Thermally activated redistribution of Si surface atoms is found to be a crucial factor for the growth of aligned Ge dots on pit-patterned Si(001) substrates. A phenomenon of Si accumulation around the edge of pits significantly alters the substrate surface morphology. As the pit spacing is reduced to below 100 nm, a convex morphology developed between adjacent pits causes a chemical potential distribution that drives the Ge dots into the pits. In addition, the pits of an etching depth greater than 60 nm will evolve into truncated inverted pyramids with sharp base corners that provide deep potential wells for the confinement of Ge dots. Perfectly aligned Ge dots are obtained on pit-patterned Si substrates with this range of pit spacing and etching depth. We also find that the initial geometric shape of the pits does not affect the spatial arrangement of Ge dots.
Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields.
In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the distortion in multilayer coding structures. Specifically, we analyze the prediction structure used to achieve temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of scalable video coding (SVC) and show that the average peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of SVC is a weighted combination of the bit rates assigned to all the streams. Our analysis utilizes the end users preference for certain resolutions. We also propose a rate-distortion (R-D) optimization algorithm and compare its performance with that of a state-of-the-art scalable bit allocation algorithm. The reported experiment results demonstrate that the R-D algorithm significantly outperforms the compared approach in terms of the average PSNR.
Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital.
Healthcare services integration is a critical task as it attempts to reform the user practices. In response to the request of facilities upgrade, we perform a usability evaluation of the mobile medical treatment carts (MMTC) installed in the Emergency Medicine Department of our healthcare enterprise. A survey conducted in August 2006 identified that our experimental area needs some improvements to support the MMTC adoption. For example, the MMTC can accompany with several popular nursing care items. Follow-up several undertaken investigations indicated that our expectation of the MMTC solution had been reached. Given the evident heterogeneity of viewpoints, it is imperative for a healthcare enterprise to broadly ascertain the requirements of end users before investing in any information technologies.
Barium titanate-based microwave dielectrics usually require relatively high temperatures to sinter, which prevents the use of base metals such as copper for electrodes. In this work, BaTi(4)O(9) microwave dielectric ceramics co-fired with copper electrodes are made possible by adding B-Si-Ba- Zn-O glass to induce liquid-phase sintering at sufficiently low temperature and in reduced atmosphere. The microstructures and electric properties of the BaTi(4)O(9) ceramics thus obtained are carefully examined and studied. Proper glass composition may significantly facilitate mass transportation in the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) material, resulting in better densification without serious degradation of electric properties. Although the B2O3/SiO2 ratio enhances the glass mobility during sintering, the BaO/ZnO ratio contributes to the chemical affinity of glass to BaTi(4)O(9) ceramics. In addition, various Ba-Ti-O phases with different Ba/Ti ratios may be found in the specimen through the X-ray diffraction patterns when the BaO/ZnO ratio is varied. If the BaO/ZnO ratio is high and the glass flows easily in the material, the Ba(4)Ti(13)O(30) phase is formed. If the BaO/ZnO ratio is low and the glass flows easily in the material, the BaTi(6)O(13) phase appears. We find that glass-induced Ba(4)Ti(13)O(30) transformation may significantly decrease Qxf values in the BT4-BSBZ materials. Therefore, the appropriate glass composition must be selected to ensure the phase stability of dielectrics to achieve the best performance possible.
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