3% with HCV; both infections coexisted in 12 people (0.4%) (all unvaccinated). The main risk factors for both HCV and HBV were exposure to dental procedures, surgery, stitches, schistosomiasis treatment and contact with infected person. HBV and HCV prevalences in Damietta were lower than the national rate, likely due to the routine compulsory HBV vaccination in those aged < 19 years. There is a need to educate the general population about HBV and HCV transmission routes and avoidance of risky behaviours.
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An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Many analyses of the human gut microbiome depend on a catalog of reference genes. Existing catalogs for the human gut microbiome are based on samples from single cohorts or on reference genomes or protein sequences, which limits coverage of global microbiome diversity. Here we combined 249 newly sequenced samples of the Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHit) project with 1,018 previously sequenced samples to create a cohort from three continents that is at least threefold larger than cohorts used for previous gene catalogs. From this we established the integrated gene catalog (IGC) comprising 9,879,896 genes. The catalog includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs. Analyses of a group of samples from Chinese and Danish individuals using the catalog revealed country-specific gut microbial signatures. This expanded catalog should facilitate quantitative characterization of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data from the gut microbiome to understand its variation across populations in human health and disease.
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The role of intensive phototherapy in decreasing the need for exchange transfusion in neonatal jaundice.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To assess the effectiveness of intensive phototherapy in reducing the need for exchange transfusion and the duration of phototherapy.
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Protective effect of clove oil and eugenol microemulsions on fatty liver and dyslipidemia as components of metabolic syndrome.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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In the present research, the effect of clove essential oil (CO) and its major constituent, eugenol, formulated in water-based microemulsions, was studied on fatty liver and dyslipidemia in high-fructose-fed rats. Plasma and liver lipids, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarker, and liver function were the assessed criteria. CO dispersed in water as conventional cloudy emulsion was also subjected to the same biological evaluations for comparison with the microemulsified form of this oil. Results showed that the particle size of CO microemulsion (COM) and eugenol microemulsion (EM) was 8.0 nm and 8.9 nm, respectively. Excess dilution and incubation of these microemulsions in 1.2 N HCl, that mimic stomach juice (without lipase), for 5 hours at 37 °C lead to the establishment of second population of larger particles with average diameter>100.0 nm. Biological evaluation revealed that rats of high fructose control group exhibited significant dyslipidemia, high plasma tumor necrosis factor-?, and elevated malondialdehyde. The same group of rats showed significant high liver total fat, triglycerides and cholesterol, and liver dysfunction compared to control normal rats fed balanced diet. Daily oral administration of CO conventional emulsion, COM, and EM produced significant improvement of all studied parameters. No significant change in all biochemical parameters was noticed when the groups given the different formulations were compared with each other. The study concluded that administration of CO conventional emulsion, COM, or EM produced significant improvement in fatty liver and dyslipidemia with consequent expected protection from cardiovascular diseases and other complications of fatty liver. Formulation of CO in microemulsion having particle size ? 8.0 nm did not enhance the protective effect compared with the same dose of CO dispersed in water as conventional macroemulsion, probably due to the ease of absorption of these bioactives in their native states. However, formulation in microemulsion provides a delivery system for oral administration of CO or eugenol in homogeneous, water-based, and thermodynamically stable dosage form during storage.
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Dental solid waste characterization and management in Iran: a case study of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The management of dental solid waste continues to be a major challenge, particularly in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. In Iran, few studies on management of dental solid waste and its composition are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous and infectious status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. For this study, 123 private dental centres and 36 public dental centres were selected and the composition and generation rate of dental solid waste produced were measured. Dental solid waste was classified to four main categories: (i) domestic-type; (ii) potentially infectious; (iii) chemical and pharmaceutical; and (iv) toxic, which constituted 11.7, 80.3, 6.3, and 1.7%, respectively, of the total. Also, the results indicated that the dental solid waste per patient per day generation rate for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 169.9, 8.6, 153.3, 11.2, and 3.3 g/patient/d, respectively. Furthermore, the per day generation rates for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 194.5, 22.6, 156.1, 12.3, and 3.4 kg/d, respectively. According to findings of this study, for best management of dental waste it is suggested that source reduction, separation, reuse, and recycling programmes be implemented and each section of dental waste be collected and disposed of separately and in accordance with related criteria.
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Mobility and efficacy of 2,4-D herbicide from slow-release delivery systems based on organo-zeolite and organo-bentonite complexes.
J Environ Sci Health B
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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This research aimed to develop slow-release formulations (SRFs) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using zeolite and bentonite minerals modified with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) surfactant. Adsorption-desorption, greenhouse bioassay and column experiments were carried out to assess the potential of the SRFs to control weeds while reducing the herbicide leaching losses to deep layers of soil. The results showed that only 6.5 mmol 2,4-D kg(-1) was retained by Na-bent, and the herbicide was not adsorbed by Na-zeol at all. The surface modification with CTMA surfactant, however, improved the 2,4-D adsorption capacity of the zeolite and bentonite up to 207.5 and 415.8 mmol kg(-1), respectively. The synthesized organo-minerals slowly released the retained 2,4-D discharging 22 to 64% of the adsorbed 2,4-D to the solution phase within 7 days. The SRFs significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the herbicide mobility within the soil columns keeping a great portion of the herbicide active ingredient in the upper 5 cm soil layer. The SRFs were significantly (P = 0.05) as effective as the free technical herbicide in weed control without harming the ryegrass as the main plant. Therefore, the synthesized SRFs could be considered as useful tools for weed control in sustainable agriculture.
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Characterization of ten date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia using AFLP and ISSR markers.
C. R. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Date palm is the most economically important plant in the Middle East due to its nutritionally valuable fruit. The development of accurate DNA fingerprints to characterize cultivars and the detection of genetic diversity are of great value for breeding programs. The present study explores the usefulness of ISSR and AFLP molecular markers to detect relationships among 10 date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars from Saudi Arabia. Thirteen ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations were examined. The level of polymorphism among cultivars for ISSRs ranged from 20% to 100% with an average of 85%. Polymorphism levels for AFLPs ranged from 63% to 84% with an average of 76%. The total number of cultivar-specific markers was 241, 208 of which were generated from AFLP analysis. AJWA cultivar had the highest number of cultivar-specific ISSR markers, whereas DEK, PER, SUK-Q, SHA and MOS-H cultivars had the lowest. RAB and SHA cultivars had the most and least AFLP cultivar-specific markers, respectively. The highest pairwise similarity indices for ISSRs, AFLPs and combined markers were 84% between DEK (female) and PER (female), 81% between SUK-Q (male) and RAB (male), and 80% between SUK-Q (male) and RAB (male), respectively. The lowest similarity indices were 65% between TAB (female) and SUK-Q (male), 67% between SUK-A (female) and SUK-Q (male), and 67% between SUK-A (female) and SUK-Q (male). Cultivars of the same sex had higher pairwise similarities than those between cultivars of different sex. The Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree generated from the ISSR dataset was not well resolved and bootstrap support for resolved nodes in the tree was low. AFLP and combined data generated completely resolved trees with high levels of bootstrap support. In conclusion, AFLP and ISSR approaches enabled discrimination among 10 date palm cultivars of from Saudi Arabia, which will provide valuable information for future improvement of this important crop.
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Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi B?n. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.
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Construction of naïve camelids VHH repertoire in phage display-based library.
C. R. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Camelids have unique antibodies, namely HCAbs (VHH) or commercially named Nanobodies(®) (Nb) that are composed only of a heavy-chain homodimer. As libraries based on immunized camelids are time-consuming, costly and likely redundant for certain antigens, we describe the construction of a naïve camelid VHHs library from blood serum of non-immunized camelids with affinity in the subnanomolar range and suitable for standard immune applications. This approach is rapid and recovers VHH repertoire with the advantages of being more diverse, non-specific and devoid of subpopulations of specific antibodies, which allows the identification of binders for any potential antigen (or pathogen). RNAs from a number of camelids from Saudi Arabia were isolated and cDNAs of the diverse vhh gene were amplified; the resulting amplicons were cloned in the phage display pSEX81 vector. The size of the library was found to be within the required range (10(7)) suitable for subsequent applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Two hundred clones were randomly selected and the inserted gene library was either estimated for redundancy or sequenced and aligned to the reference camelid vhh gene (acc. No. ADE99145). Results indicated complete non-specificity of this small library in which no single event of redundancy was detected. These results indicate the efficacy of following this approach in order to yield a large and diverse enough gene library to secure the presence of the required version encoding the required antibodies for any target antigen. This work is a first step towards the construction of phage display-based biosensors useful in disease (e.g., TB or tuberculosis) diagnosis and treatment.
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Early elevated serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase after liver transplantation is associated with better survival.
F1000Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a membrane bound enzyme that plays a key role in the synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione. Epidemiological studies have linked high GGT with an increased risk of morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. In contrast, GGT is usually elevated in liver transplant recipients that experience good outcomes.
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Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar (?= intra-varietal) polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for molecular characterization of date palm cultivars.
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Phytodegradation potential of bisphenolA from aqueous solution by Azolla Filiculoides.
J Environ Health Sci Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many organic hazardous pollutants such as bisphenolA (BPA) which are toxic and not easily biodegradable can concerns for environmental pollution worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine whether Azolla Filiculoides is able to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. In this study, the Azolla with different biomass (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g) has been cultured in solution that was contained 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm BPA. Samples were collected every 2 days from all of containers. The analytical determination of BPA was performed by using of DR4000 uv-visible at ?max?=?276 nm. The results indicated that Azolla has high ability to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. The BPA removal was 60-90%. The removal efficiency is increasing with decreasing of BPA concentration and increasing of biomass amount and vice versa. The removal efficiency was more than 90% when BPA concentration was 5 ppm and amount of biomass was 0.9gr. It is concluded that Azolla able remove BPA by Phytodegradation from the aqueous solutions. Since conventional methods of BPA removal need to high cost and energy, phytoremediation by Azolla as a natural treatment system can decrease those issues and it can be a useful and beneficial method to removal of BPA.
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Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.
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Fluoride release and bioactivity evaluation of glass ionomer: Forsterite nanocomposite.
Dent Res J (Isfahan)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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The most important limitation of glass ionomer cements (GICs) is the weak mechanical properties. Our previous research showed that higher mechanical properties could be achieved by addition of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles to ceramic part of GIC. The objective of the present study was to fabricate a glass ionomer- Mg2SiO4 nanocomposite and to evaluate the effect of addition of Mg2SiO4 nanoparticles on bioactivity and fluoride release behavior of prepared nanocomposite.
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Outpatient waiting time in health services and teaching hospitals: a case study in iran.
Glob J Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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One of the most important indexes of the health care quality is patients satisfaction and it takes place only when there is a process based on management. One of these processes in the health care organizations is the appropriate management of the waiting time process. The aim of this study is the systematic analyzing of the outpatient waiting time.
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Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran.
Vet. Ital.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV) among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial), season (warm and cold), location (North, South, East, and West), cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry) and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years). The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 %) were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was significantly higher (?(2)=8.29, df=3, p < 0.05) in cattle in southern locations as compared to those in other locations. Older animals (>2 years) showed a relatively higher seroprevalence, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.06). No statistically significant difference in BTV seroprevalence was noted between farming systems, seasons and cattle production groups (p > 0.05). The results demonstrate that the seroprevalence of BTV is low in cattle from the Isfahan province, central Iran. Further studies are needed to determine the serotypes and vectors of BTV in the central region of Iran.
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Detection of phytochrome-like genes from Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae) using de novo genome assembly.
C. R. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Phytochrome-like genes in the wild plant species Rhazya stricta Decne were characterized using a de novo genome assembly of next generation sequence data. Rhazya stricta contains more than 100 alkaloids with multiple pharmacological properties, and leaf extracts have been used to cure chronic rheumatism, to treat tumors, and in the treatment of several other diseases. Phytochromes are known to be involved in the light-regulated biosynthesis of some alkaloids. Phytochromes are soluble chromoproteins that function in the absorption of red and far-red light and the transduction of intracellular signals during light-regulated plant development. De novo assembly of the nuclear genome of R. stricta recovered 45,641 contigs greater than 1000bp long, which were used in constructing a local database. Five sequences belonging to Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome gene family (i.e., AtphyABCDE) were used to identify R. stricta contigs with phytochrome-like sequences using BLAST. This led to the identification of three contigs with phytochrome-like sequences covering AtphyA-, AtphyC- and AtphyE-like full-length genes. Annotation of the three sequences showed that each contig consists of one phytochrome-like gene with three exons and two introns. BLASTn and BLASTp results indicated that RsphyA mRNA and protein sequences had homologues in Wrightia coccinea and and Solanum tuberosum, respectively. RsphyC-like mRNA and protein sequence were homologous to Vitis vinifera and Vitis riparia. RsphyE-like mRNA coding and protein sequences were homologous to Ipomoea nil. Multiple-sequence alignment of phytochrome proteins indicated a homology with 30 sequences from 23 different species of flowering plants. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that each R. stricta phytochrome gene is related to the same phytochrome gene of other flowering plants. It is proposed that the absence of phyB gene in R. stricta is due to RsphyA gene taking over the role of phyB.
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Incidence trends of colorectal cancer in the West of Iran during 2000-2005.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Colorectal cancer is a main leading cause of cancer death in western countries. Although many studies have been conducted on incidence trends all over the world in recent years, information regarding changes in incidence of colorectal cancer in Iran is insufficient. The present study of colorectal cancer in the west of Iran during recent years was therefore performed.
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Inactivation of the RB family prevents thymus involution and promotes thymic function by direct control of Foxn1 expression.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Thymic involution during aging is a major cause of decreased production of T cells and reduced immunity. Here we show that inactivation of Rb family genes in young mice prevents thymic involution and results in an enlarged thymus competent for increased production of naive T cells. This phenotype originates from the expansion of functional thymic epithelial cells (TECs). In RB family mutant TECs, increased activity of E2F transcription factors drives increased expression of Foxn1, a central regulator of the thymic epithelium. Increased Foxn1 expression is required for the thymic expansion observed in Rb family mutant mice. Thus, the RB family promotes thymic involution and controls T cell production via a bone marrow-independent mechanism, identifying a novel pathway to target to increase thymic function in patients.
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Bed net related burns at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda: A case series report.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Insecticide-treated bed nets are essential tools to prevent malaria in endemic regions, however, increasing trends in bed net related burns in Kampala, Uganda are concerning.
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Effects of surface modification on the mechanical and structural properties of nanofibrous poly(?-caprolactone)/forsterite scaffold for tissue engineering applications.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Composite scaffolds consisting of polymers reinforced with ceramic nanoparticles are widely applied for hard tissue engineering. However, due to the incompatible polarity of ceramic nanoparticles with polymers, they tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix which results in undesirable effects on the integral properties of composites. In this research, forsterite (Mg2SiO4) nanoparticles was surface esterified by dodecyl alcohol and nanofibrous poly(?-caprolactone)(PCL)/modified forsterite scaffolds were developed through electrospinning technique. The aim of this research was to investigate the properties of surface modified forsterite nanopowder and PCL/modified forsterite scaffolds, before and after hydrolytic treatment, as well as the cellular attachment and proliferation. Results demonstrated that surface modification of nanoparticles significantly enhanced the tensile strength and toughness of scaffolds upon 1.5- and 4-folds compared to unmodified samples, respectively, due to improved compatibility between matrix and filler. Hydrolytic treatment of scaffolds also modified the bioactivity and cellular attachment and proliferation due to greatly enhanced hydrophilicity of the forsterite nanoparticles after this process compared to surface modified samples. Results suggested that surface modification of forsterite nanopowder and hydrolytic treatment of the developed scaffolds were effective approaches to address the issues in the formation of composite fibers and resulted in development of bioactive composite scaffolds with ideal mechanical and structural properties for bone tissue engineering applications.
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Use of a KIT-specific monoclonal antibody to bypass imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Oncoimmunology
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Acquired resistance to imatinib is a significant problem for the clinical management of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients, and second-line small molecules have shown limited efficacy in this setting. We have recently demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody targeting KIT could potentially bypass imatinib resistance in preclinical models of GIST.
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Autosomal recessive cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy: association with a mutation in the potassium channel associated gene CNTN2.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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We characterize a consanguineous Egyptian family with an autosomal recessively inherited familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy. We used multipoint linkage analysis to map the causative mutation to a 12.7 megabase interval within 1q31.3-q32.2 with a log of odds score of 3.6. For further investigation of the linked region in an efficient and unbiased manner, we performed exome sequencing. Within the suspected region we identified a homozygous single base pair deletion (c.503_503delG) leading to a frameshift in the coding region of the sixth exon of CNTN2 alias TAG-1 (p.Trp168fs), which segregated in the respective family. Many studies point towards an important role of the CNTN2 product contactin 2 in neuronal excitability. Contactin 2, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neuronal membrane protein, and another transmembrane protein called contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2 alias CASPR2) are together necessary to maintain voltage-gated potassium channels at the juxtaparanodal region. CNTN2 knockout mice were previously reported to suffer from spontaneous seizures and mutations in the CNTNAP2 gene have been described to cause epilepsy in humans. To further delineate the role of CNTN2 in patients with epilepsy, we sequenced the coding exons in 189 Caucasian patients with epilepsy. No recessive mutation was detected and heterozygote carriers of rare CNTN2 variants do not seem to be predisposed to epilepsy. Given the severity of the mutation and the proposed function of the gene, we consider this mutation as the most likely cause for cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy in this family.
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High-rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic conversion of methane (CH(4)) to methanol (CH3OH). In this study, we employed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to selectively and partially oxidize CH(4) to CH(3)OH. In fed-batch reactors using mixed nitrifying enrichment cultures from a continuous bioreactor, up to 59.89 ± 1.12 mg COD/L of CH(3)OH was produced within an incubation time of 7 h, which is approximately ten times the yield obtained previously using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. The maximum specific rate of CH(4) to CH(3)OH conversion obtained during this study was 0.82 mg CH(3)OH COD/mg AOB biomass COD-d, which is 1.5 times the highest value reported with pure cultures. Notwithstanding these positive results, CH(4) oxidation to CH(3)OH by AOB was inhibited by NH(3) (the primary substrate for the oxidative enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase, AMO) as well as the product, CH(3)OH, itself. Further, oxidation of CH(4) to CH(3)OH by AOB was also limited by reducing equivalents supply, which could be overcome by externally supplying hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) as an electron donor. Therefore, a potential optimum design for promoting CH(4) to CH(3)OH oxidation by AOB could involve supplying NH(3) (needed to maintain AMO activity) uncoupled from the supply of NH(2)OH and CH(4). Partial oxidation of CH(4)-containing gases to CH3OH by AOB represents an attractive platform for the conversion of a gaseous mixture to an aqueous compound, which could be used as a commodity chemical. Alternately, the nitrate and CH(3) OH thus produced could be channeled to a downstream anoxic zone in a biological nitrogen removal process to effect nitrate reduction to N(2), using an internally produced organic electron donor.
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The Neglected Lead on Electrocardiogram: T Wave Inversion in Lead aVL, Nonspecific Finding or a Sign for Left Anterior Descending Artery Lesion?
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most important diagnostic tool for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). T wave inversion (TWI) in lead aVL has not been emphasized or well recognized.
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Anti-KIT monoclonal antibody inhibits imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor growth.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and arises from the interstitial cells of Cajal. It is characterized by expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase CD117 (KIT). In 70-80% of GIST cases, oncogenic mutations in KIT are present, leading to constitutive activation of the receptor, which drives the proliferation of these tumors. Treatment of GIST with imatinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits KIT-mediated signaling and initially results in disease control in 70-85% of patients with KIT-positive GIST. However, the vast majority of patients eventually develop resistance to imatinib treatment, leading to disease progression and posing a significant challenge in the clinical management of these tumors. Here, we show that an anti-KIT monoclonal antibody (mAb), SR1, is able to slow the growth of three human GIST cell lines in vitro. Importantly, these reductions in cell growth were equivalent between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines. Treatment of GIST cell lines with SR1 reduces cell-surface KIT expression, suggesting that mAb-induced KIT down-regulation may be a mechanism by which SR1 inhibits GIST growth. Furthermore, we also show that SR1 treatment enhances phagocytosis of GIST cells by macrophages, indicating that treatment with SR1 may enhance immune cell-mediated tumor clearance. Finally, using two xenotransplantation models of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST, we demonstrate that SR1 is able to strongly inhibit tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that treatment with mAbs targeting KIT may represent an alternative, or complementary, approach for treating GIST.
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Imatinib and Dasatinib Inhibit Hemangiosarcoma and Implicate PDGFR-? and Src in Tumor Growth.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Hemangiosarcoma, a natural model of human angiosarcoma, is an aggressive vascular tumor diagnosed commonly in dogs. The documented expression of several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by these tumors makes them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, we possess limited knowledge of the effects of TKIs on hemangiosarcoma as well as other soft tissue sarcomas. We report here on the use of the TKIs imatinib and dasatinib in canine hemangiosarcoma and their effects on platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR-?) and Src inhibition. Both TKIs reduced cell viability, but dasatinib was markedly more potent in this regard, mediating cytotoxic effects orders of magnitude greater than imatinib. Dasatinib also inhibited the phosphorylation of the shared PDGFR-? target at a concentration approximately 1000 times less than that needed by imatinib and effectively blocked Src phosphorylation. Both inhibitors augmented the response to doxorubicin, suggesting that clinical responses likely will be improved using both drugs in combination; however, dasatinib was significantly (P < .05) more effective in this context. Despite the higher concentrations needed in cell-based assays, imatinib significantly inhibited tumor growth (P < .05) in a tumor xenograft model, highlighting that disruption of PDGFR-?/PDGF signaling may be important in targeting the angiogenic nature of these tumors. Treatment of a dog with spontaneously occurring hemangiosarcoma established that clinically achievable doses of dasatinib may be realized in dogs and provides a means to investigate the effect of TKIs on soft tissue sarcomas in a large animal model.
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The effects of taurolidine alone and in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin in canine osteosarcoma in vitro.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Osteosarcoma (OS) affects over 8000 dogs/year in the United States. The disease usually arises in the appendicular skeleton and metastasizes to the lung. Dogs with localized appendicular disease benefit from limb amputation and chemotherapy but most die within 6-12 months despite these treatments. Taurolidine, a derivative of taurine, has anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects against a variety of cancers. The following in vitro studies tested taurolidine as a candidate for adjuvant therapy for canine OS. Tests for p53 protein status and caspase activity were used to elucidate mechanisms of taurolidine-induced cell death.
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Development of novel aligned nanofibrous composite membranes for guided bone regeneration.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The ability to mimic the structure of the natural extracellular matrix is a successful key for guided bone regeneration (GBR). For the regeneration of highly organized structures such as heart and bone, aligned fibrous membranes could provide anisotropic mechanical and biological properties which are adequate topographic guidance to cells. Here, novel nanofibrous membranes were developed through electrospinning of PCL-forsterite nanopowder. The membranes were characterized with regard to structural and mechanical properties, degradation, bioactivity and cellular interactive responses. Results showed that optimized nanofibrous composite membrane with significantly improved tensile strength and elastic modules was achieved through addition of 10 wt% forsterite nanopowder into PCL membrane. Addition of forsterite nanopowder decreased the average fiber diameters from 872±361 nm (pure PCL membrane) to 258±159 nm (PCL-10 wt% forsterite membrane). At higher forsterite contents (>10 wt%), the agglomeration of nanoparticles was observed which resulted in reduced mechanical properties. Aligned fibrous membranes revealed smaller fiber sizes and significantly enhanced and anisotropic mechanical properties compared to random ones suggesting that fiber alignment has a profound effect on the structural properties of membranes. Forsterite nanopowder increased the degradation rate showing enhanced hydrophilicity and induced apatite formation in simulated body fluid. Furthermore, composite nanofibrous membranes possessed significantly improved cellular responses in terms of attachment, proliferation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts compared to PCL membrane. Thus, the currently developed nanofibrous composite membranes embedded in forsterite nanopowder expected to be attractive in GBR membrane applications.
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Prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices and associated factors among mothers in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.
Int Breastfeed J
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. World Health Organization (WHO) recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months which has a great contribution in reducing under five mortality, which otherwise leads to death of 88/1000 live birth yearly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess prevalence of EBF and associated factors in mothers in the town of Bahirdar, Northwest Ethiopia.
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Assessment of voluntary counseling and testing service utilization and associated factors among Debre Markos University Students, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey in 2011.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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BACKGROUND: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is the key entry point to prevention, care, treatment and support services, where people learn whether they are infected or not and to understand the implications of their HIV status and make informed choices for the future. METHODS: A cross sectional study design was done among 753 students drawn from selected departments in Debre Markos University, Ethiopia, using multi-stage sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the prevalence of VCT service utilization and to assess associated factors. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: 711 students were participated in the study, of whom, 521 were males. Majority (93.8%) were within the age range of 15 to 24 years. The mean age was 21.5(3.2+/-); most of the respondents (91.6%) were single. Majority (81.4%) heard about the confidential VCT service, and their major sources of information were mass media (73.3%) and health workers (71.1%). The study revealed that 58.5% of the study participants had undergone voluntary counseling and testing. It was shown that VCT service utilization was significantly associated with availability of ART drug in VCT site, heard presence of confidentiality, perceived stigma, risk perception and knowledge about HIV. CONCLUSION: The major factors identified for increased VCT service utilization were knowledge about availability of ART drug in VCT site, information about confidentiality, absence of perceived stigma, higher risk perception and knowledge about HIV. Therefore, actions targeting on these predictors are necessary to effectively enhance the use of the VCT services utilization.
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Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ? 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (?(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.
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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Afghanistan, 2009.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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In response to an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in western Afghanistan, we measured immunoglobulin G seroprevalence among household members and their animals. Seroprevalence was 11.2% and 75.0% in humans (n = 330) and livestock (n = 132), respectively. Persons with frequent exposure to cattle had an elevated risk of being immunoglobulin G positive.
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Trichorionic quadruplet delivered beyond 36 weeks of gestation: a case report and literature review.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Following one year of secondary fertility, a couple conceived with a quadruplet after transfer of three embryos through IVF-ICSI. At 36 weeks and 2 days of gestation, the mother developed gestational induced hypertension and delivered the next day by caesarean section. Pathology confirmed the zygosity to be trichorionic quadramniotic and all four babies were discharged home with their mother on postoperative day 3. Herein, we describe a successfully managed high-risk pregnancy case. A review of the literature was conducted and to our knowledge no other cases with similar criteria ever reached such advanced gestational age.
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Novel combined miniature optical coherence tomography ultrasound probe for in vivo intravascular imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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We have developed a miniature integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) probing system for intravascular imaging applications. In the OCT probe, the light coming out of a single mode fiber is focused by a gradient-index lens and then reflected by a right-angle prism from the side of the probe into the sample. It was combined with a 35 MHz PMN-PT side-viewing ultrasound transducer to obtain the ultrasound image as well. The OCT and ultrasound probes were integrated as a single probe to obtain OCT and ultrasound images simultaneously. The integrated probe has an outer diameter of 0.69 mm which, to our knowledge, is the smallest integrated OCT-US probe reported. Fast data acquisition and processing was implemented for real-time imaging. In vitro OCT and US images of human coronary artery with pathology, as well as in vivo images of normal rabbit abdominal aorta, were obtained using the integrated OCT-US probe to demonstrate its capability.
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Copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in blood serum and diet of dairy cattle on semi-industrial farms in central Iran.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood serum and diet concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in Holstein dairy cattle kept under semi-industrial farming in Isfahan province, central Iran. Moreover, the effects of season, pregnancy, and daily milk yield on serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations were also evaluated. The study was carried out on 12 semi-industrial Holstein dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 blood serum samples (60 in each season) and 24 diet samples (12 in each season) were collected in the summer and winter. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents were assessed in samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the summer, the mean concentrations of Cu and Fe in serum samples were lower and higher than the critical level, respectively (P?
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Seroepidemiological study of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BoHV-1, PI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3) in dairy cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province).
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible for major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Several viruses, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine adenoviruses (BAV), are detected in most clinical cases with respiratory signs. The aim of this study is to define seroprevalences of five major viral causes of bovine respiratory infections in cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province). The population targeted was 642 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian) from 25 farms. Samples of blood serum from female cattle were examined. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA kits to detect antibody against BRSV, BoHV-1, BPI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. In the present study, seroprevalences of BRSV, BoHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BAV-3 were 51.1%, 72%, 84.4%, 49.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. The present study shows that infections of bovine respiratory viruses are very common in cattle in Esfahan.
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CSF1 expression in nongynecological leiomyosarcoma is associated with increased tumor angiogenesis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant tumor of smooth muscle cells for which few effective therapies exist. A subset of LMS cases express macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) and the resultant tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration predicts poor clinical outcome. Further, TAMs have been shown to increase tumor angiogenesis. Here, we analyzed 149 LMS cases by immunohistochemistry for vascular marker CD34 and show that high microvessel density (MVD) in nongynecological LMS cases significantly predicts poor patient outcome. The majority of high MVD cases were also CSF1-positive, and when combining high MVD with CSF1 expression, an even stronger prognostic correlation with patient outcome was obtained. Gene expression profiling revealed that MVD has a stronger correlation with CSF1 expression than with expression of vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms, which have traditionally been used as markers of angiogenesis and as anti-angiogenic therapeutic targets. Finally, patterns of CSF1 expression and TAM recruitment remained consistent between primary tumors and their metastases, and between primary tumors and those grown as xenografts in mice, highlighting the stability of these features to the biology of LMS tumors. Together, these findings suggest an important role for CSF1 and the resulting TAM infiltration in the pathological neovascularization of LMS tumors and provide a rationale for CSF1-targeted therapies in LMS.
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The chemical composition and the content of volatile oil: potential factors that can contribute to the oxidative stability of Nigella sativa L. crude oil.
J Diet Suppl
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The crude oil of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) has well-known nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties. The oil is prone to rapid oxidative deterioration because of its high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In the current investigation, different cold-pressed crude oils of N. sativa were examined for their composition of fatty acids and oxidative stability. The data obtained were correlated with the chemical composition and content of volatile oils, which correspond to each crude oil. Results indicated that different crude oils have the same fatty acid composition, and linoleic acid was the major constituent (60.0-61.7%). Though, the oxidative stability index of the crude oils was different ranging from 2.5 hr to 26.9 hr, as revealed by the Rancimate test at 100°C and airflow rate of 20 ml/min. The results showed that there is a straightforward correlation between the volatile oil content and the oxidative stability of the corresponding parent crude oil. In addition, high ?-terpinene content in the constitution of volatile oil can also be another contributing factor for enhancing the oxidative stability of the crude oil. The data presented here draw attention to some important factors that may guide the nutraceutical and food supplement processors in their screening for the highest quality of Nigella crude oils with maximum health benefits.
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Early recognition of catheter-induced left main coronary artery vasospasm: implications for revascularization.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Catheter-induced left main coronary artery (LMCA) vasospasm is a rare complication of coronary angiography that confounds the decision for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We report two cases of catheter-induced LMCA vasospasm. The first case was a 68-year-old woman who presented 6 years after CABG for presumed severe LMCA atherosclerotic disease. Coronary angiography demonstrated totally occluded CABGs and normal native coronary arteries, including a normal LMCA. The second case was a 56-year-old man with severe LMCA stenosis, who was scheduled for unprotected LM percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Repeat angiography 2 days later showed no stenosis. These cases emphasize the need for meticulous technique and a high index of suspicion of LMCA vasospasm. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at the time of angiography may help to identify minimal atherosclerotic disease suggesting vasospasm. Alternatively, noninvasive testing, such as computed tomography (CT) angiography, may diagnose LM spasm in these patients prior to CABG surgery.
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Cardiac malformations in Pdgfralpha mutant embryos are associated with increased expression of WT1 and Nkx2.5 in the second heart field.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfralpha) identifies cardiac progenitor cells in the posterior part of the second heart field. We aim to elucidate the role of Pdgfralpha in this region. Hearts of Pdgfralpha-deficient mouse embryos (E9.5-E14.5) showed cardiac malformations consisting of atrial and sinus venosus myocardium hypoplasia, including venous valves and sinoatrial node. In vivo staining for Nkx2.5 showed increased myocardial expression in Pdgfralpha mutants, confirmed by Western blot analysis. Due to hypoplasia of the primary atrial septum, mesenchymal cap, and dorsal mesenchymal protrusion, the atrioventricular septal complex failed to fuse. Impaired epicardial development and severe blebbing coincided with diminished migration of epicardium-derived cells and myocardial thinning, which could be linked to increased WT1 and altered alpha4-integrin expression. Our data provide novel insight for a possible role for Pdgfralpha in transduction pathways that lead to repression of Nkx2.5 and WT1 during development of posterior heart field-derived cardiac structures.
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Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.
Disasters
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims).
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Synthesis of some new mono- and bis-polycyclic aromatic spiro and bis-nonspiro-beta-lactams.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Some new mono-and bis-polycyclic aromatic spiro-beta-lactams and bis-non spiro-polycyclic aromatic beta-lactams have been synthesized from imines derived from anthracene-9-carbaldehyde, 2-naphtaldehyde and a ketene derived from 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid and phenoxyacetic acid by a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. The cycloadducts were characterized by spectral data, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and elemental analyses. The configurations of some of these mono-spiro-beta-lactams were established by X-ray crystal analysis.
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Epicardium-derived cells enhance proliferation, cellular maturation and alignment of cardiomyocytes.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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During heart development, cells from the proepicardial organ spread over the naked heart tube to form the epicardium. From here, epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) migrate into the myocardium. EPDCs proved to be indispensable for the formation of the ventricular compact zone and myocardial maturation, by largely unknown mechanisms. In this study we investigated in vitro how EPDCs affect cardiomyocyte proliferation, cellular alignment and contraction, as well as the expression and cellular distribution of proteins involved in myocardial maturation. Embryonic quail EPDCs induced proliferation of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. This required cell-cell interactions, as proliferation was not observed in transwell cocultures. Western blot analysis showed elevated levels of electrical and mechanical junctions (connexin43, N-cadherin), sarcomeric proteins (Troponin-I, alpha-actinin), extracellular matrix (collagen I and periostin) in cocultures of EPDCs and cardiomyocytes. Immunohistochemistry indicated more membrane-bound expression of Cx43, N-cadherin, the mechanotransduction molecule focal adhesion kinase, and higher expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a). Newly developed software for analysis of directionality in immunofluorescent stainings showed a quantitatively determined enhanced cellular alignment of cardiomyocytes. This was functionally related to increased contraction. The in vitro effects of EPDCs on cardiomyocytes were confirmed in three reciprocal in vivo models for EPDC-depletion (chicken and mice) in which downregulation of myocardial N-cadherin, Cx43, and FAK were observed. In conclusion, direct interaction of EPDCs with cardiomyocytes induced proliferation, correct mechanical and electrical coupling of cardiomyocytes, ECM-deposition and concurrent establishment of cellular array. These findings implicate that EPDCs are ideal candidates as adjuvant cells for cardiomyocyte integration during cardiac (stem) cell therapy.
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Discovery of molecular subtypes in leiomyosarcoma through integrative molecular profiling.
Oncogene
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2009
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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a soft tissue tumor with a significant degree of morphologic and molecular heterogeneity. We used integrative molecular profiling to discover and characterize molecular subtypes of LMS. Gene expression profiling was performed on 51 LMS samples. Unsupervised clustering showed three reproducible LMS clusters. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was performed on 20 LMS samples and showed that the molecular subtypes defined by gene expression showed distinct genomic changes. Tumors from the muscle-enriched cluster showed significantly increased copy number changes (P=0.04). A majority of the muscle-enriched cases showed loss at 16q24, which contains Fanconi anemia, complementation group A, known to have an important role in DNA repair, and loss at 1p36, which contains PRDM16, of which loss promotes muscle differentiation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on LMS tissue microarrays (n=377) for five markers with high levels of messenger RNA in the muscle-enriched cluster (ACTG2, CASQ2, SLMAP, CFL2 and MYLK) and showed significantly correlated expression of the five proteins (all pairwise P<0.005). Expression of the five markers was associated with improved disease-specific survival in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.04). In this analysis that combined gene expression profiling, aCGH and IHC, we characterized distinct molecular LMS subtypes, provided insight into their pathogenesis, and identified prognostic biomarkers.
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4-(9-Anthr-yl)-1-(3-bromo-phen-yl)spiro-[azetidine-3,9-xanthen]-2-one.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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In the title mol-ecule, C(35)H(22)BrNO(2), the four-membered ring of the ?-lactam unit is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.003?(3)?Å] and makes dihedral angles of 87.07?(15), 59.80?(16) and 20.81?(19)°, respectively, with the xanthene system, the anthracene system and the bromo-substituted benzene ring. The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by weak intra-molecular C-H?O and C-H?N hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure features weak C-H?? inter-actions.
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A novel mutation in the MFSD8 gene in late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Neurogenetics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are lysosomal storage disorders and constitute the most common group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases in childhood. Most NCLs are inherited in a recessive manner and are clinically characterised by a variable age at onset, epileptic seizures, psychomotor decline, visual impairment and premature death. To date, eight causative genes have been identified to underlie various clinical forms of NCL. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis followed by sequencing the recently described NCL gene MFSD8 in three affected and three unaffected members of a consanguineous Egyptian family with an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The clinical picture of the patients was compatible with a late infantile NCL (LINCL); however, impairment of the visual system was not a cardinal symptom in the respective family. By linkage analysis, we identified two putative loci on chromosome 1p36.11-p35.1 and 4q28.1-q28.2. The latter locus (4q28.1-q28.2) contained the MFSD8 gene, comprising a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 5 (c.362a>g /p.Tyr121Cys), which segregated with the disease in the three affected sibs. We describe a novel mutation in the previously identified MFSD8 gene in a family with a common phenotype of LINCL, but no clinical report of vision loss. Our results enlarge the mutational and perhaps the nosological spectrum of one of the recently identified subtypes of NCL, called CLN7.
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Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based imaging technology with powerful resolution capable of identifying vulnerable plaques and guiding coronary intervention. However, a significant limitation of intravascular OCT imaging is its attenuation by blood. We propose that the use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute could potentially optimize OCT image quality. Surgical isolation of the descending thoracic aorta of six rabbits is performed, followed by intravascular OCT imaging of the abdominal aorta. Perfluorodecalin (PFD) is oxygenated using a bubble-through technique with 100% oxygen. OCT imaging is performed and compared using three different flushing modalities: PFD; saline; and blood. OCT imaging of the rabbit abdominal aorta is successful in all of the subjects. In each of the six studied subjects, flushing with PFD consistently provides dramatically better imaging of the vessel wall tissue structures. OCT image quality is highly dependent on the ability of the flushing modality to remove blood from the imaging field. From this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that endovascular flushing with an oxygen-carrying blood substitute (PFD) is optically superior to saline flushing for intravascular imaging.
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Three simple steps during closed laparoscopic entry may minimize major injuries.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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To describe three steps: (1) the initial Veress pressure (VIP-Pressure), (2) transient high-pressure pneumoperitoneum (HIP-Entry) prior to trocar/cannula insertion, and (3) visual entry with a trocarless cannula during closed laparoscopic entry, which may reduce major injuries.
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Value of centrifugated liquid-based cytology by Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald in oral epithelial cells.
Rare Tumors
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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For many years, liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed for cervical cancer screening and not oral cancer, as it requires automated devices. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of centrifugated CLBC preparation with that of direct preparation in oral lesions, by Papanicolaou (Pap) and May Grünwald-Giemsas (MGG) methods. A total of 100 consecutive cases of oral lesions were investigated. We compared the results obtained by the CLBC performed by cytocentrifugation with those obtained by direct smear applying Pap and MGG methods. The comparison between CLBC and direct smears was based on the thickening or adequacy of the smear, distribution of cells and staining quality. All smears in CLBC and direct preparation were found adequate. For thickness of the smear, 40% and 42% were excellent, 33% and 30% were good, and 27% and 28% were acceptable by LBC and direct preparation, respectively. For the distribution of cells and scantiness of background elements, 92 (92%) smears of the CLBC have revealed clear, well distributed smears, compared to 70 (70%) of those in direct preparation. For the staining quality with the Pap method, 39% and 69% were excellent staining quality, 25% and 20% were good, and 36% and 11% were acceptable for CLBC and direct preparation, respectively. In MGG method, 9% and 22% were excellent staining quality, 23% and 36% were good and 68% and 43% were acceptable for CLBC and direct preparation respectively. CLBC performed by cytocentrifugation is inexpensive, and reduces inadequate smears and background staining.
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4-(9-Anthr-yl)-1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phen-yl)spiro-[azetidine-3,9-xanthen]-2-one.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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The title compound, C(37)H(27)NO(4), crystallizes with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The ?-lactam ring of each mol-ecule is very nearly planar, with maximum deviations of 0.001?(2) and 0.017?(2)?Å in the two mol-ecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular C-H?O and C-H?N contacts, as well as by weak C-H?? inter-actions.
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Pulmonary vein, dorsal atrial wall and atrial septum abnormalities in podoplanin knockout mice with disturbed posterior heart field contribution.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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The developing sinus venosus myocardium, derived from the posterior heart field, contributes to the atrial septum, the posterior atrial wall, the sino-atrial node, and myocardium lining the pulmonary and cardinal veins, all expressing podoplanin, a coelomic and myocardial marker. We compared development and differentiation of the myocardium and vascular wall of the pulmonary veins (PV), left atrial dorsal wall, and atrial septum in wild type with podoplanin knockout mouse embryos (E10.5-E18.5) by 3D reconstruction and immunohistochemistry. Expression of Nkx2.5 in the pulmonary venous myocardium changes from mosaic to positive during development pointing out a high proliferative rate compared with Nkx2.5 negative myocardium of the sino-atrial node and cardinal veins. In mutants, myocardium of the PVs, dorsal atrial wall and atrial septum was hypoplastic. The atrial septum and right-sided wall of the PV almost lacked interposed mesenchyme. Extension of smooth muscle cells into the left atrial body was diminished. We conclude that myocardium of the PVs, dorsal atrial wall, and atrial septum, as well as the smooth muscle cells, are derived from the posterior heart field regulated by podoplanin.
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Prevalence of peripheral artery disease varies significantly depending upon the method of calculating ankle brachial index.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Peripheral artery disease (PAD) identifies individuals at high risk for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) warranting aggressive risk reduction therapies. PAD can be diagnosed noninvasively by calculating the ankle brachial index (ABI), a ratio of ankle and arm blood pressures. We examined the existing various methods of calculating ABI and the resulting estimates of PAD prevalence.
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Supervised exercise to reduce agitation in severely cognitively impaired persons.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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Several studies have shown an improvement in depression, activities of daily living, and agitation in cognitively impaired subjects who undergo a long-term exercise program. These studies have not considered the short-term effects of exercise.
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The outflow tract in transposition of the great arteries: an anatomic and morphologic study.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Neoaortic root dilatation is observed after the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. Although structural differences in the vessel wall of these patients may be of influence, we hypothesize that a histomorphologic difference in composition and embedding of the fibrous annulus in transposition of the great arteries may play a role in neoaortic root dilatation.
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Podoplanin deficient mice show a RhoA-related hypoplasia of the sinus venosus myocardium including the sinoatrial node.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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We investigated the role of podoplanin in development of the sinus venosus myocardium comprising the sinoatrial node, dorsal atrial wall, and primary atrial septum as well as the myocardium of the cardinal and pulmonary veins. We analyzed podoplanin wild-type and knockout mouse embryos between embryonic day 9.5-15.5 using immunohistochemical marker podoplanin; sinoatrial-node marker HCN4; myocardial markers MLC-2a, Nkx2.5, as well as Cx43; coelomic marker WT-1; and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation markers E-cadherin and RhoA. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made and myocardial morphometry was performed. Podoplanin mutants showed hypoplasia of the sinoatrial node, primary atrial septum, and dorsal atrial wall. Myocardium lining the wall of the cardinal and pulmonary veins was thin and perforated. Impaired myocardial formation is correlated with abnormal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation of the coelomic epithelium due to up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated RhoA, which are controlled by podoplanin. Our results demonstrate an important role for podoplanin in development of sinus venosus myocardium.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.