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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and quality of life among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.
Anxiety Stress Coping
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Background and Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and stress are significant problems among returning veterans and are associated with reduced quality of life. Design: A correlational design was used to examine the impact of a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter promoter gene on post-deployment adjustment among returning veterans. Methods: A total of 186 returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, general stress, and anxiety were assessed along with quality of life. Results: After controlling for combat exposure, age, sex of the participant, and race, 5-HTTLPR had a significant multivariate effect on post-deployment adjustment, such that S' carriers reported more post-deployment adjustment problems and worse quality of life than veterans homozygous for the L' allele. This effect was larger when the analyses were restricted to veterans of European ancestry. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that veterans who carry the S' allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism may be at increased risk for adjustment problems and reduced quality of life following deployments to war zones.
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A test of whether coping styles moderate the effect of PTSD symptoms on alcohol outcomes.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD). We hypothesized that avoidant and action-oriented coping styles would moderate the association between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol outcomes among U.S. Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans, such that PTSD symptoms would be most strongly and positively associated with negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking quantity when action-oriented coping was low and avoidant coping was high. The sample (N = 128; 85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment for PTSD and AUD and self-report surveys measuring coping styles, drinking quantity, and negative alcohol-related consequences. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a 3-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction (d = 0.47-0.55). Post hoc descriptive analyses indicated that veterans with a current diagnosis of PTSD, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with veterans with fewer risk factors. Findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation.
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A Bayesian model averaging approach to examining changes in quality of life among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Many Veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan return home with physical and psychological impairments that impact their ability to enjoy normal life activities and diminish their quality of life (QoL). The present research aimed to identify predictors of QoL over an eight-month period using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which is a statistical technique useful for maximizing power with smaller sample sizes. A sample of 117 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans receiving care in a southwestern health care system was recruited, and BMA examined the impact of key demographics (e.g., age, gender), diagnoses (e.g., depression), and treatment modalities (e.g., individual therapy, medication) on QoL over time. Multiple imputation based on Gibbs sampling was employed for incomplete data (6.4% missingness). Average follow-up QoL scores were significantly lower than at baseline (73.2 initial versus 69.5 four-month and 68.3 eight-month). Employment was associated with increased QoL during each follow-up, while post-traumatic stress disorder and Black race were inversely related. Additionally, predictive models indicated that depression, income, treatment for a medical condition, and group psychotherapy were strong negative predictors of four-month QoL but not eight-month QoL.
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Polypharmacy with antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: trends in multiple health care systems.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Patterns of pharmacologic treatment in U.S. outpatients with schizophrenia across multiple health care settings were investigated.
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The critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale: Initial psychometric properties and association with PTSD, anxiety, and depression.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The objective of the present research was to develop and evaluate a critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale for use with Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. The psychometric properties of the CWE were evaluated across three independent samples of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Despite its brevity (7 items), the CWE exhibited good internal consistency (average ? =0.83), good temporal stability (1-year test-retest reliability=0.73), good concurrent validity with lengthier measures of warzone experiences (average r=0.74), and a clear unidimensional factor structure (average factor loading=0.69). Study 2 confirmed the CWE?s factor structure through confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling demonstrated a strong association between CWE and post-deployment mental health, ? =0.49, p<0.001. Study 3 provided further support for the predictive validity of the CWE by demonstrating that it was associated with PTSD diagnosis, clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, and global functional impairment in an independent sample of Iraq/Afghanistan veterans (average r=0.59). While replication of these findings in more diverse samples is needed, the preliminary evidence from these studies indicates that the CWE is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of critical warzone experiences among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.
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Combined PTSD and depressive symptoms interact with post-deployment social support to predict suicidal ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Rates of suicide are alarmingly high in military and veteran samples. Suicide rates are particularly elevated among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, which share overlapping symptoms and frequently co-occur. Identifying and confirming factors that reduce, suicide risk among veterans with PTSD and depression is imperative. The proposed study evaluated, whether post-deployment social support moderated the influence of PTSD-depression symptoms on, suicidal ideation among Veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan using state of the art clinical, diagnostic interviews and self-report measures. Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans (n=145) were invited to, participate in a study evaluating returning Veterans? experiences. As predicted, PTSD-depression, symptoms had almost no effect on suicidal ideation (SI) when post-deployment social support was high; however, when, post-deployment social support was low, PTSD-depression symptoms were positively associated with, SI. Thus, social support may be an important factor for clinicians to assess in the context of PTSD and, depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to prospectively examine the inter-relationship, between PTSD/depression and social support on suicidal risk, as well as whether interventions to, improve social support result in decreased suicidality.
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Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Methodological Review Using CONSORT Guidelines.
J Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an extension of traditional exposure therapy and has been used to treat a variety of anxiety disorders. VRET utilizes a computer-generated virtual environment to present fear-relevant stimuli. Recent studies have evaluated the use of VRET for treatment of PTSD; however, a systematic evaluation of the methodological quality of these studies has yet to be conducted.
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The effect of social anxiety on urge and craving among, smokers with and without anxiety disorders.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD).
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The effects of venlafaxine and cognitive behavioral therapy alone and combined in the treatment of co-morbid alcohol use-anxiety disorders.
Behav Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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The effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN-225 mg daily) and transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) alone and in combination on alcohol intake in subjects with co-morbid alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and anxiety disorders were compared. Drinking outcomes and anxiety were assessed for 81 subjects treated for 11 weeks with one of 4 conditions: 1) VEN-CBT, 2) VEN-Progressive Muscle Relaxation therapy (PMR), 3) Placebo (PLC)-CBT and 4) a comparison group of PLC-PMR. For subjects who reported taking at least one dose of study medication, the Time×Group interaction was significant for percent days of heavy drinking and drinks consumed per day. For the measure of percent days heavy drinking, the paired comparison of PLC-CBT versus PLC-PMR group indicated that the PLC-CBT group had greater drinking reductions, whereas other groups were not superior to the comparison group. In Week 11, the proportion of subjects in the PLC-CBT group that had a 50% reduction from baseline in percent days heavy drinking was significantly greater than those in the comparison group. Of the 3 "active treatment" groups only the PLC-CBT group had significantly decreased heavy drinking when contrasted to the comparison group. This finding suggests that the transdiagnostic CBT approach of Barlow and colleagues may have value in the management of heavy drinking in individuals with co-morbid alcoholism and anxiety.
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Deployment-related TBI, persistent postconcussive symptoms, PTSD, and depression in OEF/OIF veterans.
Rehabil Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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A substantial proportion of the more than 2 million service members who have served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding the long-term impact of TBI is complicated by the nonspecific nature of postconcussive symptoms (PCSs) and the high rates of co-occurrence among TBI, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. The goal of the present research was to examine the relations among TBI, persistent PCSs, and symptoms of PTSD and depression among returning OEF/OIF veterans.
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Mental Health Treatment Involvement and Religious Coping among African American, Hispanic, and White Veterans of the Wars of Iraq and Afghanistan.
Depress Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Although racial/ethnic differences have been found in the use of mental health services for depression in the general population, research among Veterans has produced mixed results. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the use of mental health services among 148 Operation Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with high levels of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and evaluated whether religious coping affected service use. No differences between African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic white Veterans were found in use of secular mental health services or religious counseling. Women Veterans were more likely than men to seek secular treatment. After controlling for PTSD symptoms, depression symptom level was a significant predictor of psychotherapy attendance but not medication treatment. African American Veterans reported higher levels of religious coping than whites. Religious coping was associated with participation in religious counseling, but not secular mental health services.
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Measuring smoking-related preoccupation and compulsive drive: evaluation of the obsessive compulsive smoking scale.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Tobacco use for many people is compulsive in nature. Compelling theories of how smoking becomes compulsive exist but are largely based on extrapolation from neuroscience findings. Research on smokers is impeded, in part, by a lack of instruments that specifically measure compulsive smoking.
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Implications of participant self-selection for generalizability: who participates in smoking laboratory research?
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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The generalizability of data from laboratory smoking studies using volunteer samples is debatable. We tracked potential participants from first contact with research staff through screening to study completion. We found that a minority of individuals were ultimately enrolled in the study. Failure to enroll was as often a function of participant lack of attendance at the laboratory as a function of ineligibility. With some exceptions, groups of potential participants were similar regarding demographic characteristics and substance use history. These findings support the generalizability of the sample and highlight the importance of documenting details of study eligibility and participation. The studys limitations are noted.
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Differences in drinking patterns, occupational stress, and exposure to potentially traumatic events among firefighters: predictors of smoking relapse.
Am J Addict
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Despite the increased awareness regarding the risks of cigarette smoking, this behavior continues to be a serious public health concern. As such, the goal of the current study was to examine risk factors for smoking relapse among individuals employed through fire service.
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Transdermal nicotine during cue reactivity in adult smokers with and without anxiety disorders.
Psychol Addict Behav
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Transdermal nicotine almost doubles tobacco cessation rates; however, little is known about what happens to smokers during the quit process when they are wearing the nicotine patch and are confronted with high-risk smoking triggers. This is particularly important for smokers with psychological disorders who disproportionately represent todays smokers and have more trouble quitting. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, smokers with anxiety disorders (n=61) and smokers without any current Axis I disorders (n=38) received transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or a placebo patch over two assessment days separated by 48 hr. Urge to smoke was evaluated during a 5-hr patch absorption period (reflecting general smoking deprivation) and during imaginal exposure to theoretically high-risk triggers containing smoking cues, anxiety cues, both, or neutral cues. No differences were observed between smokers with and without anxiety disorders. Significant Patch×Time and Patch×Cue Content interactions were found. Both patch conditions experienced an increase in urge during the deprivation period, but postabsorption urge was significantly higher in the placebo condition, suggesting that transdermal nicotine attenuated the degree to which urge to smoke increased over time. During the cue reactivity trials, when participants received the nicotine patch, they experienced significantly lower urge in response to both smoking-only and neutral cues, but not when anxiety cues were present (alone or in combination with smoking cues). These data suggest that transdermal nicotine alleviates urge only under certain circumstances and that adjunctive interventions are likely necessary to address smoking urges in response to spikes in distress among smokers trying to quit.
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Neuropsychological sequelae of PTSD and TBI following war deployment among OEF/OIF veterans.
Neuropsychol Rev
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are highly prevalent among Veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These conditions are associated with common and unique neuropsychological and neuroanatomical changes. This review synthesizes neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies for both of these disorders and studies examining their co-occurrence. Recommendations for future research, including use of combined neuropsychological and advanced neuroimaging techniques to study these disorders alone and in concert, are presented. It is clear from the dearth of literature that addiitonal studies are required to examine and understand the impact of specific factors on neurocognitive outcome. Of particular relevance are temporal relationships between PTSD and mTBI, risk and resilience factors associated with both disorders and their co-occurrence, and mTBI-specific factors such as time since injury and severity of injury, utilizing comprehensive, yet targeted cognitive tasks.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.