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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims--A Comprehensive Review.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2015
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most essential herbaceous plants that have been probed against various life sight related disorders owing to array of phytochemicals. It is important source of vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, and carotenoids, such as lycopene. Carotenoids are the pigments synthesized during fruit ripening and responsible for the final red color of the tomato. Consumption of tomato and tomato-based products contribute to the absorption of carotenoids and lycopenes in human serum. Lycopene is chemically acyclic carotene with 11 conjugated double bonds, normally in transconfiguration while isomerization occur in blood plasma for its better absorption. It has ability for adenosine deaminase inhibition that plays important role in the regression of tumor. Tomato also contain other active compounds, namely, neoxanthin, lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, cyclolycopene, and ?-carotene 5, 6-epoxide. These components provide synergistic effect against various threats but still need further attention of the researchers. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the potential of tomato against variety of metabolic syndromes. Latest research highlights the relationship between consuming tomato and its products with reduced risk of various maladies like obesity, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic attributes, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgences. Moreover, tomato and its bioactive components hold potential to become effective modules in diet-based regimens; however, integrated research and meta-analysis are still required to enhance meticulousness.
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Our experience with unusual gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Classical duplications may present along any part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from mouth to anus. Atypical or unusual rare varieties of GIT duplications may also occur, but with different anatomical features.
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AAV-sBTLA facilitates HSP70 vaccine-triggered prophylactic antitumor immunity against a murine melanoma pulmonary metastasis model in vivo.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Activation of the BTLA-HVEM co-inhibitory signaling pathway impairs antitumor immunity. Our previous study demonstrated that the extracellular domain of murine BTLA (the soluble form of BTLA) can facilitate HSP70 vaccine-triggered antitumor immunity by blocking BTLA-HVEM interactions in a murine TC-1 non-metastatic tumor model. However, it is unknown whether this strategy has beneficial effects on highly malignant metastatic tumors, such as melanoma. To address this question, we expressed the soluble form of BTLA (sBTLA) in combination with HSP70 vaccine and examined the resulting antitumor activity in a melanoma pulmonary metastasis model. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector was used for the sBTLA gene delivery because of its high transfection efficiency and low toxicity. In vitro expression of AAV-sBTLA enhanced lymphocyte activation and induced specific cytotoxicity against B16F1 murine melanoma cells, while in vivo administration of AAV-sBTLA plus HSP70 vaccine by tail vein injection exerted a limited, late-stage antitumor effect against the existing B16F1 cells. However, the combination treatment generated a potent prophylactic antitumor response in the melanoma lung metastasis model in B6 mice. In this case, most of the metastatic foci were inhibited, and mouse survival was prolonged. Furthermore, the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-? were up-regulated, while the negative regulatory molecules IL-10 and TGF-? were down-regulated. The number of regulatory T cells also decreased in the tumor environment. Therefore, AAV-sBTLA plus HSP70 vaccine may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of metastatic melanoma.
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Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in planning the osseous resection margins of bony tumours in the proximal femur: based on coronal T1-weighted versus STIR images.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Assessment of the extent of tumours using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the basis for bone resection in limb-salvage surgery. We aimed to compare the accuracy of T1-weighted MRI and STIR sequences in measuring the extent of proximal femoral tumours, using the macroscopic specimens as the gold standard for comparison.
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Active compounds from a diverse library of triazolothiadiazole and triazolothiadiazine scaffolds: Synthesis, crystal structure determination, cytotoxicity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, and binding mode analysis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In an effort to identify novel cholinesterase candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a diverse array of potentially bioactive compounds including triazolothiadiazoles (4a-h and 5a-f) and triazolothiadiazines (6a-h) was obtained in good yields through the cyclocondensation reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (3) with various substituted aryl/heteroaryl/aryloxy acids and phenacyl bromides, respectively. The structures of newly prepared compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and, in case of 4a, by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The purity of the synthesized compounds was ascertained by elemental analysis. The newly synthesized conjugated heterocycles were screened for cholinesterase inhibitory activity against electric eel acetylcholinesterase (EeAChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE). Among the evaluated hybrids, several compounds were identified as potent inhibitors. Compounds 5b and 5d were most active with an IC50 value of 3.09±0.154 and 11.3±0.267?M, respectively, against acetylcholinesterase, whereas 5b, 6a and 6g were most potent against butyrylcholinesterase, with an IC50 of 0.585±0.154, 0.781±0.213, and 1.09±0.156?M, respectively, compared to neostigmine and donepezil as standard drugs. The synthesized heteroaromatic compounds were also tested for their cytotoxic potential against lung carcinoma (H157) and vero cell lines. Among them, compound 6h exhibited highest antiproliferative activity against H157 cell lines, with IC50 value of 0.96±0.43?M at 1mM concentration as compared to vincristine (IC50=1.03±0.04?M), standard drug used in this study.
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Neuroprotective agents target molecular mechanisms of disease in ALS.
Drug Discov. Today
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating disease characterized by progressive loss of voluntary motor neurons leading to muscle atrophy, weight loss and respiratory failure. Evidence suggests that inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, glutamate excitotoxicity and proteasomal dysfunction are all responsible for ALS pathogenesis. We review neuroprotective agents with the ability to reduce ALS-related bodyweight loss, summarize the various therapies tested on animal models targeting the proposed molecular mechanisms, compare their effects on bodyweight loss, muscle damage, disease onset, duration and survival, and analyze their structure-activity relationships, with the overall goal of creating a screening strategy for further clinical application.
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Efficacy of External Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with and without Mitomycin-C in Chronic Dacryocystitis.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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To compare the efficacy of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with and without intraoperative application of mitomycin-C in patients with chronic dacryocystitis.
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Structural basis of binding and rationale for the potent urease inhibitory activity of biscoumarins.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Urease belongs to a family of highly conserved urea-hydrolyzing enzymes. A common feature of these enzymes is the presence of two Lewis acid nickel ions and reactive cysteine residue in the active sites. In the current study we examined a series of biscoumarins 1-10 for their mechanisms of inhibition with the nickel containing active sites of Jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases. All these compounds competitively inhibited Jack bean urease through interaction with the nickel metallocentre, as deduced from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopic, and molecular docking simulation studies. Some of the compounds behaved differently in case of Bacillus pasteurii urease. We conducted the enzyme kinetics, UV-visible spectroscopy, and molecular docking results in terms of the known protein structure of the enzyme. We also evaluated possible molecular interpretations for the site of biscoumarins binding and found that phenyl ring is the major active pharmacophore. The excellent in vitro potency and selectivity profile of the several compounds described combined with their nontoxicity against the human cells and plants suggest that these compounds may represent a viable lead series for the treatment of urease associated problems.
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Mitomycin C instillation following ureterorenoscopic laser ablation of upper urinary tract carcinoma.
Urol Ann
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Instillation of Mitomycin C (MMC) should prevent implantation of cancer cells released during endoscopic treatment and prevent recurrences as seen in carcinoma of the bladder.
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Transrectal quantitative shear wave elastography in the detection and characterisation of prostate cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Shear wave imaging (SWI) is a new ultrasound technique whose application facilitates quantitative tissue elasticity assessment during transrectal ultrasound biopsies of the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to determine whether SWI quantitative data can differentiate between benign and malignant areas within prostate glands in men suspected of prostate cancer (PCa).
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A detailed study of patients and tumor characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer in Saudi women.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The Saudi population is characterized by high parity and intermarriages that may impact ovarian carcinogenesis. Herein, we analyzed the tumor characteristics and outcomes in Saudi patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
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Estimation of clinically significant prostate volumes by digital rectal examination: a comparative prospective study.
Can J Urol
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Reliable quantification of prostate volume is important to correctly select patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) most likely to benefit from medical therapy [e.g. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)] and in selecting appropriate surgical approach. We aim to determine the reliability of digital rectal examination (DRE) in estimation of prostate volume which may be helpful in patient selection for 5-ARIs therapy.
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Primary epiploic appendagitis: 3 case reports.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Acute Epiploic Appendagitis is a rare self limiting disease that represents ischaemic infarction of an epiploic appendix. It is usually discovered incidentally on imaging of abdomen done for other causes of acute abdominal pain. It is difficult to diagnose clinically due to the lack of pathognomonic clinical features, since it is characterized by a sudden onset of sharp localized pain either in the left or right iliac fossa with minimal gastrointestinal symptoms, which can simulate a surgical clinical picture. Awareness of imaging findings of this entity is important to arrive at a correct diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary hospitalization and surgery. We report cases of three male patients presenting with acute flank pain who were diagnosed as case of Primary epiploic appendagitis. All 3 patients were treated conservatively.
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A minimally invasive temporary cavernoso-saphenous shunt in the management of priapism after failed conservative treatment.
Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Priapism is an urological emergency with detrimental consequences, if not managed expeditiously. Though a rare condition with an incidence between 0.3 and 1.5 per 100,000 population, its management options are limited and decision making could be challenging. We present a case of late presenting priapism for which the initial routine clinical care (aspiration, intracavernosal injection, and distal shunt) failed to relieve erection. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by a temporary cavernoso-saphenous shunt using carotid shunt and repeated heparin flushes. This novel surgical treatment offers an alternate method of relieving priapism, avoiding the long-term undesired effects associated with permanent proximal shunts such as cavernoso-venous grafts. Moreover, interval flushes (and/or repeated aspirations) with heparin ensures patency of this new shunt during the perioperative period. The patient recovered without any complications and the shunt was removed after one week. He has regained partial erection, however refused to have further treatment. Temporary cavernoso-saphenous shunt using carotid shunt offers an alternate option of management of priapism in patients with failed initial conservative treatment and distal shunts.
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Robotic-assisted surgery in the management of endometrial cancer.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2011
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Advanced laparoscopic procedures for hysterectomy and staging lymphadenectomy were not widely adopted for management of endometrial cancer despite nearly 20 years of improvements in laparoscopic technology. Many surgeons have recently embraced da?Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy in preference to traditional laparoscopy because of its technological advantages of wristed instrumentation, high-definition 3-D optics, ergonomics and autonomy of camera control; the majority of women with endometrial cancer in the USA now undergo robotic-assisted surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the robotic surgical techniques for hysterectomy, pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomy procedures, and the current comparative literature discussing perioperative outcomes. Additionally, literature that discusses challenges managing obese patients and robotic surgical costs are reviewed. Future multi-institutional, prospective registration studies comparing perioperative outcomes, complications, pain, recovery time, cost and long-term clinical outcomes with open, laparoscopic and robotic procedures will be necessary to completely appreciate the impact of robotic-assisted technology.
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Aetiology of tricuspid regurgitation.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is regarded as a secondary disorder. Aim of the study was to know what percentage is secondary to heart and lung disease and its prevalence in normal adults.
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Prospective randomised controlled trial comparing trigone-sparing versus trigone-including intradetrusor injection of abobotulinumtoxinA for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Botulinum toxin A is effective for treatment of idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO). The trigone is generally spared because of the theoretical risk of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), although studies assessing injection sites are lacking.
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The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance within 42,033 Escherichia coli isolates from nosocomial, community and urology patient-specific urinary tract infections, Dublin, 1999-2009.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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To investigate the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection over an eleven year period, and to determine whether E. coli antibiotic resistance rates vary depending on whether the UTI represents a nosocomial, community acquired or urology patient specific infection.
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Metastatic choriocarcinoma in a viable intrauterine pregnancy treated with EMA-CO in the third trimester: a case report.
J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor arising from any gestation. Several cases of metastatic choriocarcinoma have been reported in the literature during viable intrauterine pregnancies.
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Induction of effective antitumor response after mucosal bacterial vector mediated DNA vaccination with endogenous prostate cancer specific antigen.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The induction of systemic immune responses against antigenic targets that are over expressed by cancer cells represents a powerful therapeutic strategy to target metastatic cancer. We generated specific antitumor immune responses in a murine model of prostate cancer by oral administration of an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium containing a plasmid coding for murine prostate stem cell antigen.
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VHL genetic alteration in CCRCC does not determine de-regulation of HIF, CAIX, hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene inactivation is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The VHL protein (pVHL) has been proposed to regulate the expression of several proteins including Hypoxia Inducible Factor-? (HIF-?), carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)A2/B1 and osteopontin. pVHL has been characterized in vitro, however, clinical studies are limited. We evaluated the impact of VHL genetic alterations on the expression of several pVHL protein targets in paired normal and tumor tissue.
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Therapeutic roles of heparin anticoagulants in cancer and related disorders.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Cancer represents a major cause of overall mortality, second to cardiovascular disorders. Cancer patients frequently encounter hypercoagulable states, with recurrent thromboembolic events due to the impact of cancer cells and chemotherapy/radiotherapy on the coagulation cascade. The expression of highly procoagulant proteins have been implicated to involve in tumor cell-induced thrombin generation, leading to platelet activation and fibrin clot formation. These include binding of heparin to angiogenic growth factors (e.g., basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor); modulation of tissue factor (TF); and enhanced TF-pathway-inhibitor release, and inhibition of matrix-degrading enzymes. The classical anticoagulant (unfractionated heparin; UFH), and its derived low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are polypharmacologic agents. These anticoagulants are composed of oligosccharides with structural/molecular heterogeneity. Heparins bind to wide range of molecules via electrostatic interactions with the glycosaminoglycan chains, and hence possess numerous therapeutic properties beyond their anticoagulant effects, including anti-cancer potentials. Recent studies demonstrate that UFH and LMWH fractions interfere with various cellular/inflammatory processes and reduce mortality/morbidity in malignancy-associated thrombosis and vascular disorders. There are certain weaknesses of heparins, particularly when patients receiving prolonged therapy, including bleeding complications. Paradoxically, many individuals receiving heparin anticoagulants develop antibodies against the complex formed between heparin and platelet factor 4 because of massive platelet/cellular activation and hypercoagulable state, resulting in clinical manifestation referred to as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome. Increased risk of venous thromboembolic events are likely in individuals with malignancy-associated thrombosis coupled with underlying HIT pathogenesis. This article will review the existing knowledge about the experimental/clinical anti-cancer properties of heparin anticoagulants and provide a rationale for future research.
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Functional characterization of a fluorescent highly tumorigenic ovarian cancer line to test cellular therapy in experimental models.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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The objective of this study was to functionally characterize a fluorescent highly tumorigenic ovarian cancer line to test cellular therapy in combination with cytokines or chemotherapies in experimental models.
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Tolfenamic acid inhibits ovarian cancer cell growth and decreases the expression of c-Met and survivin through suppressing specificity protein transcription factors.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The aberrant expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor c-Met are associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis in a variety of human malignancies including ovarian cancer (OC). Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors have high relevance in the signaling cascade associated with c-Met activation. Tolfenamic acid (TA), a NSAID, is known to induce the degradation of Sp proteins, which have been negatively associated with survival in some cancer patients. Our aim was to examine the anti-OC activity of TA using in vitro and in vivo models and asses the inhibitory effects of this novel compound.
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Case report of a symptomatic giant renal oncocytoma.
Int J Surg Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Renal oncocytomas are benign tumours, often asymptomatic, and picked incidentally on radiological imaging. We present a case report of a symptomatic giant renal oncocytoma in a 61-year old man having lower back/right flank pain. A large right renal mass was identified on abdominal CT scan. Radiological features were not sufficient to differentiate this lesion from renal cancer. Right radical nephrectomy was performed. Typical features of oncocytoma, without evidence of malignancy, were seen on histological examination of the specimen. In this report, we discuss literature review of radiological, genetic, and pathological characteristics of renal oncocytoma.
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Targeting the IL-6 pathway in multiple myeloma and its implications in cancer-associated gene hypermethylation.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is an important epigenetic event in cancer, including multiple myeloma (MM). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MM, also regulates DNA methylation. However, attempts to bring IL-6 blockade to the clinic have had limited success. We hypothesize that IL-6 regulation of hypermethylation may be an important pathway leading to rational chemotherapeutic/anti-IL-6 combinations. We first studied the correlation of IL-6 expression and dependence in MM cell lines: U266B1, RPMI8226, and KAS6/1. We confirmed that KAS6/1 is IL-6-dependent whereas U266B1 and RPMI8226 cells are IL-6-independent and that blocking IL-6 inhibited the growth of U266B1 (36% inhibition; p<0.05) and KAS6/1 (68% inhibition; p<0.01), but not the RPMI8226 cells. Using RT-PCR, we showed that U266B1 cells express IL-6, but RPMI8226 and KAS6/1 cells do not. This IL-6 expression pattern correlates with the anti-IL-6 inhibition findings. To correlate IL-6 sensitivity with hypermethylation of TSG, we investigated promoter methylation of CDH1 and DcR1. We found that the promoter of DcR1 and CDH1 is methylated in U266B1 cells and un-methylated in RPMI8226 cells. Furthermore, the DcR1 promoter was un-methylated in KAS6/1 cells. These data support our hypothesis that an IL-6-dependent pathway may regulate hypermethylation of TSG in MM. Newer chemotherapeutic agents that affect methylation are being studied in combination with IL-6 blockade.
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Therapeutic applications of NSAIDS in cancer: special emphasis on tolfenamic acid.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are primarily used for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions with pain and inflammation. Evidence from a wide range of sources suggested that chronic administration of NSAIDs reduced the risk of cancer incidences. Both the epidemiological and animal studies showed an inverse association between the incidence of various cancers and the use of aspirin or other NSAIDs. The chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions of NSAIDs in cancer are obvious; however, the instigation of drug and treatment period depends on the study objective. Typically, prevention involves initiating the medication before the appearance of clinical symptoms and lasts long-term; while treatment could be short-term and contingent to the response of patient to the medication. Recent studies from our laboratories provided substantial evidence on the anti-cancer activity of tolfenamic acid, a NSAID for the potential applications in pancreatic, esophageal and lung cancers. In this review, we provide a summary on the potential benefits of NSAIDs in a variety of human cancers with more emphasis on tolfenamic acid.
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Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with calcular cholecystitis: a hospital based study.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative bacillus has been recognised as a public health problem and approximately half of the world population has H. pylori infection causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of H. pylori infection in patients of chronic calcular cholecystitis.
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Diagnostic dilemma in sicklers with acute bone crisis: role of subperiosteal fluid collection on MRI in resolving this issue.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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To establish MRI criteria to diagnose early osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease patients with acute bone crisis and to differentiate it from normally occurring ischaemic changes in these patients.
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Gastro esophageal reflux: an over investigated entity in neonates and infants.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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To determine the outcome of clinically suspected gastro esophageal reflux in neonates and infants. To find a protocol for evaluation of these patients in order to reduce unnecessary radiation to neonates and infants.
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Robotic-assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer compared with traditional laparoscopic and laparotomy approaches: a systematic review.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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To summarize comparative studies describing clinical outcomes of robotic-assisted surgeries compared with traditional laparoscopic or laparotomy techniques for the treatment of endometrial cancer.
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VHL genetic alteration in CCRCC does not determine de-regulation of HIF, CAIX, hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene inactivation is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The VHL protein (pVHL) has been proposed to regulate the expression of several proteins including Hypoxia Inducible Factor-? (HIF-?), carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 and osteopontin. pVHL has been characterized in vitro, however, clinical studies are limited. We evaluated the impact of VHL genetic alterations on the expression of several pVHL protein targets in paired normal and tumor tissue.
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Determination of oxidant stress in plasma of rheumatoid arthritis and primary osteoarthritis patients.
Indian J. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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Determination of oxidant stress in plasma of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and primary osteoarthritis (POA) patients is important in understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases. In this study, we examined the relationship between oxidant stress and inflammation by measuring protein carbonyl content, thiol levels and plasma protein fractions as the oxidation markers and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) tests as inflammation markers. Protein carbonyls content was higher in RA and POA patients, as compared to controls (p<0.0001), while the plasma thiol levels in both groups of patients were significantly lower than controls (p<0.0001). Increased levels of proteins under 40 kDa molecular mass were detected in the RA and POA patients compared to that of controls (p<0.0001) both in HPLC and SDS-PAGE analysis. Total protein concentration in plasma of RA patients was higher than the controls (p<0.001), while in POA patients was lower than that of controls (p<0.001). ESR and CRP levels were higher in both the patient groups than the normal group (p<0.001). These results suggested that alterations in the oxidant stress markers could be the cause of inflammation in these diseases. Thus, while working for RA/POA treatment strategies, consideration of the relationship between oxidant stress and inflammation would be worth evaluating.
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Robotic-assisted resection of liver and diaphragm recurrent ovarian carcinoma: description of technique.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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To describe port placement and operative technique for resection of right hepatic and full-thickness diaphragm metastatic ovarian carcinoma in a patient with recurrent disease using the da Vinci® Surgical System.
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Early cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: experience at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Cholelithiasis is a common disorder affecting the females more commonly. Most of the population carrying the gallstones remains asymptomatic, however biliary colic and acute cholecystitis is a common complication. Most surgeons agree that early cholecystectomy is safe and should be the procedure of choice in acute cholecystitis. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of patients with acute cholecystitis, and morbidity and mortality in such cases.
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Gene therapy for prostate cancer.
Postgrad Med
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumors vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or in combination with current approaches.
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Screening and partial immunochemical characterization of sulfite oxidase from plant source.
Indian J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Sulfite oxidase [SO; EC 1.8.3.1] catalyses the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, the terminal reaction in degradation of sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Sulfite oxidase from vertebrate sources is among the best studied molybdenum enzymes. Existence of SO in plants has been established recently by identification of a cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a functional SO. The present study was undertaken to identify herbaceous and woody plants (viz., Azardirachta indica L., Cassia fistula L., Saraca indica L., Spinacea oleracea L., and Syzyzium cumini L.), a relatively less explored source, having significant SO activity and to characterize some of its immuno-biochemical properties. The Syzyzium cumini was chosen to characterize SO as it showed maximum enzyme activity in the crude extract as compared to other plants. Absorption spectra of SO revealed two peaks at 235 and 277 nm, but no distinct peak in the visible region could be observed. Crude extract of all the plants were taken into considerations for immuno-biochemical studies. Despite of significant protein structure-functional similarities between plant and animal SO, no cross-reactivity could be established between the two sources of SO. These data suggested that plants SO, however, differed with regards to their immunobiochemical properties.
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Optimised electroporation mediated DNA vaccination for treatment of prostate cancer.
Genet Vaccines Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer.
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7-Benzenesulfonamido-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid monohydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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In the title compound, C(14)H(14)N(2)O(5)S(2)·H(2)O, the six-membered ring fused to the ?-lactam unit has a twisted conformation. Weak intra-molecular N-H?S and C-H?O inter-actions occur. Inter-molecular C-H?S, N-H?O, C-H?O and O-H?O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions stabilize the crystal structure, forming a three-dimensional network. Weak C-H?? inter-actions are also present.
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Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer: Analysis of surgical performance.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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To provide an objective analysis of surgical performance of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) with lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer during the learning phase of the procedure and to assess opportunities for improvement.
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(2Z)-Methyl 2-(2-amino-1,3-thia-zol-4-yl)-2-(methoxy-imino)ethano-ate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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In the title compound, C(7)H(9)N(3)O(3)S, the planes of the 2-amino-1,3-thia-zol-4-yl and the methyl ester groups are oriented at a dihedral angle of 67.06?(7)°. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N-H?N hydrogen bonds occur, forming R(2) (2)(8) ring motifs. The dimers are inter-linked by N-H?O hydrogen bonds, resulting in sheets propagating in the ac plane.
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Prostate stem cell antigen DNA vaccination breaks tolerance to self-antigen and inhibits prostate cancer growth.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a cell surface antigen expressed in normal human prostate and over expressed in prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSCA protein in prostate cancer correlate with increased tumor stage/grade, with androgen independence and have higher expression in bone metastases. In this study, the PSCA gene was isolated from the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate cell line (TRAMPC1), and a vaccine plasmid construct was generated. This plasmid PSCA (pmPSCA) was delivered by intramuscular electroporation (EP) and induced effective antitumor immune responses against subcutaneous TRAMPC1 tumors in male C57 BL/6 mice. The pmPSCA vaccination inhibited tumor growth, resulting in cure or prolongation in survival. Similarly, the vaccine inhibited metastases in PSCA expressing B16 F10 tumors. There was activation of Th-1 type immunity against PSCA, indicating the breaking of tolerance to a self-antigen. This immunity was tumor specific and was transferable by adoptive transfer of splenocytes. The mice remained healthy and there was no evidence of collateral autoimmune responses in normal tissues. EP-assisted delivery of the pmPSCA evoked strong specific responses and could, in neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings, provide a safe and effective immune control of prostate cancer, given that there is significant homology between human and mouse PSCA.
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(2R)-2-Benzene-sulfonamido-2-phenyl-ethanoic acid.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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In the title compound, C(14)H(13)NO(4)S, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring planes is 45.52?(18)°. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular N-H?O and O-H?O hydrogen bonds lead to chains of mol-ecules propagating in [100] in which the the ring motifs R(2) (1)(8), R(2) (2)(8) and R(3) (3)(11) are apparent. These polymeric chains are linked through C-H?O inter-actions.
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Methyl 2-(2-amino-1,3-thia-zol-4-yl)-2-[(Z)-methoxy-carbonyl-methoxy-imino]ethano-ate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2009
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In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C(9)H(11)N(3)O(5)S, the thia-zole ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 87.33?(3) and 87.18?(3)° with respect to the planar (r.m.s. deviations 0.0136 and 0.0139?Å) methyl ester groups. The dihedral angle between the methyl ester groups is 44.20?(3)°. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular N-H?N, N-H?O and C-H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules along the a axis, through R(2) (2)(8) and R(2) (2)(22) ring motifs, forming infinite two-dimensional polymeric sheets. ?-? Contacts between the thia-zole rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.536?(2)?Å] may further stabilize the structure.
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Antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory compounds from Vitex agnus-castus.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Several secondary metabolites, artemetin (1), casticin (2), 3,3-dihydroxy-5,6,7,4-tetramethoxy flavon (3), penduletin (4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (7), 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzoic acid (8), vanillic acid (9) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10) were isolated from a folkloric medicinal plant, Vitex agnus-castus. The structures of compounds 1-10 were identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3-10 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These compounds were screened for their antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities. Compounds 6, 7 and 10 were found to have significant antiinflammatory activity in a cell-based contemporary assay, whereas compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a potent lipoxygenase inhibition.
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Synergistic cytotoxicity of interferonalpha-2b and interleukin-2 in combination with PBMC against ovarian cancer: development of an experimental model for cellular therapy.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Current therapies for ovarian cancer (OC) patients have a modest impact on long-term survival justifying the need for novel treatment strategies. We developed in vitro and in vivo systems to test the effects of cytokines in combination with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on OC cells.
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Analysis of disease recurrence and survival for women with uterine malignancies undergoing robotic surgery.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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To evaluate recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients who underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for uterine malignancies.
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DNA vaccination for prostate cancer, from preclinical to clinical trials - where we stand?
Genet Vaccines Ther
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Development of various vaccines for prostate cancer (PCa) is becoming an active research area. PCa vaccines are perceived to have less toxicity compared with the available cytotoxic agents. While various immune-based strategies can elicit anti-tumour responses, DNA vaccines present increased efficacy, inducing both humoural and cellular immunity. This immune activation has been proven effective in animal models and initial clinical trials are encouraging. However, to validate the role of DNA vaccination in currently available PCa management paradigms, strong clinical evidence is still lacking. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of DNA vaccines and aims to provide a summary of preclinical and clinical trials outlining the benefits of this immunotherapy in the management of PCa.
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Laparoscopic management of 128 undescended testes: our experience.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
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To describe different laparoscopic procedures in the management of impalpable undescended testes (UDT) and their outcome. Descriptive study.
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Does a uterine manipulator affect cervical cancer pathology or identification of lymphovascular space involvement?
Gynecol. Oncol.
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Uterine manipulators are a useful adjunct for robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy (RARH), but some surgeons avoid their use for fear of altering pathology or interpretation of lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI). We retrospectively compared clinico-pathological data and tumor pathology from patients with cervical cancer operated by laparotomy vs. RARH.
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Oral 5-aminolevulinic acid in simultaneous photodynamic diagnosis of upper and lower urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma - a prospective audit.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? The idea of using photosensitizing agents to enhance visualization of cancer tissue dates back to 1900. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was first suggested for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of transitional cell cancer (TCC) of the bladder in 1992. Since then, PDD with intravesical application of 5-ALA or its ester hexaminolevulinate (Hexvix) has proven to be superior over standard white-light cystoscopy in detection of carcinoma in situ and dysplasia as well as enhancing margins of TCC. PDD of upper urinary tract TCC is under-studied because of trouble with delivery of the photosensitizer. Fluorescence after oral 5-ALA was initially reported in 1956. Oral 5-ALA for photodynamic therapy was suggested for upper urinary tract TCC in 1998 and for refractory non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in 2001. A study in 2012 on oral and intravesical application of 5-ALA for bladder PDD showed no difference in diagnostic accuracy for each modality. To our knowledge our series is the first report on use of oral 5-ALA for PDD in detection of upper urinary tract tumours. We published our initial results in 2010. We think that our recent audit is quite encouraging. PDD ureterorenoscopy resulted in detection of additional urothelial tumours that could have been missed by the conventional white-light endoscopy. We suggest that this technique should be used in large multicentre trials to replicate our results.
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Cellular therapy for ovarian cancer: experimental and clinical perspectives.
Curr. Med. Chem.
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Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies and the 5th leading cause of cancer deaths for women in the United States. Two-thirds of patients present with advanced-stage disease (Stage III and IV) and the majority will suffer recurrence of disease, require ongoing treatment, and eventually succumb to chemotherapy-resistant disease. To potentially circumvent chemo-resistance in recurrent ovarian cancer, immunotherapy is being explored as a novel treatment option. Our laboratory findings demonstrate that immune effector cells from healthy donors elicit a significant cytotoxic response in the presence of IL-2 and IFN alpha- 2b against ovarian cancer in vitro; however, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from ovarian cancer patients fail to elicit a similar response. A major obstacle to immunotherapy is the immunosuppressive environment supported by tumors, which limits the immune systems ability to fight the tumor. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are an immature population of myeloid cells, which have recently been implicated to play a major role in immunosuppression and tumor evasion. In addition to novel immunotherapies, new diagnostic and prognostic markers are being identified through applying molecular tools/approaches in clinical and pathological analyses of this malignancy, which will provide additional therapeutic targets. To test these experimental therapeutic options, pre-clinical murine models of ovarian cancer are being developed. Ultimately, treatment of ovarian cancer will benefit from the careful alignment of appropriate target, drug, patient, and trial design. This article provides an objective overview of cellular therapy (the use of immune cells to elicit an anti-tumor response) for ovarian cancer highlighting both experimental and clinical perspectives.
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Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with endometrial cancer undergoing robotic-assisted staging: a comparison of colorimetric and fluorescence imaging.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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To retrospectively compare results from lymphatic mapping of pelvic sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) using fluorescence near-infrared (NIR) imaging of indocyanine green (ICG) and colorimetric imaging of isosulfan blue (ISB) dyes in women with endometrial cancer (EC) undergoing robotic-assisted lymphadenectomy (RAL). A secondary aim was to investigate the ability of SLN biopsies to increase the detection of metastatic disease.
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Comparison of the cytotoxic response against ovarian cancer by immune effector cells isolated and expanded from normal donors and ovarian cancer patients.
Cytotherapy
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The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic response against ovarian cancer (OC) cells elicited by different immune effector cells in combination with the cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN) ?-2b.
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Short- and long-term morbidity and outcomes after robotic surgery for comprehensive endometrial cancer staging.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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Although intra-operative and immediate postoperative complications of robotic surgery are relatively low, little is known about long-term morbidity. We set out to assess both short- and long-term morbidities after robotic surgery for endometrial cancer staging.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.