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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Procalcitonin predicts mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults with lower respiratory tract infections.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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In low and middle-income countries where HIV infection is prevalent, identifying patients at high risk of dying from lower respiratory tract infections is challenging and validated prognostic models are lacking. Serum procalcitonin may be a useful prognostic tool in these settings. We sought to determine if elevated serum procalcitonin is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and to combine serum procalcitonin with available clinical characteristics to create a clinically useful prognostic model.
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Prevalence and outcomes of cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-seropositive patients hospitalized for suspected tuberculosis in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Cryptococcal infection occurs in HIV-seropositive patients and is associated with high mortality. However, limited information is available on the prevalence and outcomes of cryptococcal antigenemia among hospitalized HIV-seropositive patients in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Population-level impact of same-day microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis diagnosis in Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To compare the population-level impact of two World Health Organization-endorsed strategies for improving the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB): same-day microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA).
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The role of speciation in positive Lowenstein-Jensen culture isolates from a high tuberculosis burden country.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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To determine the need for routine speciation of positive Lowenstein-Jensen mycobacterial cultures in HIV-infected patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
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Low prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii lung colonization in Ugandan HIV-infected patients hospitalized with non-Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Pneumocystis jirovecii is an important opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In the developed world, P. jirovecii epidemiology is marked by frequent colonization in immunosuppressed patients, but data on the prevalence of colonization are very limited in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of persons living with HIV reside. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology of P. jirovecii colonization among HIV-positive patients in a cross-sectional, hospital-based study of patients admitted with suspected pneumonia in Kampala, Uganda. P. jirovecii was detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 7 (6%) of 124 consecutive patients with non-Pneumocystis pneumonia. Colonization was not associated with patient demographic or clinical information. This prevalence is substantially lower than in published studies in the developed world and suggests that there is a limited reservoir of organisms for clinical infections in this Ugandan population. These findings may partially explain the low incidence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African countries.
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HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Proc Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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During the past 30 years, major advances have been made in our understanding of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), but significant gaps remain. Pneumocystis is classified as a fungus and is host-species specific, but an understanding of its reservoir, mode of transmission, and pathogenesis is incomplete. PCP remains a frequent AIDS-defining diagnosis and is a frequent opportunistic pneumonia in the United States and in Europe, but comparable epidemiologic data from other areas of the world that are burdened with HIV/AIDS are limited. Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is the gold standard procedure to diagnose PCP, but noninvasive diagnostic tests and biomarkers show promise that must be validated. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended first-line treatment and prophylaxis regimen, but putative trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole drug resistance is an emerging concern. The International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias (IHOP) study was established to address these knowledge gaps. This review describes recent advances in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of HIV-associated PCP and ongoing areas of clinical and translational research that are part of the IHOP study and the Longitudinal Studies of HIV-associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV).
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Clinical significance of normal chest radiographs among HIV-seropositive patients with suspected tuberculosis in Uganda.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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The frequency, aetiologies and outcomes of normal chest radiographs (CXRs) among HIV-seropositive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have been infrequently described.
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Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in high burden countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a promising new rapid diagnostic technology for tuberculosis (TB) that has characteristics that suggest large-scale roll-out. However, because the test is expensive, there are concerns among TB program managers and policy makers regarding its affordability for low- and middle-income settings.
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Evaluating tuberculosis case detection via real-time monitoring of tuberculosis diagnostic services.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Tuberculosis case-detection rates are below internationally established targets in high-burden countries. Real-time monitoring and evaluation of adherence to widely endorsed standards of tuberculosis care might facilitate improved case finding.
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Causes of early mortality in HIV-infected TB suspects in an East African referral hospital.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Respiratory infections are a leading cause of death in Africa, especially among HIV-infected patients. Data on the etiology of fatal respiratory diseases are largely based on autopsy studies. We evaluated causes of pneumonia associated with early mortality among hospitalized HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda.
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Integrated strategies to optimize sputum smear microscopy: a prospective observational study.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case detection rates are far below targets in most low-income countries. The standard approach to smear microscopy involves sputum collection over multiple days and examination of sputum smears by light microscopy (LM), an insensitive and time-consuming technique.
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Role of interferon-gamma release assays in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV infection.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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T-cell interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) may have a role in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis when evaluating patients for whom standard microbiology has limited sensitivity. Our objective was to examine the accuracy of a commercial IGRA for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons.
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Clinical and radiographic factors do not accurately diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected inpatients in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis.
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The prevalence and clinical course of HIV-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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The prevalence and clinical course of pulmonary cryptococcosis in Sub-Saharan Africa are not well described.
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Modified Giemsa method for confirmation of Pneumocystis pneumonia in low-income countries.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2009
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An HIV-seropositive man who presented with cough, low-grade fever and difficulty in breathing was admitted to the pulmonology unit at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. He was initially diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia and treated with ceftriaxone without significant improvement. Induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected and stained using a modified Giemsa stain (Diff-Quik). With this technique, it was possible to demonstrate cystic and trophic forms of Pneumocystis jirovecii and confirm the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in this patient.
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No decrease in annual risk of tuberculosis infection in endemic area in Cape Town, South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To estimate the change in annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in two neighbouring urban communities of Cape Town, South Africa with an HIV prevalence of approximately 2%, and to compare ARTI with notification rates and treatment outcomes in the tuberculosis (TB) programme.
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Oral antimicrobial rinse to reduce mycobacterial culture contamination among tuberculosis suspects in Uganda: a prospective study.
PLoS ONE
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Contamination by bacterial or fungal organisms reduces the effectiveness of mycobacterial culture for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the effect of an anti-microbial and an anti-fungal oral rinse prior to expectoration on culture-contamination rates.
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Bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
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Peripheral blood interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, assessment of local immune responses has been reported to improve the accuracy of TB diagnosis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.