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REFERENCE VALUES FOR LEPTIN, CORTISOL, INSULIN AND GLUCOSE, AMONG EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH ADIPOSITY: THE HELENA STUDY.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Adequate concentrations of leptin, cortisol, and insulin are important for a suitable metabolism and development during adolescence. These hormones jointly with glucose play a major role in fat metabolism and development of childhood obesity. Our main objective was to quantify biomarkers as leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose status in European adolescents to contribute to establish reference ranges.
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Polyubiquitylation drives replisome disassembly at the termination of DNA replication.
Science
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Resolution of replication forks during termination of DNA replication is essential for accurate duplication of eukaryotic genomes. Here we present evidence consistent with the idea that polyubiquitylation of a replisome component (Mcm7) leads to its disassembly at the converging terminating forks because of the action of the p97/VCP/Cdc48 protein remodeler. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we have shown that blocking polyubiquitylation results in the prolonged association of the active helicase with replicating chromatin. The Mcm7 subunit is the only component of the active helicase that we find polyubiquitylated during replication termination. The observed polyubiquitylation is followed by disassembly of the active helicase dependent on p97/VCP/Cdc48. Altogether, our data provide insight into the mechanism of replisome disassembly during eukaryotic DNA replication termination.
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Endosidin 7 Specifically Arrests Late Cytokinesis and Inhibits Callose Biosynthesis, Revealing Distinct Trafficking Events during Cell Plate Maturation.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Although cytokinesis is vital for plant growth and development, our mechanistic understanding of the highly regulated membrane and cargo transport mechanisms in relation to polysaccharide deposition during this process is limited. Here, we present an in-depth characterization of the small molecule endosidin 7 (ES7) inhibiting callose synthase activity and arresting late cytokinesis both in vitro and in vivo in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ES7 is a specific inhibitor for plant callose deposition during cytokinesis that does not affect endomembrane trafficking during interphase or cytoskeletal organization. The specificity of ES7 was demonstrated (1) by comparing its action with that of known inhibitors such as caffeine, flufenacet, and concanamycin A and (2) across kingdoms with a comparison in yeast. The interplay between cell plate-specific post-Golgi vesicle traffic and callose accumulation was analyzed using ES7, and it revealed unique and temporal contributions of secretory and endosomal vesicles in cell plate maturation. While RABA2A-labeled vesicles, which accumulate at the early stage of cell plate formation, were not affected by ES7, KNOLLE was differentially altered by the small molecule. In addition, the presence of clathrin-coated vesicles in cells containing elevated levels of callose and their reduction under ES7 treatment further support the role of endocytic membrane remodeling in the maturing cell plate while the plate is stabilized by callose. Taken together, these data show the essential role of callose during the late stages of cell plate maturation and establish the temporal relationship between vesicles and regulatory proteins at the cell plate assembly matrix during polysaccharide deposition.
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Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis predicts worse caregiver's health-related quality of life.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Little information exists about how cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients impacts on their caregivers' health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
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Role of chemokines in proteinuric kidney disorders.
Expert Rev Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Experimental and human studies have shown that proteinuria contributes to the progression of renal disease. Overexposure to filtered proteins promotes the expression and release of chemokines by tubular epithelial cells, thus leading to inflammatory cell recruitment and renal impairment. This review focuses on recent progress in cellular and molecular understanding of the role of chemokines in the pathogenesis of proteinuria-induced renal injury, as well as their clinical implications and therapeutic potential.
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Tenosynovitis with rice body formation presenting as a cutaneous abscess.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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A 62-year-old woman with a past medical history of rheumatoid arthritis was referred to the Department of Dermatology because of an enlarging cutaneous lesion on the right thumb which resembled a soft tissue infection. She had received antibiotics without significant improvement. Clinical examination revealed an erythematous nodule involving almost the whole surface of the distal phalanx with spontaneous drainage of countless of small yellowish ovoid granules. Histopathologic study of these structures showed an inner core of amorphous acidophilic material with some interspersed chronic inflammatory cells and a surrounding thin fibrin layer. Special stains and cultures were negative for parasites, bacterium and mycobacterium. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed distension of the first and fifth finger flexor sheaths and common finger flexor sheath. These areas were filled by fluid and multiple small nodular lesions. A diagnosis of non-infectious rice body tenosynovitis was rendered and surgical removal was performed. Total recovery was observed with no evidence of recurrence after 6?months of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of rice body tenosynovitis presenting as a pseudoinflammatory cutaneous lesion with evolution to a cutaneous fistula with drainage of rice grain-like structures. The description of this impressive and peculiar clinical and histopathologic picture is important to further recognize similar cases.
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Multiple sclerosis is associated with high trait anger: a case-control study.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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In recent years there has been a focus on health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in particular the importance of non-motor problems such as fatigue, pain, depression, anxiety, and cognitive disorders. However, little attention has been focused on other negative emotions, such as anger. Our purpose was to evaluate whether trait anger (a predisposition to experience frequent and intense episodes of anger over time) is different between persons with and without MS after controlling for depression, anxiety, and other socio-demographic variables.
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Distinctive expansion of potential virulence genes in the genome of the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Oomycetes in the class Saprolegniomycetidae of the Eukaryotic kingdom Stramenopila have evolved as severe pathogens of amphibians, crustaceans, fish and insects, resulting in major losses in aquaculture and damage to aquatic ecosystems. We have sequenced the 63 Mb genome of the fresh water fish pathogen, Saprolegnia parasitica. Approximately 1/3 of the assembled genome exhibits loss of heterozygosity, indicating an efficient mechanism for revealing new variation. Comparison of S. parasitica with plant pathogenic oomycetes suggests that during evolution the host cellular environment has driven distinct patterns of gene expansion and loss in the genomes of plant and animal pathogens. S. parasitica possesses one of the largest repertoires of proteases (270) among eukaryotes that are deployed in waves at different points during infection as determined from RNA-Seq data. In contrast, despite being capable of living saprotrophically, parasitism has led to loss of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, strikingly similar to losses in obligate plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. The large gene families that are hallmarks of plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora appear to be lacking in S. parasitica, including those encoding RXLR effectors, Crinklers, and Necrosis Inducing-Like Proteins (NLP). S. parasitica also has a very large kinome of 543 kinases, 10% of which is induced upon infection. Moreover, S. parasitica encodes several genes typical of animals or animal-pathogens and lacking from other oomycetes, including disintegrins and galactose-binding lectins, whose expression and evolutionary origins implicate horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of animal pathogenesis in S. parasitica.
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Angiogenic and inflammatory markers in acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal injury associated to A/H1N1 virus infection.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often associated to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to influenza A/H1N1 virus infection. The profile of angiogenic and inflammatory factors in ARDS patients may be relevant for AKI. We analyzed the serum levels of several angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in 32 patients with A/H1N1 virus infection (17 with ARDS/AKI and 15 ARDS patients who did not developed AKI) and in 18 healthy controls. Significantly higher levels of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 in ARDS/AKI patients were detected. Adjusting by confusing variables, levels of MCP-1 ?150 pg/mL (OR=12.0, p=0.04) and VEGF ?225 pg/mL (OR=6.4, p=0.03) were associated with the development of AKI in ARDS patients. Higher levels of MCP-1 and IP-10 were significantly associated with a higher risk of death in patients with ARDS (hazard ratio (HR)=10.0, p=0.02; HR=25.5, p=0.03, respectively) even taking into account AKI. Patients with influenza A/H1N1 infection and ARDS/AKI have an over-production of MCP-1, VEGF and IP-10 possibly contributing to kidney injury and are associated to a higher risk of death.
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Tuning the replication fork progression by the initiation frequency.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The thermo-resistant period of the thermo-sensitive ribonucleotide reductase RNR101 encoded by the nrdA101 allele in Escherichia coli is prolonged for 50?min at 42°C, enabling an increase in DNA content of about 45%. Assuming that fork progression in the nrdA101 mutant is impaired, the question whether reduced number of ongoing replication rounds altered the thermo-resistant period in this strain was investigated. Decreases in the oriC/terC ratio and in the number of oriC per cell at 30°C were found in the presence of oriC228, oriC229 and oriC239 alleles in strain nrdA101. Correlated with this effect, increased thermo-resistance period of the RNR101 was allowed, and the detrimental effects on cell division, chromosome segregation and cell viability observed in the nrdA101 mutant at 42°C were suppressed. These results indicate that conditions leading to chromosome initiation deficiency at 30°C enhance the replication fork progression in the nrdA101 mutant at 42°C. We propose that coordination between initiation frequency and replication fork progression could be significant for most of the replication systems with important consequences in their cell cycle regulation.
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Physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in adolescents: role of cardiorespiratory fitness levels--the HELENA study.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To analyze the association between objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and markers of insulin resistance (IR) in European adolescents and to examine whether the association of objectively assessed PA and markers of IR is modified by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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Objectively-measured and self-reported physical activity and fitness in relation to inflammatory markers in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Atherogenesis involves an inflammatory process that occurs early in life even though clinical symptoms are not observed until adulthood. Two important protective factors for low-grade inflammation may be physical activity (PA) and fitness. We examined the independent associations of objective and subjective measurements of PA and fitness with low-grade inflammation in European adolescents.
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EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases.
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Inhibition of activated receptor tyrosine kinases by Sunitinib induces growth arrest and sensitizes melanoma cells to Bortezomib by blocking Akt pathway.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Despite the use of multiple therapeutic strategies, metastatic melanoma remains a challenge for oncologists. Thus, new approaches using combinational treatment may be used to try to improve the prognosis of this disease. In this report, we have analyzed the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in melanoma specimens and in four metastatic melanoma cell lines. Both melanoma specimens and cell lines expressed RTKs, suggesting that they may represent eventual targets for multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Suntinib. Sunitinib reduced the proliferation of two melanoma cell lines (M16 and M17) and increased apoptosis in one of them (M16). Moreover, the two metastatic melanoma cell lines harbored an activated receptor (PDGFR? and VEGFR, respectively), and Sunitinib suppressed the phosphorylation of the RTKs and their downstream targets Akt and ribosomal protein S6, in these two cell lines. Similar results were obtained when either PDGFR? or VEGFR2 expression was silenced by lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA delivery in M16 and M17, respectively. To evaluate the interaction between Sunitinib and Bortezomib, median dose effect analysis using MTT assay was performed, and combination index was calculated. Bortezomib synergistically enhanced the Sunitinib-induced growth arrest in Sunitinib-sensitive cells (combination index < 1). Moreover, LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, sensitized melanoma cells to Bortezomib treatment, suggesting that downregulation of phospho-Akt by Sunitinib mediates the synergy obtained by Bortezomib + Sunitinib cotreatment. Altogether, our results suggest that melanoma cells harboring an activated RTK may be clinically responsive to pharmacologic RTK inhibition by Sunitinib, and a strategy combining Sunitinib and Bortezomib, may provide therapeutic benefit.
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Delivery of antigen to sialoadhesin or CD163 improves the specific immune response in pigs.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cell surface receptors represents a promising strategy to improve immune response to weak immunogenic antigens. We have analyzed the potential of porcine sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 as antigen targeting receptors using mouse Igs as surrogate antigens. Sn and CD163 are two endocytic receptors mainly expressed on macrophages located in antigen-sampling zones of secondary lymphoid organs. MAbs to CD163 induced in vitro PBMC proliferation at concentrations 50-80 fold lower than the control mAb when using, as responder cells, cells from pigs immunized with mouse serum IgGs. To evaluate in vivo targeting, pigs were immunized s.c. with anti-Sn, anti-CD163 or control mAbs, and the immune response induced to mouse Ig was analyzed. Two weeks after the first immunization, pigs receiving either anti-Sn or anti-CD163 mAbs started to show higher anti-mouse-IgG serum titres than controls. Boosting 6 weeks later, further increased the anti-IgG titres up to 15-60 fold those of controls. In addition, differences in the relative predominance of IgG1 or IgG2 subclasses in the response depending on Sn or CD163 targeting were observed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs immunized with anti-Sn mAb showed a higher proliferative response to mouse IgG than cells from pigs immunized with control mAb. These results show that targeting antigen to Sn or CD163 can enhance the immune response in pigs.
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Porcine monocyte subsets differ in the expression of CCR2 and in their responsiveness to CCL2.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Monocyte subsets have been shown to differ in the pattern of chemokine receptor expression and their migratory properties, both in human and mouse. Previously we have characterized in the swine several monocyte subpopulations, based on the expression of CD163, Tük4 and SLA-II, which share features with the populations described in human and mouse. Here, we have analysed the expression of different chemokine receptors in the CD163-Tük4+SLA-II- and CD163+Tük4-SLA-II+ populations of porcine monocytes. CD163+Tük4-SLA-II+ monocytes expressed higher CX3CR1 but lower CCR2 and CXCR4 mRNA levels than CD163-Tük4+SLA-II- monocytes. Moreover, porcine CCL2 binding on Tük4+SLA-II- but not on Tük4-SLA-II+ cells was detected by using a CCL2-green fluorescence protein (pCCL2-GFP) fusion protein. Finally, flow cytometric analyses of monocytes recovered after chemotaxis assays show a clear increase in the proportion of Tük4+SLA-II- cells in the fraction migrating toward CCL2, consistent with the polarized CCR2 expression in this monocyte population. The pattern of expression of these chemokine receptors reinforces the similarities of these porcine subsets with their human and mouse counterparts.
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Effectiveness of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in elderly patients with structural heart disease.
Rev Esp Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a well-recognized means of providing effective treatment for patients with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and structural heart disease. However, the benefits of these devices in patients with limited life-expectancy have been questioned. Moreover, the long-term efficacy of catheter ablation of VT in this setting is unknown.
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Akinetic mutism induced by tacrolimus.
Clin Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Akinetic mutism is an uncommon clinical syndrome characterized by the inability to produce voluntary movements or speech without loss of awareness. Cerebrovascular diseases are the most frequent etiology. It has been reported in cyclosporine-related neurotoxicity, but it is exceptional as the presenting form of tacrolimus intoxication. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation and was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and tacrolimus. He had an uneventful postoperative course until the third day after surgery, when he developed acute onset mutism, akinesia, and waxy rigidity of passive limb movements. His arterial blood pressure and temperature were normal. Blood analysis and a magnetic resonance image of the brain showed no acute abnormalities. Serum levels of tacrolimus were 20.8 ng/mL, so it was substituted by cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil with progressive and complete recovery of akinetic mutism during the following days. Akinetic mutism is an exceptional manifestation of tacrolimus neurotoxicity, but early recognition of the syndrome and withdrawal of the drug are important to avoid persistent cerebral lesions.
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Heat stroke, an unusual trigger of Brugada electrocardiogram.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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A young male individual with diagnosis of heat stroke was admitted unconscious to hospital. Electrocardiogram (ECG) at admission demonstrated typical right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation in V1 and V2 (coved morphology) diagnostic of Brugada syndrome. Maximal creatine kinase was 10,131 (IU/L); creatine kinase-MB, 15 (IU/L); troponin T, 0.039 ng/mL; and creatinine 1.6, mg/dL. Patient recovered from coma on day 6. Electrocardiogram normalized within the first 24 hours; no arrhythmias were documented. Echocardiogram before discharge was normal. Brugada ECG pattern can express intermittently, and challenge tests with a sodium channel blocker are often required for diagnosis. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death occur typically at night or during enhanced vagal activity. Fever has been related to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia particularly in children; nevertheless, prevalence is higher within males in their fourth to fifth decade. Mutations in SCN5A gene encoding a sodium channel can be found in up to 30% of cases. This sodium channel is sensitive to temperature changes. Sequencing of the gene failed to find any abnormality in our patient. A possible role of heat shock proteins in ion channels trafficking to cell membrane has been recently described. Despite diffuse ST-T deviations having been described in patients with heat stroke, localized right precordial leads ST elevation consistent with Brugada syndrome have not been reported. Recognition of typical ECG pattern is of importance because this syndrome is associated to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
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Multivariate analysis of toxicological and environmental properties of soil nematicides.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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In intensive agriculture, the use of pesticides and soil fumigants is necessary to produce economically viable crops worldwide. However, this practice may involve undesirable effects on human health and the environment. In 1995, methyl bromide was restricted by the Montreal Protocol because of possible ozone depletion. The objective of this study was to compare intrinsic environmental and toxicological properties of 11 active substances with nematicidal properties, some of them recognized as methyl bromide alternatives.
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Blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentration in essential tremor cases in Spain.
Neurotoxicology
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Environmental correlates for essential tremor (ET) are largely unexplored. The search for such environmental factors has involved the study of a number of neurotoxins. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing toxin. In two prior case-control studies in New York, we demonstrated that blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET patients vs. controls, and especially in familial ET cases. These findings, however, have been derived from a study of cases ascertained through a single tertiary referral center in New York.
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Targeting chemokines in proteinuria-induced renal disease.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
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Proteinuria is a common finding in glomerular diseases that contributes to the progression of chronic kidney injury. Tubular cells reabsorb the excess of albumin and other plasma proteins from the tubular lumen, triggering several pathophysiologic responses, such as overexpression of fibrogenic mediators and inflammatory chemokines. Chemokines are implicated both in the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrate and in a number of physiological and pathological processes related to protein overload.
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Reprogramming of gene expression during compression wood formation in pine: coordinated modulation of S-adenosylmethionine, lignin and lignan related genes.
BMC Plant Biol.
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Transcript profiling of differentiating secondary xylem has allowed us to draw a general picture of the genes involved in wood formation. However, our knowledge is still limited about the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate and modulate the different pathways providing substrates during xylogenesis. The development of compression wood in conifers constitutes an exceptional model for these studies. Although differential expression of a few genes in differentiating compression wood compared to normal or opposite wood has been reported, the broad range of features that distinguish this reaction wood suggest that the expression of a larger set of genes would be modified.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.