JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovery of a Potent and Selective BCL-XL Inhibitor with in Vivo Activity.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A-1155463, a highly potent and selective BCL-XL inhibitor, was discovered through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fragment screening and structure-based design. This compound is substantially more potent against BCL-XL-dependent cell lines relative to our recently reported inhibitor, WEHI-539, while possessing none of its inherent pharmaceutical liabilities. A-1155463 caused a mechanism-based and reversible thrombocytopenia in mice and inhibited H146 small cell lung cancer xenograft tumor growth in vivo following multiple doses. A-1155463 thus represents an excellent tool molecule for studying BCL-XL biology as well as a productive lead structure for further optimization.
Related JoVE Video
Breast Imaging in Women Previously Irradiated for Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Women treated with mantle irradiation for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). Current guidelines recommend screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to mammography (M) in these patients. There are limited data, however, as to the impact of breast MRI on cancer detection rates. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the use of breast MRI in survivors of HL treated and followed at a single institution.
Related JoVE Video
Improvements in observed and relative survival in follicular grade 1-2 lymphoma during 4 decades: the Stanford University experience.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies report an improvement in overall survival (OS) of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Previously untreated patients with grade 1 to 2 FL treated at Stanford University from 1960-2003 were identified. Four eras were considered: era 1, pre-anthracycline (1960-1975, n = 180); era 2, anthracycline (1976-1986, n = 426); era 3, aggressive chemotherapy/purine analogs (1987-1996, n = 471); and era 4, rituximab (1997-2003, n = 257). Clinical characteristics, patterns of care, and survival were assessed. Observed OS was compared with the expected OS calculated from Berkeley Mortality Database life tables derived from population matched by gender and age at the time of diagnosis. The median OS was 13.6 years. Age, gender, and stage did not differ across the eras. Although primary treatment varied, event-free survival after the first treatment did not differ between eras (P = .17). Median OS improved from 11 years in eras 1 and 2 to 18.4 years in era 3 and has not yet been reached for era 4 (P < .001), with no suggestion of a plateau in any era. These improvements in OS exceeded improvements in survival in the general population during the same period. Several factors, including better supportive care and effective therapies for relapsed disease, are likely responsible for this improvement.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of therapy-related secondary leukemia in Hodgkin lymphoma: the Stanford University experience over three generations of clinical trials.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AML/MDS) risk in patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) on successive generations of Stanford clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
ABT-199, a potent and selective BCL-2 inhibitor, achieves antitumor activity while sparing platelets.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteins in the B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family are key regulators of the apoptotic process. This family comprises proapoptotic and prosurvival proteins, and shifting the balance toward the latter is an established mechanism whereby cancer cells evade apoptosis. The therapeutic potential of directly inhibiting prosurvival proteins was unveiled with the development of navitoclax, a selective inhibitor of both BCL-2 and BCL-2-like 1 (BCL-X(L)), which has shown clinical efficacy in some BCL-2-dependent hematological cancers. However, concomitant on-target thrombocytopenia caused by BCL-X(L) inhibition limits the efficacy achievable with this agent. Here we report the re-engineering of navitoclax to create a highly potent, orally bioavailable and BCL-2-selective inhibitor, ABT-199. This compound inhibits the growth of BCL-2-dependent tumors in vivo and spares human platelets. A single dose of ABT-199 in three patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia resulted in tumor lysis within 24 h. These data indicate that selective pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 shows promise for the treatment of BCL-2-dependent hematological cancers.
Related JoVE Video
The Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-w inhibitor, navitoclax, enhances the activity of chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ability of a cancer cell to avoid apoptosis is crucial to tumorigenesis and can also contribute to chemoresistance. The Bcl-2 family of prosurvival proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bcl-w, Mcl-1, and A1) plays a key role in these processes. We previously reported the discovery of ABT-263 (navitoclax), a potent small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Bcl-w. While navitoclax exhibits single-agent activity in tumors dependent on Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) for survival, the expression of Mcl-1 has been shown to confer resistance to navitoclax, most notably in solid tumors. Thus, therapeutic agents that can downregulate or neutralize Mcl-1 are predicted to synergize potently with navitoclax. Here, we report the activity of navitoclax in combination with 19 clinically relevant agents across a panel of 46 human solid tumor cell lines. Navitoclax broadly enhanced the activity of multiple therapeutic agents in vitro and enhanced efficacy of both docetaxel and erlotinib in xenograft models. The ability of navitoclax to synergize with docetaxel or erlotinib corresponded to an altered sensitivity of the mitochondria toward navitoclax, which was associated with the downmodulation of Mcl-1 and/or upregulation of Bim. These data provide a rationale to interrogate these combinations clinically.
Related JoVE Video
Navitoclax, a targeted high-affinity inhibitor of BCL-2, in lymphoid malignancies: a phase 1 dose-escalation study of safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumour activity.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteins of the BCL-2 family regulate clonal selection and survival of lymphocytes, and are frequently overexpressed in lymphomas. Navitoclax is a targeted high-affinity small molecule that inhibits the anti-apoptotic activity of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of navitoclax in patients with lymphoid tumours, and establish the drugs pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles.
Related JoVE Video
A microRNA screen to identify modulators of sensitivity to BCL2 inhibitor ABT-263 (navitoclax).
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evasion of apoptosis is a known feature of cancer cells. One mechanism of deregulating the apoptotic pathway is through overexpression of antiapoptotic BCL2 family members. ABT-263 (navitoclax) is a first-in-class BCL2 family inhibitor that restores the ability of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. However, many cancer cells are resistant to ABT-263 due to high levels of a BCL2 family member, MCL1, which is not targeted by the drug. MCL1 expression is regulated transcriptionally, translationally, and through proteasome-mediated degradation. Recently, MCL1 expression was shown to be affected by microRNAs (miRNA). To identify miRNAs that modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to ABT-263, we screened a library of 810 human miRNA mimics in HCT-116 cells in the presence of ABT-263. The screen revealed 19 miRNAs that sensitize HCT-116 cells to ABT-263. Fifteen of these miRNAs were also shown to sensitize CHL1 melanoma cells to the same agent. We further evaluated 12 of the strongest sensitizers in these cell lines. We found that these sensitizers induced apoptosis only in the presence of ABT-263. In addition, whereas all 12 of these miRNAs reduced MCL1 protein expression, only 10 of them targeted MCL1 through direct binding to the 3-untranslated region of the gene, raising the possibility that other resistance regulators of MCL1 expression may be identified using our method. Finally, because sensitizing miRNA expression is lower in tumors compared with normal tissues, our data can facilitate the design of miRNA replacement therapies to increase sensitivity to BCL2 antagonists.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of a potent and selective Bcl-2 inhibitor using SAR by NMR.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a major role in the regulation of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic members of this family (Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Mcl-1) can render cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and therefore these proteins are important targets for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Here we describe the discovery of a potent, highly selective, Bcl-2 inhibitor using SAR by NMR and structure-based drug design which could serve as a starting point for the development of a Bcl-2 selective anti-cancer agent. Such an agent would potentially overcome the Bcl-x(L) mediated thrombocytopenia observed with ABT-263.
Related JoVE Video
N-aryl-benzimidazolones as novel small molecule HSP90 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe the development of a novel series of N-aryl-benzimidazolone HSP90 inhibitors (9) targeting the N-terminal ATP-ase site. SAR development was influenced by structure-based design based around X-ray structures of ligand bound HSP90 complexes. Lead compounds exhibited high binding affinities, ATP-ase inhibition and cellular client protein degradation.
Related JoVE Video
Stage I-IIA non-bulky Hodgkins lymphoma. Is further distinction based on prognostic factors useful? The Stanford experience.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the United States, early-stage Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) is defined as asymptomatic stage I/II non-bulky disease. European groups stratify patients to more intense treatment by considering additional unfavorable factors, such as age, number of nodal sites, sedimentation rate, extranodal disease, and elements of the international prognostic score for advanced HL. We sought to determine the prognostic significance of these factors in patients with early-stage disease treated at Stanford University Medical Center.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of expression signatures predictive of sensitivity to the Bcl-2 family member inhibitor ABT-263 in small cell lung carcinoma and leukemia/lymphoma cell lines.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABT-263 inhibits the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w and has single-agent efficacy in numerous small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo. It is currently in clinical trials for treating patients with SCLC and various leukemia/lymphomas. Identification of predictive markers for response will benefit the clinical development of ABT-263. We identified the expression of Bcl-2 family genes that correlated best with sensitivity to ABT-263 in a panel of 36 SCLC and 31 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. In cells sensitive to ABT-263, expression of Bcl-2 and Noxa is elevated, whereas expression of Mcl-1 is higher in resistant cells. We also examined global expression differences to identify gene signature sets that correlated with sensitivity to ABT-263 to generate optimal signature sets predictive of sensitivity to ABT-263. Independent cell lines were used to verify the predictive power of the gene sets and to refine the optimal gene signatures. When comparing normal lung tissue and SCLC primary tumors, the expression pattern of these genes in the tumor tissue is most similar to sensitive SCLC lines, whereas normal tissue is most similar to resistant SCLC lines. Most of the genes identified using global expression patterns are related to the apoptotic pathway; however, all but Bcl-rambo are distinct from the Bcl-2 family. This study leverages global expression data to identify key gene expression patterns for sensitivity to ABT-263 in SCLC and leukemia/lymphoma and may provide guidance in the selection of patients in future clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Tumour-selective antivascular effects of the novel anti-mitotic compound A-318315: An in vivo rat regional haemodynamic study.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
1. It has been shown that tubulin-binding agents can destabilize cellular microtubules and suppress tumour growth; but it has also become apparent that some compounds can exert anti-vascular effects within the neovasculature of a solid tumour. To date, the difficulty with these targets has been the ability to selectivity induce vascular damage to the tumour while leaving normal vasculature unaffected. The data presented here characterizes the in vivo, tumour selective, anti-vascular effects of the novel tubulin-binding agent A-318315. 2. To that purpose, we have used an anaesthetized in vivo rat model designed to quantify acute changes in regional vascular resistance (VR) in both tumour and non-tumour vascular beds, simultaneously. Tissue-isolated tumours (approximately 1.25 gm) with blood flow supplied by a single epigastric artery were grown in the hindlimb of adult male rats. Blood flow to the tumour, mesenteric, renal and normal (non-tumour epigastric) arteries was measured pre-dose and post-dose under anaesthesia. 3. A-318315 was tested at 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v. These doses produced modest, transient increases in mean arterial pressure with little to no effect on heart rate. At peak effect, tumour VR increased to 175 +/- 47, 337 +/- 77 and 751 +/- 151% above the baseline, for the 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg doses, respectively, whereas VR was only modestly and transiently increased in normal epigastric (88 +/- 19%), mesenteric (33 +/- 3.3%) and renal arteries (17 +/- 8.6%). 4. These data demonstrate that A-318315 produces marked reductions in tumour blood flow in the rat at doses that exert minor effects on normal vascular function.
Related JoVE Video
The Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263 enhances the response of multiple chemotherapeutic regimens in hematologic tumors in vivo.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was designed to test the ability of the Bcl-2 family inhibitor ABT-263 to potentiate commonly used chemotherapeutic agents and regimens in hematologic tumor models.
Related JoVE Video
ABT-888 confers broad in vivo activity in combination with temozolomide in diverse tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABT-888, currently in phase 2 trials, is a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that enhances the activity of multiple DNA-damaging agents, including temozolomide (TMZ). We investigated ABT-888+TMZ combination therapy in multiple xenograft models representing various human tumors having different responses to TMZ.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of 3H-benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ones as potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of the human protooncogene proviral insertion site in moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3 are a family of serine/threonine kinases which have been found to be overexpressed in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Benzothienopyrimidinones were discovered as a novel class of Pim inhibitors that potently inhibit all three Pim kinases with subnanomolar to low single-digit nanomolar K(i) values and exhibit excellent selectivity against a panel of diverse kinases. Protein crystal structures of the bound Pim-1 complexes of benzothienopyrimidinones 3b (PDB code 3JYA), 6e (PDB code 3JYO), and 12b (PDB code 3JXW) were determined and used to guide SAR studies. Multiple compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activity in K562 and MV4-11 cells with submicromolar EC(50) values. For example, compound 14j inhibited the growth of K562 cells with an EC(50) value of 1.7 muM and showed K(i) values of 2, 3, and 0.5 nM against Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3, respectively. These novel Pim kinase inhibitors efficiently interrupted the phosphorylation of Bad in both K562 and LnCaP-Bad cell lines, indicating that their potent biological activities are mechanism-based. The pharmacokinetics of 14j was studied in CD-1 mice and shown to exhibit bioavailability of 76% after oral dosing. ADME profiling of 14j suggested a long half-life in both human and mouse liver microsomes, good permeability, modest protein binding, and no CYP inhibition below 20 muM concentration.
Related JoVE Video
Acquired resistance to combination treatment with temozolomide and ABT-888 is mediated by both base excision repair and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many established cancer therapies involve DNA-damaging chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gain of DNA repair capacity of the tumor represents a common mechanism used by cancer cells to survive DNA-damaging therapy. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme that is activated by DNA damage and plays a critical role in base excision repair. Inhibition of PARP represents an attractive approach for the treatment of cancer. Previously, we have described the discovery and characterization of a potent PARP inhibitor, ABT-888. ABT-888 potentiates the activity of DNA-damaging agents such as temozolomide (TMZ) in a variety of preclinical models. We report here the generation of HCT116 cells resistant to treatment with TMZ and ABT-888 (HCT116R cells). HCT116R cells exhibit decreased H2AX phosphorylation in response to treatment with TMZ and ABT-888 relative to parental HCT116 cells. Microarray and Western blot studies indicate that HCT116R cells have decreased PARP-1 and elevated Rad51 expression levels. HCT116R cells are dependent on Rad51 for proliferation and survival, as shown by inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis upon treatment with Rad51 small interfering RNA. In addition, HCT116R cells are more resistant to radiation than the parental HCT116 cells. Our study suggests that cancer cells upregulate the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway to compensate for the loss of base excision repair, which may account for the observed resistance to treatment with TMZ and ABT-888.
Related JoVE Video
The Bcl-2 family antagonist ABT-737 significantly inhibits multiple animal models of autoimmunity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a critical role in controlling immune responses by regulating the expansion and contraction of activated lymphocyte clones by apoptosis. ABT-737, which was originally developed for oncology, is a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w protein function. There is evidence that Bcl-2-associated dysregulation of lymphocyte apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we report that ABT-737 treatment resulted in potent inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation as measured by in vitro mitogenic or ex vivo Ag-specific stimulation. More importantly, ABT-737 significantly reduced disease severity in tissue-specific and systemic animal models of autoimmunity. Bcl-2 family antagonism by ABT-737 was efficacious in treating animal models of arthritis and lupus. Our results suggest that treatment with a Bcl-2 family antagonist represents a novel and potentially attractive therapeutic approach for the clinical treatment of autoimmunity.
Related JoVE Video
ABT-751, a novel tubulin-binding agent, decreases tumor perfusion and disrupts tumor vasculature.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABT-751 is an orally bioavailable tubulin-binding agent that is currently under clinical development for cancer treatment. In preclinical studies, ABT-751 showed antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of tumor lines including those resistant to conventional chemotherapies. In this study, we investigated the antivascular properties of ABT-751 in a rat subcutaneous tumor model using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. A single dose of ABT-751 (30 mg/kg, intravenously) induced a rapid, transient reduction in tumor perfusion. After 1 h, tumor perfusion decreased by 57% before recovering to near pretreatment levels within 6 h. In contrast, ABT-751 produced little change in muscle perfusion at either time point. To further elucidate mechanisms of drug action at the cellular level, we examined the effects of ABT-751 on endothelial cells using an in-vitro assay. ABT-751, at concentrations corresponding to plasma levels achieved in vivo, caused endothelial cell retraction and significant loss of microtubules within 1 h. The severity of these morphological changes was dose-dependent but reversible within 6 h after the discontinuation of the drug. Taken together, these results show that ABT-751 is a tubulin-binding agent with antivascular properties. Microtubule disruption and morphological changes in vascular endothelial cells may be responsible, at least in part, for the dysfunction of tumor blood vessels after ABT-751 treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic CD8 T-cell responses to tumor-associated Epstein-Barr virus antigens in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-negative Hodgkins disease.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In almost half of patients diagnosed with Hodgkins disease (HD), the malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells express Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens. Multiple translational efforts are actively investigating antitumor immune strategies by stimulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against tumor-associated EBV antigens. It has previously been believed that this therapeutic strategy and presence of EBV-specific CTLs are limited to EBV-positive HD. In an effort to explore the EBV-specific immune response, here we characterize EBV-specific CTL responses to lytic and latent EBV antigens in 12 consecutive EBV carriers with EBV-negative HD. Compared to healthy donors, we detected weak, baseline EBV-specific responses to both lytic and latent antigens by IFN-gamma ELISPOT in patients with EBV-negative HD at diagnosis. Chemoradiotherapy was associated temporally with a decrease EBV-specific responses. At final follow-up (24 months), recovery of EBV-specific CTL responses was observed with robustness of lytic-specific response equivalent to healthy controls. We confirm evidence of EBV-specific CTLs in patients with EBV-negative HD and provide the first report of dynamic variance in this population during treatment. Our observation challenges prior belief that patients with HD remain immunodeficient following therapy and argues that the clinical significance of the EBV-specific immune response in EBV-negative HD should be further investigated.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.