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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The JAK-STAT Pathway is Critical in Ventilator-induced Diaphragm Dysfunction.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Mechanical ventilation (MV) is one of the lynchpins of modern intensive-care medicine and is life-saving in many critically ill patients. Continuous ventilator support, however, results in ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD) that likely prolongs patients' need for MV and thereby leads to major associated complications and avoidable intensive care unit (ICU) deaths. Oxidative stress is a key pathogenic event in the development of VIDD, but its regulation remains largely undefined. We report here that the JAK-STAT pathway is activated in MV human diaphragm, as evidenced by significantly increased phosphorylation of JAK and STAT. Blockage of the JAK-STAT pathway by a JAK inhibitor in a rat MV model prevents diaphragm muscle contractile dysfunction (by ~85%, p<0.01). We further demonstrate that activated STAT3 compromises mitochondrial function and induces oxidative stress in vivo, and interestingly that oxidative stress also activates JAK-STAT. Inhibition of JAK-STAT prevents oxidative stress-induced protein oxidation and polyubiquitination and recovers mitochondrial function in cultured muscle cells. Therefore, in ventilated diaphragm muscle, activation of JAK-STAT is critical in regulating oxidative stress and is thereby central to the downstream pathogenesis of clinical VIDD. These findings establish the molecular basis for the therapeutic promise of JAK-STAT inhibitors in ventilated ICU patients.
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An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: update on limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Limb muscle dysfunction is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it has important clinical implications, such as reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life, and even survival. Since the previous American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) statement on limb muscle dysfunction, important progress has been made on the characterization of this problem and on our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical implications.
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Regulation of angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 receptor signaling in endothelial cells by dual-specificity phosphatases 1, 4, and 5.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promotes survival and migration of endothelial cells, in part through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways downstream of Tie-2 receptors. Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/phosphothreonine residues on target MAPKs. The mechanisms by which DUSPs modulate MAPK activation in Ang-1/Tie-2 receptor signaling are unknown in endothelial cells.
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Autophagy in locomotor muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Rationale: Locomotor muscle atrophy develops in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) partly because of increased protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It is not known if autophagy also contributes to protein degradation. Objectives: To investigate whether autophagy is enhanced in locomotor muscles of stable patients with COPD, to quantify autophagy-related gene expression in these muscles, and to identify mechanisms of autophagy induction. Methods: Muscle biopsies were obtained from two cohorts of control subjects and patients with COPD and the numbers of autophagosomes in the vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior muscles, the levels of LC3B protein lipidation, and the expression of autophagy-related genes were measured in the vastus lateralis muscle. To investigate potential pathways that might induce the activation of autophagy, measures were taken of protein kinase B (AKT), mTORC1, and AMPK pathway activation, transcription factor regulation, proteasome activation, and oxidative stress. Measurements and Main Results: Autophagy is enhanced in the locomotor muscles of patients with COPD as shown by significantly higher numbers of autophagosomes in affected muscles as compared with control subjects. Autophagosome number inversely correlates with FEV1. In the vastus lateralis, LC3B protein lipidation is increased by COPD and the expression of autophagy-related gene expressions is up-regulated. LC3B lipidation inversely correlates with thigh cross-sectional area, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio. Enhanced autophagy is associated with activation of the AMPK pathway and FOXO transcription factors, inhibition of the mTORC1 and AKT pathways, and the development of oxidative stress. Conclusions: Autophagy is significantly enhanced in locomotor muscles of stable patients with COPD. The degree of autophagy correlates with severity of muscle atrophy and lung function impairment.
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Protective role of PARK2/Parkin in sepsis-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Mitochondrial quality control plays a vital role in the maintenance of optimal mitochondrial function. However, its roles and regulation remain ill-defined in cardiac pathophysiology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PARK2/Parkin, an E3-ligase recently described as being involved in the regulation of cardiac mitophagy, is important for (1) the maintenance of normal cardiac mitochondrial function; and (2) adequate recovery from sepsis, a condition known to induce reversible mitochondrial injury through poorly understood mechanisms. Investigations of mitochondrial and cardiac function were thus performed in wild-type and Park2-deficient mice at baseline and at 2 different times following administration of a sublethal dose of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS injection induced cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunctions that were followed by complete recovery in wild-type mice. Recovery was associated with morphological and biochemical evidence of mitophagy, suggesting that this process is implicated in cardiac recovery from sepsis. Under baseline conditions, multiple cardiac mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed in Park2-deficient mice. These mild dysfunctions did not result in a visibly distinct cardiac phenotype. Importantly, Park2-deficient mice exhibited impaired recovery of cardiac contractility and constant degradation of mitochondrial metabolic functions. Interestingly, autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria was still possible in the absence of PARK2 likely through compensatory mechanisms implicating PARK2-independent mitophagy and upregulation of macroautophagy. Together, these results thus provide evidence that in vivo, mitochondrial autophagy is activated during sepsis, and that compensation for a lack of PARK2 is only partial and/or that PARK2 exerts additional protective roles in mitochondria.
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Autophagic flux and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscles during acute starvation.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Autophagy is an important proteolytic pathway in skeletal muscles. The roles of muscle fiber type composition and oxidative capacity remain unknown in relation to autophagy. The diaphragm (DIA) is a fast-twitch muscle fiber with high oxidative capacity, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle is a fast-twitch muscle fiber with low oxidative capacity, and the soleus muscle (SOL) is a slow-twitch muscle with high oxidative capacity. We hypothesized that oxidative capacity is a major determinant of autophagy in skeletal muscles. Following acute (24 h) starvation of adult C57/Bl6 mice, each muscle was assessed for autophagy and compared with controls. Autophagy was measured by monitoring autophagic flux following leupeptin (20 mg/kg) or colchicine (0.4 mg/kg/day) injection. Oxidative capacity was measured by monitoring citrate synthase activity. In control mice, autophagic flux values were significantly greater in the TA than in the DIA and SOL. In acutely starved mice, autophagic flux increased, most markedly in the TA, and several key autophagy-related genes were significantly induced. In both control and starved mice, there was a negative linear correlation of autophagic flux with citrate synthase activity. Starvation significantly induced AMPK phosphorylation and inhibited AKT and RPS6KB1 phosphorylation, again most markedly in the TA. Starvation induced Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4 expression and attenuated the phosphorylation of their gene products. We conclude that both basal and starvation-induced autophagic flux are greater in skeletal muscles with low oxidative capacity as compared with those with high oxidative capacity and that this difference is mediated through selective activation of the AMPK pathway and inhibition of the AKT-MTOR pathways.
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Antioxidants and mucolytics in COPD management: when (if ever) and in whom?
Curr Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of this disease. The oxidant/ antioxidant imbalance occurring in smokers and patients with COPD is well established. Thus, therapeutic strategies targeting oxidative stress with pharmacological antioxidant agents or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of COPD patients. Thiol compounts such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), carbocysteine, erdosteine, and fudosteine have been extensively studied. Although some results remain controversial, NAC and carbocysteine seem to have beneficial effect in patients not receiving inhaled corticosteroids who suffer from frequent exacerbations. In addition, other antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) are shown to decrease markers of oxidative stress in patients with emphysema, while others like glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimetics and NO synthase (iNOS) can prevent both inflammation and oxidative stress in clinical trials in vivo (or in mouse models). In this article we review the effectiveness of various antioxidant factors in COPD and their potential beneficial effect in the treatment of the disease.
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Angiogenesis-related factors in skeletal muscles of COPD patients: roles of angiopoietin-2.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The role of angiogenesis factors in skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. The first objective of this study was to assess various pro- and antiangiogenic factor and receptor expressions in the vastus lateralis muscles of control subjects and COPD patients. Preliminary inquiries revealed that angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) is overexpressed in limb muscles of COPD patients. ANGPT2 promotes skeletal satellite cell survival and differentiation. Factors that are involved in regulating muscle ANGPT2 production are unknown. The second objective of this study was to evaluate how oxidants and proinflammatory cytokines influence muscle-derived ANGPT2 expression. Angiogenic gene expressions in human vastus lateralis biopsies were quantified with low-density real-time PCR arrays. ANGPT2 mRNA expressions in cultured skeletal myoblasts were quantified in response to proinflammatory cytokine and H2O2 exposure. Ten proangiogenesis genes, including ANGPT2, were significantly upregulated in the vastus lateralis muscles of COPD patients. ANGPT2 mRNA levels correlated negatively with forced expiratory volume in 1 s and positively with muscle wasting. Immunoblotting confirmed that ANGPT2 protein levels were significantly greater in muscles of COPD patients compared with control subjects. ANGPT2 expression was induced by interferon-? and -? and by hydrogen peroxide, but not by tumor necrosis factor. We conclude that upregulation of ANGPT2 expression in vastus lateralis muscles of COPD patients is likely due to oxidative stress and represents a positive adaptive response aimed at facilitating myogenesis and angiogenesis.
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Intrinsic apoptosis in mechanically ventilated human diaphragm: linkage to a novel Fos/FoxO1/Stat3-Bim axis.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure in many critically ill patients. However, prolonged MV results in diaphragm dysfunction that contributes to the frequent difficulty in weaning patients from the ventilator. The molecular mechanisms underlying ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD) remain poorly understood. We report here that MV induces myonuclear DNA fragmentation (3-fold increase; P<0.01) and selective activation of caspase 9 (P<0.05) and Bcl2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim; 2- to 7-fold increase; P<0.05) in human diaphragm. MV also statistically significantly down-regulates mitochondrial gene expression and induces oxidative stress. In cultured muscle cells, we show that oxidative stress activates each of the catabolic pathways thought to underlie VIDD: apoptotic (P<0.05), proteasomal (P<0.05), and autophagic (P<0.01). Further, silencing Bim expression blocks (P<0.05) oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Overlapping the gene expression profiles of MV human diaphragm and H?O?-treated muscle cells, we identify Fos, FoxO1, and Stat3 as regulators of Bim expression as well as of expression of the catabolic markers atrogin and LC3. We thus identify a novel Fos/FoxO1/Stat3-Bim intrinsic apoptotic pathway and establish the centrality of oxidative stress in the development of VIDD. This information may help in the design of specific drugs to prevent this condition.
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Expression and functional roles of angiopoietin-2 in skeletal muscles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) are angiogenesis factors that modulate endothelial cell differentiation, survival and stability. Recent studies have suggested that skeletal muscle precursor cells constitutively express ANGPT1 and adhere to recombinant ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 proteins. It remains unclear whether or not they also express ANGPT2, or if ANGPT2 regulates the myogenesis program of muscle precursors. In this study, ANGPT2 regulatory factors and the effects of ANGPT2 on proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival were identified in cultured primary skeletal myoblasts. The cellular networks involved in the actions of ANGPT2 on skeletal muscle cells were also analyzed.
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Mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm disuse in humans triggers autophagy.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) results in atrophy of the human diaphragm. The autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) contributes to skeletal muscle proteolysis, but its contribution to diaphragmatic protein degradation in mechanically ventilated patients is unknown.
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Estradiol-dependent regulation of angiopoietin expression in breast cancer cells.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a ligand for Tie-2 receptors and a promoter of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis plays an important role in breast cancer, as it is one of the critical events required for tumors to grow and metastasize. In this study, we investigated the influence of estradiol (E2) on the expression of angiopoietins in breast cancer cell lines. Ang-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly higher in estrogen receptor-negative (ER?-) breast cancer cells than in estrogen receptor-positive (ER?+) cells. Exposure of ER?+ cells to E2 resulted in further reductions of Ang-1 levels. In mouse mammary pads inoculated with breast cancer cells, both tumor size and Ang-1 production were significantly lower in ER?+ cell-derived xenografts, as compared to those derived from ER?- cells. Reduction of circulating levels of E2 by ovariectomy eliminated this response. Overall, these results indicate that Ang-1 mRNA and protein expressions: (1) negatively correlate with the level of ER? in breast cancer cell lines; (2) are downregulated by E2 in an ER? dependent manner; and (3) positively correlate with the degree of angiogenesis in vivo. We conclude that Ang-1 is an important modulator of growth and progression of ER?- breast cancers.
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Expression and functional significance of nicotinamide N-methyl transferase in skeletal muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Nicotinamide N-methyl transferase (NNMT) is highly expressed in quadriceps muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, its expression in the diaphragm of these patients has not been assessed. The functional significance of NNMT induction in skeletal muscles of patients with COPD is also unknown.
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Early growth response-1 regulates angiopoietin-1-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is an important regulator of angiogenesis in endothelial cells. It promotes migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells, although the regulating factors involved in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of the transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) to Ang-1-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
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Role of autophagy in COPD skeletal muscle dysfunction.
J. Appl. Physiol.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease caused by parenchymal damage and irreversible airflow limitation. In addition to lung dysfunction, patients with COPD develop weight loss, malnutrition, poor exercise performance, and skeletal muscle atrophy. The latter has been attributed to an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and protein degradation. Several reports have confirmed that enhanced protein degradation and atrophy of limb muscles of COPD patient is mediated in part through activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that this activation is triggered by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Until recently, the importance of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in protein degradation of skeletal muscles has been largely ignored, however, recent evidence suggests that this pathway is actively involved in recycling of cytosolic proteins, organelles, and protein aggregates in normal skeletal muscles. The protective role of autophagy in the regulation of muscle mass has recently been uncovered in mice with muscle-specific suppression of autophagy. These mice develop severe muscle weakness, atrophy, and decreased muscle contractility. No information is yet available about the involvement of the autophagy in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in COPD patients. Pilot experiments on vastus lateralis muscle samples suggest that the autophagy-lysosome system is induced in COPD patients compared with control subjects. In this review, we summarize recent progress related to molecular structure, regulation, and roles of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in normal and diseased skeletal muscles. We also speculate about regulation and functional importance of this system in skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients.
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Autophagy and skeletal muscles in sepsis.
PLoS ONE
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Mitochondrial injury develops in skeletal muscles during the course of severe sepsis. Autophagy is a protein and organelle recycling pathway which functions to degrade or recycle unnecessary, redundant, or inefficient cellular components. No information is available regarding the degree of sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury and autophagy in the ventilatory and locomotor muscles. This study tests the hypotheses that the locomotor muscles are more prone to sepsis-induced mitochondrial injury, depressed biogenesis and autophagy induction compared with the ventilatory muscles.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the human diaphragm during mechanical ventilation.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with adverse effects on the diaphragm, but the cellular basis for this phenomenon, referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD), is poorly understood.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Nitric oxide regulates cytokine induction in the diaphragm in response to inspiratory resistive breathing.
J. Appl. Physiol.
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Resistive breathing (encountered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) results in cytokine upregulation and decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels in the strenuously contracting diaphragm. NO can regulate gene expression. We hypothesized that endogenously produced NO downregulates cytokine production triggered by strenuous diaphragmatic contraction. Wistar rats treated with vehicle, the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine-methylester (l-NAME), or the NO donor diethylenetriamine-NONOate (DETA) were subjected to inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB; 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure) for 6 h or sham operation. Additional groups of rats were subjected to IRB for 6 h with concurrent administration of l-NAME and inhibitors of NF-?B (BAY-11-7082), ERK1/2 (PD98059), or P38 (SB203580). Inhibition of NO production (with l-NAME) resulted in upregulation of IRB-induced diaphragmatic IL-6, IL-10, IL-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? levels by 50%, 53%, 60%, 47%, and 45%, respectively. In contrast, the NO donor (DETA) attenuated the IRB-induced cytokine upregulation to levels characteristic of quietly breathing animals. l-NAME augmented IRB-induced activation of MAPKs (P38 and ERK1/2) and NF-?B, whereas DETA triggered the opposite effect. NF-?B and ERK1/2 inhibition in l-NAME-treated animals blunted the l-NAME-induced cytokine upregulation except IL-6, whereas P38 inhibition blunted all (including IL-6) cytokine upregulation. NO downregulates IRB-induced cytokine production in the strenuously contracting diaphragm through its action on MAPKs and NF-?B.
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AMPK activation stimulates autophagy and ameliorates muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse diaphragm.
Am. J. Pathol.
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by myofiber death from apoptosis or necrosis, leading in many patients to fatal respiratory muscle weakness. Among other pathological features, DMD muscles show severely deranged metabolic gene regulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Defective mitochondria not only cause energetic deficiency, but also play roles in promoting myofiber atrophy and injury via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Autophagy is a bulk degradative mechanism that serves to augment energy production and eliminate defective mitochondria (mitophagy). We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master metabolic sensor in cells and on-switch for the autophagy-mitophagy pathway, would be beneficial in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Treatment of mdx mice for 4 weeks with an established AMPK agonist, AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside), potently triggered autophagy in the mdx diaphragm without inducing muscle fiber atrophy. In AICAR-treated mdx mice, the exaggerated sensitivity of mdx diaphragm mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition pore opening was restored to normal levels. There were associated improvements in mdx diaphragm histopathology and in maximal force-generating capacity, which were not linked to increased mitochondrial biogenesis or up-regulated utrophin expression. These findings suggest that agonists of AMPK and other inducers of the autophagy-mitophagy pathway can help to promote the elimination of defective mitochondria and may thus serve as useful therapeutic agents in DMD.
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Angiopoietin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor regulation of leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: role of nuclear receptor-77.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs). Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) inhibits this response. Nuclear receptor-77 (Nur77) is a proangiogenic nuclear receptor. In the present study, we assessed the influence of Ang-1 and VEGF on Nur77 expression in ECs, and evaluated its role in Ang-1/VEGF-mediated leukocyte adhesion.
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Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin augments lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury and apoptosis.
J. Immunol.
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Acute lung injury during bacterial infection is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, epithelial cell apoptosis, and disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier. TLR4 is required for lung injury in animals exposed to bacterial LPS and initiates proinflammatory responses in part via the transcription factor NF-?B. Ligation of TLR4 also initiates a proapoptotic response by activating IFN-? and STAT1-dependent genes. We recently demonstrated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key controller of cell growth and survival, can physically interact with STAT1 and suppress the induction of STAT1-dependent apoptosis genes. We therefore hypothesized that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin would increase LPS-induced apoptosis and lung injury in vivo. Rapamycin increased lung injury and cellular apoptosis in C57BL/6J mice exposed to intratracheal LPS for 24 h. Rapamycin also augmented STAT1 activation, and the induction of STAT1-dependent genes that mediate cellular apoptosis (i.e., Fas, caspase-3). LPS-induced lung injury was attenuated in STAT1 knockout mice. In addition, LPS and IFN-?-induced apoptosis was absent in cultured cells lacking STAT1, and, unlike in wild-type cells, a permissive effect of rapamycin was not observed. In contrast to its effect on STAT1, rapamycin inhibited NF-?B activation in vivo and reduced selected markers of inflammation (i.e., neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, TNF-?). Therefore, although it inhibits NF-?B and neutrophilic inflammation, rapamycin augments LPS-induced lung injury and apoptosis in a mechanism that involves STAT1 and the induction of STAT1-dependent apoptosis genes.
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REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES REGULATION OF AUTOPHAGY IN SKELETAL MUSCLES.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of physiological levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on skeletal muscle autophagy, a proteolytic pathway designed to regulate contractile and myofilament homeostasis and recycle long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Results: Basal levels of autophagy and autophagy triggered by 1.5 to 4 hr of acute nutrient deprivation, rapamycin treatment, or leucine deprivation were measured in differentiated C2C12 myotubes using long-lived protein degradation assays, LC3B lipidation, autophagy-related gene expression and electron microscopy. Pre-incubation with the general antioxidants tempol (SOD mimic) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the mitochondria-specific antioxidants mito-tempol and SS31 significantly decreased rates of long-lived protein degradation and LC3B flux and blocked induction of autophagy-related gene expressions. Mitochondrial ROS levels significantly increased in response to acute nutrient deprivation and rapamycin treatment. Mito-tempol and tempol blocked this response. Antioxidants decreased AMPK phosphorylation by 40% and significantly increased AKT phosphorylation, but exerted no effects on mTORC1-dependent ULK1 phosphorylation on Ser555. NAC significantly decreased basal LC3B autophagic flux in skeletal muscles of mice. Innovation: We report for the first time that endogenous ROS promote skeletal muscle autophagy at the basal level and in response to acute nutrient starvation and mTORC1 inhibition. We also report for the first time that mitochondria-derived ROS promote skeletal muscle autophagy and that this effect is mediated, in part, through regulation of autophagosome initiation and AKT inhibition. Conclusion: Mitochondria-derived ROS promote skeletal muscle autophagy and this effect is mediated, in part, through activation of AMPK and inhibition of AKT.
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