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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sociocultural factors perpetuating the practices of early marriage and childbirth in Sylhet District, Bangladesh.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The practice of adolescent marriage continues in communities throughout Bangladesh, with adolescent childbearing a common result. This early childbearing is associated with increased medical risks for both mothers and their newborns. Because of the need to understand the persistence of these behaviors in spite of the risks, various qualitative research methods were used to identify and better understand the various socio cultural factors perpetuating the practices of early marriage and childbirth.
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Neonatal mortality risks among preterm births in a rural bangladeshi cohort.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Preterm birth leads to an estimated 35% of neonatal deaths worldwide. Our study analyses neonatal mortality risks among preterm births in rural Bangladesh.
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Maternal mortality in Bangladesh: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Bangladesh is one of the only nine Countdown countries that are on track to achieve the primary target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 by 2015. It is also the only low-income or middle-income country with two large, nationally-representative, high-quality household surveys focused on the measurement of maternal mortality and service use.
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Incidence and risk factors of preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Globally, about 15 million neonates are born preterm and about 85% of global preterm birth occurs in Asia and Africa regions. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk factors for preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort.
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Ascaris lumbricoids Infection as a Risk Factor for Asthma and Atopy in Rural Bangladeshi Children.
Trop Med Health
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Controversy persists as to whether helminth infections cause or protect against asthma and atopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of helminth infection on asthma and atopy among Bangladeshi children. A total of 912 children aged 4.5 years (mean = 54.4, range = 53.5-60.8 months) participated in a cross-sectional study nested into a randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh. Ever-asthma, ever-wheezing and current wheezing were identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Current helminth infection was defined by the presence of helminth eggs in stools, measured by routine microscopic examination. Repeated Ascaris infection was defined by the presence of anti-Ascaris IgE ? 0.70 UA/ml in serum measured by the CAP-FEIA method. Atopy was defined by specific IgE to house dust mite (anti-DP IgE) ? 0.70 UA/ml measured by the CAP-FEIA method and/or positive skin prick test (? 5 mm). Anti-Ascaris IgE was significantly associated with ever asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.14-3.04, highest vs. lowest quartile; P for trend 0.016). Anti-Ascaris IgE was also significantly associated with positive anti-DP IgE (OR = 9.89, 95% CI: 6.52-15.00, highest vs. lowest; P for trend < 0.001) and positive skin prick test (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01-2.81, highest vs. lowest, P for trend 0.076). These findings suggest that repeated Ascaris infection is a risk factor for asthma and atopy in rural Bangladeshi children. Further analysis is required to examine the mechanism of developing asthma and atopy in relation to helminth infection.
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National Working Group Meeting on ALK diagnostics in lung cancer.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The global landscape of molecular testing is rapidly changing, with the recent publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines and the ALK Atlas. The IASLC/CAP guidelines recommend that tumors from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) be tested for ALK rearrangements in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The spur for this recommendation is the availability of novel therapies that target these rearrangements. This article is based on coverage of a Pfizer-sponsored National Working Group Meeting on ALK Diagnostics in Lung Cancer, held around the 15th World Lung Cancer Conference, in Sydney on October 31, 2013. It is based on the presentations given by the authors at the meeting and the discussion that ensued. The content for this article was discussed and agreed on by the authors.
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Validation of a rapid neurodevelopmental assessment tool for 5 to 9 year-old children in Bangladesh.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To validate a rapid neurodevelopmental assessment tool for use by child care professionals to determine neurodevelopmental impairments (NDIs) in children ages 5-9 years (61-108 months) in Bangladesh.
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Determinants and pattern of care seeking for preterm newborns in a rural Bangladeshi cohort.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Despite the increased burden of preterm birth and its complications, the dearth of care seeking data for preterm newborns remains a significant knowledge gap. Among preterm babies in rural Bangladesh, we examined: 1) determinants and patterns of care seeking, and 2) risk analysis for care-seeking from qualified and unqualified providers.
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Estimation of the herd protection of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine against radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children under 2 years old in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Herd protection of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been associated with excessive decrease of invasive Hib diseases, i.e., pneumonia and meningitis, with increased national or regional Hib vaccine coverage. Only a few studies have examined herd protection at the individual level and even less evidence is available from Asia. We examined Hib vaccine herd protection against radiologically confirmed pneumonia among children less than 2 years old.
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Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population.
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Community-based approaches and partnerships: innovations in health-service delivery in Bangladesh.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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In Bangladesh, rapid advancements in coverage of many health interventions have coincided with impressive reductions in fertility and rates of maternal, infant, and childhood mortality. These advances, which have taken place despite such challenges as widespread poverty, political instability, and frequent natural disasters, warrant careful analysis of Bangladeshs approach to health-service delivery in the past four decades. With reference to success stories, we explore strategies in health-service delivery that have maximised reach and improved health outcomes. We identify three distinctive features that have enabled Bangladesh to improve health-service coverage and health outcomes: (1) experimentation with, and widespread application of, large-scale community-based approaches, especially investment in community health workers using a doorstep delivery approach; (2) experimentation with informal and contractual partnership arrangements that capitalise on the ability of non-governmental organisations to generate community trust, reach the most deprived populations, and address service gaps; and (3) rapid adoption of context-specific innovative technologies and policies that identify country-specific systems and mechanisms. Continued development of innovative, community-based strategies of health-service delivery, and adaptation of new technologies, are needed to address neglected and emerging health challenges, such as increasing access to skilled birth attendance, improvement of coverage of antenatal care and of nutritional status, the effects of climate change, and chronic disease. Past experience should guide future efforts to address rising public health concerns for Bangladesh and other underdeveloped countries.
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Innovation for universal health coverage in Bangladesh: a call to action.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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A post-Millennium Development Goals agenda for health in Bangladesh should be defined to encourage a second generation of health-system innovations under the clarion call of universal health coverage. This agenda should draw on the experience of the first generation of innovations that underlie the countrys impressive health achievements and creatively address future health challenges. Central to the reform process will be the development of a multipronged strategic approach that: responds to existing demands in a way that assures affordable, equitable, high-quality health care from a pluralistic health system; anticipates health-care needs in a period of rapid health and social transition; and addresses underlying structural issues that otherwise might hamper progress. A pragmatic reform agenda for achieving universal health coverage in Bangladesh should include development of a long-term national human resources policy and action plan, establishment of a national insurance system, building of an interoperable electronic health information system, investment to strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and creation of a supraministerial council on health. Greater political, financial, and technical investment to implement this reform agenda offers the prospect of a stronger, more resilient, sustainable, and equitable health system.
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Treating diarrhoeal disease in children under five: the global picture.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Rates of childhood mortality due to diarrhoea remain unacceptably high and call for renewed global focus and commitment. Affordable, simple and effective diarrhoeal treatments have already been available for many years, yet a shift in international health priorities has seen coverage of recommended treatments slow to a near-standstill since 1995. This article reviews coverage of recommended childhood diarrhoeal treatments (low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc), globally and regionally, and provides an overview of the major barriers to wide-scale coverage. It is argued that to ensure smooth supply and equitable distribution of ORS and zinc, adequate financing, relevant policy changes, strong public, private and non-government organisation (NGO) collaboration, local manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, mass media awareness and campaigning, in conjunction with strong government support, are necessary for successful treatment scale-up.
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Animal husbandry practices in rural Bangladesh: potential risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance and emerging diseases.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Antimicrobial drug administration to household livestock may put humans and animals at risk for acquisition of antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens. To describe animal husbandry practices, including animal healthcare-seeking and antimicrobial drug use in rural Bangladesh, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with key informants, including female household members (n = 79), village doctors (n = 10), and pharmaceutical representatives, veterinarians, and government officials (n = 27), and performed observations at animal health clinics (n = 3). Prevalent animal husbandry practices that may put persons at risk for acquisition of pathogens included shared housing and water for animals and humans, antimicrobial drug use for humans and animals, and crowding. Household members reported seeking human and animal healthcare from unlicensed village doctors rather than formal-sector healthcare providers and cited cost and convenience as reasons. Five times more per household was spent on animal than on human healthcare. Strengthening animal and human disease surveillance systems should be continued. Interventions are recommended to provide vulnerable populations with a means of protecting their livelihood and health.
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Improving and sustaining quality of child health care through IMCI training and supervision: experience from rural Bangladesh.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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BACKGROUND The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy includes guidelines for the management of sick children at first-level facilities. These guidelines intend to improve quality of care by ensuring a complete assessment of the childs health and by providing algorithms that combine presenting symptoms into a set of illness classifications for management by IMCI-trained service providers at first-level facilities. OBJECTIVES To investigate the sustainability of improvements in under-five case management by two cadres of first-level government service providers with different levels of pre-service training following implementation of IMCI training and supportive supervision. METHODS Twenty first-level health facilities in the rural sub-district of Matlab in Bangladesh were randomly assigned to IMCI intervention or comparison groups. Health workers in IMCI facilities received training in case management and monthly supportive supervision that involved observations of case management and reinforcement of skills by trained physicians. Health workers in comparison facilities were supervised according to Government of Bangladesh standards. Health facility surveys involving observations of case management were carried out at baseline (2000) and at two points (2003 and 2005) after implementation of IMCI in intervention facilities.Findings Improvement in the management of sick under-five children by IMCI trained service providers with only 18 months of pre-service training was equivalent to that of service providers with 4 years of pre-service training. The improvements in quality of care were sustained over a 2-year period across both cadres of providers in intervention facilities. CONCLUSION IMCI training coupled with regular supervision can sustain improvements in the quality of child health care in first-level health facilities, even among workers with minimal pre-service training. These findings can guide government policy makers and provide further evidence to support the scale-up of regular supervision and task shifting the management of sick under-five children to lower-level service providers.
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The effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness in young infants in a maternal immunization trial in Bangladesh.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Exclusive breast-feeding reduces the risk of respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months of age in developing countries by approximately half. We evaluated the effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness with fever (RIF) in Bangladeshi infants in the context of a randomized maternal influenza immunization trial.
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Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain.
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Impact of introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine into childhood immunization on meningitis in Bangladeshi infants.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Some Asian countries have been reluctant to adopt Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccination because of uncertainty over disease burden. We assessed the impact of introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization in Bangladesh on purulent and laboratory-confirmed H influenzae meningitis.
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Follow-up of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis to determine its long-term sequelae.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To measure physical and neurologic impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis on surviving children through short- and long-term follow-up.
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Nutritional status and childhood wheezing in rural Bangladesh.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between current childhood nutritional status and current wheezing among pre-school children in rural Bangladesh. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Matlab region, rural Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: Children (n 912) aged 4·5 years. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and their children were taken during a 1-year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Current wheezing was identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Serum total IgE was measured by human IgE quantitative ELISA. IgE specific antibody to dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by the CAP-FEIA system (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden). RESULTS: Wheezing at 4·5 years old was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 1·58; 95 % CI 1·13, 2·22) and underweight (OR = 1·39; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·94). The association with stunting remained significant after adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth length, gestational age at birth, mothers parity, maternal BMI, family history of asthma, socio-economic status, season of birth and intervention trial arm (OR = 1·74; 95 % CI 1·19, 2·56). CONCLUSIONS: Stunting was a significant risk factor for wheezing among rural Bangladeshi children. Further studies will be required to confirm the relationship between nutritional status and allergic illnesses in developing countries.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: a prospective validation study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on measuring correct treatment of childhood pneumonia.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%), the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool). Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.
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Combined food and micronutrient supplements during pregnancy have limited impact on child blood pressure and kidney function in rural Bangladesh.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood.
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Effects of exclusive breastfeeding intervention on child growth and body composition: the MINIMat trial, Bangladesh.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months is recommended for optimal infant health, but the evidence for longer-term impacts is weak. We examined whether randomization to receive EBF counselling (BFC) in rural Bangladeshi women had an impact on childhood growth trajectories and body composition.
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Chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord and separation time: a cluster-randomized trial.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Cord cleansing with chlorhexidine reduces neonatal mortality. We aimed to quantify the impact of this intervention on cord separation time and the implications of such an increase on maternal and other caretakers acceptance of chlorhexidine in future scaled up programs.
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Combined effects of antenatal receipt of influenza vaccine by mothers and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine receipt by infants: results from a randomized, blinded, controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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A 2 × 2 factorial trial was performed to determine the efficacy of antennal influenza vaccination of mothers plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of their infants against respiratory illness during early infancy. The efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV; delivered to mothers) plus 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; delivered to infants) was higher than the efficacy of TIV alone or PCV7 alone. During the period of the study in which influenza was circulating, the efficacy of TIV plus PCV7 was 72.4% (95% confidence interval, 30.2%-89.1%) against febrile respiratory illness and 66.4% (95% CI, 14.3%-86.9%) against medically attended acute respiratory illness.
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Elevated manganese concentrations in drinking water may be beneficial for fetal survival.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Elevated exposure to the essential element manganese (Mn) can be toxic. Manganese concentrations in ground water vary considerably, and reported associations between Mn and early-life mortality and impaired development have raised concern. We assessed the effects of drinking water Mn exposure during pregnancy upon fetal and infant survival.
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IgA and neutralizing antibodies to influenza a virus in human milk: a randomized trial of antenatal influenza immunization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Antenatal immunization of mothers with influenza vaccine increases serum antibodies and reduces the rates of influenza illness in mothers and their infants. We report the effect of antenatal immunization on the levels of specific anti-influenza IgA levels in human breast milk. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00142389; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00142389).
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Effectiveness of an integrated approach to reduce perinatal mortality: recent experiences from Matlab, Bangladesh.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Improving perinatal health is the key to achieving the Millennium Development Goal for child survival. Recently, several reviews suggest that scaling up available effective perinatal interventions in an integrated approach can substantially reduce the stillbirth and neonatal death rates worldwide. We evaluated the effect of packaged interventions given in pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods through integration of community- and facility-based services on perinatal mortality.
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Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS) on their offsprings growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes.
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Association between calcium in cord blood and newborn size in Bangladesh.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Ca status in the uterus during pregnancy has been suggested to affect fetal growth and size at birth. In Bangladesh, low Ca levels in pregnant women and low birth weight in infants are common. The present study explored the association between Ca levels in cord blood and newborn size at birth (birth weight and birth length) in Bangladesh. Samples and data included 223 women with live-born singleton deliveries in rural Bangladesh. Newborn weight and length were measured at birth. From cord blood obtained at delivery, Ca, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone levels were determined. An association between size at birth and Ca levels in cord blood was found (birth weight, P = 0.022; birth length, P = 0.001). Associations between Ca and newborn size were further analysed using multivariate regression analyses. After adjusting for several covariates of characteristics in mothers and newborns (gestational weeks at birth, sex of newborn, socio-economic status, maternal height, BMI, age and season at birth), birth length still exhibited a significant relationship with Ca levels in cord blood (birth length, P = 0.030). The present study indicates that Ca status in cord blood might be associated with the birth length of newborns. Ca levels during gestation may affect fetal growth.
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Vulnerability of newborns to environmental factors: findings from community based surveillance data in Bangladesh.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Infection is the major cause of neonatal deaths. Home born newborns in rural Bangladeshi communities are exposed to environmental factors increasing their vulnerability to a number of disease agents that may compromise their health. The current analysis was conducted to assess the association of very severe disease (VSD) in newborns in rural communities with temperature, rainfall, and humidity. A total of 12,836 newborns from rural Sylhet and Mirzapur communities were assessed by trained community health workers using a sign based algorithm. Records of temperature, humidity, and rainfall were collected from the nearest meteorological stations. Associations between VSD and environmental factors were estimated. Incidence of VSD was found to be associated with higher temperatures (odds ratios: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.21 in Sylhet and 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.07 in Mirzapur) and heat humidity index (odds ratios: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.08 in Sylhet and, 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04 in Mirzapur). Four months (June-September) in Sylhet, and six months in Mirzapur (April-September) had higher odds ratios of incidence of VSD as compared to the remainder of the year (odds ratios: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.23 in Sylhet and, 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.96 in Mirzapur). Prevention of VSD in neonates can be enhanced if these interactions are considered in health intervention strategies.
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Incidence of influenza virus infection in early infancy: a prospective study in South Asia.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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We evaluated infant sera from an immunization trial in Bangladesh to assess influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer increases in 131 unimmunized infants from birth to 6 months. We detected 31 serologically defined infections. Combined with 10 additional rapid test-proven influenza cases, the minimal estimated incidence was 31 of 100 infants (95% CI: 24-41). These data suggest a high burden of influenza in young infants in tropical South Asia.
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An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood meningococcal disease.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Meningococcal meningitis is a major cause of disease worldwide, with frequent epidemics particularly affecting an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "meningitis belt". Neisseria meningitidis group A (MenA) is responsible for major epidemics in Africa. Recently W-135 has emerged as an important pathogen. Currently, the strategy for control of such outbreaks is emergency use of meningococcal (MC) polysaccharide vaccines, but these have a limited ability to induce herd immunity and elicit an adequate immune response in infant and young children. In recent times initiatives have been taken to introduce meningococcal conjugate vaccine in these African countries. Currently there are two different types of MC conjugate vaccines at late stages of development covering serogroup A and W-135: a multivalent MC conjugate vaccine against serogroup A,C,Y and W-135; and a monovalent conjugate vaccine against serogroup A. We aimed to perform a structured assessment of these emerging meningococcal vaccines as a means of reducing global meningococcal disease burden among children under 5 years of age.
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An evaluation of oxygen systems for treatment of childhood pneumonia.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Oxygen therapy is recommended for all of the 1.5 - 2.7 million young children who consult health services with hypoxemic pneumonia each year, and the many more with other serious conditions. However, oxygen supplies are intermittent throughout the developing world. Although oxygen is well established as a treatment for hypoxemic pneumonia, quantitative evidence for its effect is lacking. This review aims to assess the utility of oxygen systems as a method for reducing childhood mortality from pneumonia.
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An evaluation of the emerging vaccines and immunotherapy against staphylococcal pneumonia in children.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal of human skin and nares. It is also one of the leading nosocomial pathogens in both developed and developing countries and is responsible for a wide range of life threatening infections, especially in patients who are immunocompromised, post-surgery, undergoing haemodialysis and those who are treated with catheters and ventilators. Over the past two decades, the incidence of nosocomial staphylococcal infections has increased dramatically. Currently there are at least seven vaccine and immunotherapy candidates against S. aureus in the developmental phase targeting both active and passive immunization.
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An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) or pneumococcus is estimated to cause 821,000 child deaths each year. It has over 90 serotypes, of which 7 to 13 serotypes are included in current formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines that are efficacious in young children. To further reduce the burden from SP pneumonia, a vaccine is required that could protect children from a greater diversity of serotypes. Two different types of vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia are currently at varying stages of development: a multivalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covering additional SP serotypes; and a conserved common pneumococcal protein antigen (PPA) vaccine offering protection for all serotypes.
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Levels, timing, and etiology of stillbirths in Sylhet district of Bangladesh.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Lack of data is a critical barrier to addressing the problem of stillbirth in countries with the highest stillbirth burden. Our study objective was to estimate the levels, types, and causes of stillbirth in rural Sylhet district of Bangladesh.
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Zinc treatment for 5 or 10 days is equally efficacious in preventing diarrhea in the subsequent 3 months among Bangladeshi children.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled, community trial in rural Bangladesh in children 4-59 mo of age to compare the efficacy of a 5- and 10-d course of zinc therapy on the incidence and duration of diarrhea over the subsequent 90-d follow-up after initial treatment for an acute childhood diarrheal (ACD) episode. Children (n = 1622) with ACD were randomly allocated to either 5 or 10 d of zinc treatment. Female field workers visited each child daily, supervised the administration of zinc, recorded the duration of current episode, and the occurrence and duration of diarrhea over the subsequent 3 mo. The incidence of diarrhea over the 90 d of follow-up did not differ between the 5-d (1.08 ± 1.38 episodes) and 10-d (1.02 ± 1.35 episodes) groups (P = 0.35). Children in both groups experienced a comparable duration of diarrheal episodes (3.1 ± 5.6 d vs. 2.9 ± 5.6 d, 5-d vs. 10-d, respectively; P = 0.64) with a mean difference between groups within the defined range of equivalence. Time to onset of the first episode and the proportion children experiencing diarrhea during the 90-d follow-up also did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that among Bangladeshi children, a 5-d zinc treatment for ACD is as efficacious as 10 d in preventing diarrhea in the subsequent 3 mo.
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Prevalence of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in early pregnancy in rural Bangladesh, the MINIMat trial.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2010
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To describe the prevalence of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies as well as their determinants in early pregnancy.
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Infant anaemia is associated with infection, low birthweight and iron deficiency in rural Bangladesh.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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To estimate the prevalence of infant anaemia and its association with iron deficiency, growth, infection and other micronutrient deficiencies.
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Arsenic exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and infant mortality.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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Millions of people worldwide are drinking water with elevated arsenic concentrations. Epidemiologic studies, mainly cross-sectional in design, have suggested that arsenic in drinking water may affect pregnancy outcome and infant health. We assessed the association of arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant mortality in a prospective cohort study of pregnant women.
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Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae.
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A low-cost approach to measure the burden of vaccine preventable diseases in urban areas.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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We piloted a low-cost approach to measure the disease burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hib and Salmonella Typhi by leveraging the existing infrastructure of high performing microbiology laboratories at two large paediatric hospitals in Dhaka Bangladesh, and assessing the hospital utilization of the catchment population of these hospitals for different syndromes. S. Typhi was the most common bacterium identified in culture and accounted for an estimated 211 hospitalizations per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. Meningitis due to S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of mortality accounting for 8.0 deaths per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. This low-cost approach can provide data to support vaccine introduction and the health impact of newly introduced vaccines.
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Community-based health workers achieve high coverage in neonatal intervention trials: a case study from Sylhet, Bangladesh.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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A large proportion of four million neonatal deaths occur each year during the first 24 hours of life. Research is particularly needed to determine the efficacy of interventions during the first 24 hours. Large cadres of community-based workers are required in newborn-care research both to deliver these interventions in a standardized manner in the home and to measure the outcomes of the study. In a large-scale community-based efficacy trial of chlorhexidine for cleansing the cord in north-eastern rural Bangladesh, a two-tiered system of community-based workers was established to deliver a package of essential maternal and newborn-care interventions and one of three umbilical cord-care regimens. At any given time, the trial employed approximately 133 community health workers--each responsible for 4-5 village health workers and a population of approximately 4,000. Over the entire trial period, 29,760 neonates were enrolled, and 87% of them received the intervention (their assigned cord-care regimen) within 24 hours of birth. Approaches to recruitment, training, and supervision in the study are described. Key lessons included the importance of supportive processes for community-based workers, including a strong training and field supervisory system, community acceptance of the study, consideration of the setting, study objectives, and human resources available.
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Factors affecting recruitment and retention of community health workers in a newborn care intervention in Bangladesh.
Hum Resour Health
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Well-trained and highly motivated community health workers (CHWs) are critical for delivery of many community-based newborn care interventions. High rates of CHW attrition undermine programme effectiveness and potential for implementation at scale. We investigated reasons for high rates of CHW attrition in Sylhet District in north-eastern Bangladesh.
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How well does LiST capture mortality by wealth quintile? A comparison of measured versus modelled mortality rates among children under-five in Bangladesh.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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In the absence of planned efforts to target the poor, child survival programs often favour the rich. Further evidence is needed urgently about which interventions and programme approaches are most effective in addressing inequities. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is available and can be used to model mortality levels across economic groups based on coverage levels for child survival interventions.
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Safety, dose, immunogenicity, and transmissibility of an oral live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate (SC602) among healthy adults and school children in Matlab, Bangladesh.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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In double-blind trials in Bangladesh, 88 adults, and 79 children (8-10 years) were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of 1 × 10(4), 1 × 10(5) or 1 × 10(6)CFU of SC602 (a live, attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a strain vaccine) or placebo. In the adult outpatient 1 × 10(6) CFU group, severe joint pain and body aches were reported by one and two vaccinees respectively. In the adult inpatient trial, SC602 was isolated from 3 volunteers, pre-vaccination antibody titers were high, and fourfold increases in serum IgG anti-LPS responses were observed in 2 of 5 subjects of the 1 × 10(6)CFU group. None of the volunteers developed diarrhea. Overall, SC602 was found to be associated with minimal vaccine shedding, minimal reactogenicity, no transmission risk, and low immune stimulation.
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Pre- and postnatal arsenic exposure and child development at 18 months of age: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been associated with impaired cognitive function in school-aged children in cross-sectional studies; however, there are few longitudinal studies and little information on effects of exposure in early life when the brain is generally most vulnerable.
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Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation has limited impact on micronutrient status of Bangladeshi infants compared with standard iron and folic acid supplementation.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Knowledge about the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status is limited. We examined the effect of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab Trial. Pregnant women (n = 4436) were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrollment in a food supplementation program. In addition, they were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 3 types of daily micronutrient supplements provided from wk 14 of gestation to 3 mo postpartum: 1) folic acid and 30 mg iron (Fe30Fol); 2) folic acid and 60 mg iron; or 3) a multiple micronutrient including folic acid and 30 mg iron (MMS). At 6 mo, infant blood samples (n = 1066) were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin and plasma ferritin, zinc, retinol, vitamin B-12, and folate. The vitamin B-12 concentration differed between the micronutrient supplementation groups (P = 0.049). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was lower in the MMS group (26.1%) than in the Fe30Fol group (36.5%) (P = 0.003). The prevalence of zinc deficiency was lower in the Usual food supplementation group (54.1%) than in the Early group (60.2%) (P = 0.046). There were no other differential effects according to food or micronutrient supplementation groups. We conclude that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation may have a beneficial effect on vitamin B-12 status in infancy.
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Surveillance of rotavirus in a rural diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh, 2000-2006.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Rotavirus was detected in 33% of 4519 children less than 5 years of age admitted with diarrhoea to treatment centres at Matlab in rural Bangladesh from 2000 to 2006. Highest rotavirus detection rates were in children aged 6-11 months with 56% being less than 1 year old. The peak seasonal detection was in July-September and December-February. The population-based incidence rates of rotavirus ranged from 10.8 to 19.6/1000 children less than 5 years of age. G1 serotype predominated between June 2002-May 2005 and June 2005-May 2006 the predominant type was G2 (41%) followed by G1 (22%) and G9 (22%). Rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh and this burden may be reduced with a rotavirus vaccination programme.
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Intussusception surveillance in a rural demographic surveillance area in bangladesh.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
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Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Bangladesh. The licensed vaccine Rotashield was withdrawn from the market because of an increased risk of intussusception. This study was undertaken to estimate the background incidence rates of intussusception among children aged <2 years, using retrospective and prospective studies in a rural demographic surveillance area in Bangladesh.
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Community-based validation of assessment of newborn illnesses by trained community health workers in Sylhet district of Bangladesh.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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To validate trained community health workers recognition of signs and symptoms of newborn illnesses and classification of illnesses using a clinical algorithm during routine home visits in rural Bangladesh.
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Impact of 4.0% chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on mortality and omphalitis among newborns of Sylhet, Bangladesh: design of a community-based cluster randomized trial.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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The World Health Organization recommends dry cord care for newborns but this recommendation may not be optimal in low resource settings where most births take place in an unclean environment and infections account for up to half of neonatal deaths. A previous trial in Nepal indicated that umbilical cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine could substantially reduce mortality and omphalitis risk, but policy changes await additional community-based data.
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Causes of early childhood deaths in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Data on causes of early childhood death from low-income urban areas are limited. The nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 estimates 65 children died per 1,000 live births. We investigated rates and causes of under-five deaths in an urban community near two large pediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh and evaluated the impact of different recall periods. We conducted a survey in 2006 for 6971 households and a follow up survey in 2007 among eligible remaining households or replacement households. The initial survey collected information for all children under five years old who died in the previous year; the follow up survey on child deaths in the preceding five years. We compared mortality rates based on 1-year recall to the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year. The initial survey identified 58 deaths among children <5 years in the preceding year. The follow up survey identified a mean 53 deaths per year in the preceding five years (SD+/-7.3). Under-five mortality rate was 34 and neonatal mortality was 15 per thousand live births during 2006-2007. The leading cause of under-five death was respiratory infections (22%). The mortality rates among children under 4 years old for the two time periods (most recent 1-year recall and the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year) were similar (36 versus 32). The child mortality in urban Dhaka was substantially lower than the national rate. Mortality rates were not affected by recall periods between 1 and 5 years.
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Use of the new World Health Organization child growth standards to describe longitudinal growth of breastfed rural Bangladeshi infants and young children.
Food Nutr Bull
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Although the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference has been widely used, in 2006 the World Health Organization (WHO) released new standards for assessing growth of infants and children worldwide.
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Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy on childhood mortality and nutrition in a rural area in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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WHO and UNICEF launched the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in the mid-1990s to reduce deaths from diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, measles, and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years. We assessed the effect of IMCI on health and nutrition of children younger than 5 years in Bangladesh.
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Duration of exclusive breast-feeding and infant iron and zinc status in rural Bangladesh.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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There is a concern that exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 mo may lead to iron and zinc deficiency in low-birth weight (LBW) infants. We assessed the association between duration of EBF and infant iron and zinc status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial, Bangladesh, stratified for normal birth weigh (NBW) and LBW. Duration of EBF was classified into EBF <4 mo and EBF 4-6 mo based on monthly recalls of foods introduced to the infant. Blood samples collected at 6 mo were analyzed for plasma zinc (n = 1032), plasma ferritin (n = 1040), and hemoglobin (Hb) (n = 791). Infants EBF 4-6 mo had a higher mean plasma zinc concentration (9.9 +/- 2.3 micromol/L) than infants EBF <4mo (9.5 +/- 2.0 micromol/L) (P < 0.01). This association was apparent in only the NBW strata and was not reflected in a lower prevalence of zinc deficiency. Duration of EBF was not associated with concentration of plasma ferritin, Hb concentration, or prevalence of iron deficiency or anemia in any strata. Regardless of EBF duration, the prevalence of zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, and anemia was high in infants in this population and strategies to prevent deficiency are needed.
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Effectiveness of home-based management of newborn infections by community health workers in rural Bangladesh.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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: Infections account for about half of neonatal deaths in low-resource settings. Limited evidence supports home-based treatment of newborn infections by community health workers (CHW).
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Childhood drowning in Matlab, Bangladesh: an in-depth exploration of community perceptions and practices.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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While reductions in infectious disease have resulted in impressive declines in child mortality in Bangladesh, drowning is becoming proportionately more important as a major cause of death, accounting for at least 19% of deaths of children between 1 and 4 years of age in trend analysis since 2000. Little is known about indigenous beliefs and behaviors associated with drowning, which may be critical to preventing child-related drowning deaths. Qualitative research was carried out over 13 months in Matlab, Bangladesh to describe the indigenous explanatory model of drowning and to identify behavioral factors increasing the risk for drowning deaths. Methods included cognitive mapping procedures as well as open-ended interviews with families who had lost a child or experienced a near-death due to drowning and families with at least one child under 5 years living near a body of water. Along with diarrhea, fever, and pneumonia, drowning is perceived as a leading cause of child death. Causal explanations are primarily associated with "evil spirits" believed to entice young children to water or bewitch mothers so that they forget about the child. Another primary interpretation relates to a water goddess known to prey on small children. When a young child is discovered in water, parents refrain from rescuing the child due to a belief that if a parent touches a drowning child, the child will die. After the child is removed from the water, traditional practices that have no known benefit are employed. The research identified locally constructed beliefs and practices such as refraining from touching the child that may increase the incidence of drowning deaths. Future efforts are required to address these beliefs and assess the feasibility, cultural acceptability and effectiveness of strategies designed to prevent drowning.
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Household food security is associated with growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Despite a strong relationship between household food security and the health and nutritional status of adults and older children, the association of household food security with the growth of infants and young children has not been adequately studied, particularly in developing countries. We examined the association between household food security and subsequent growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.
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