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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Profile of Tumor Antigens Which Can be Targeted by Immunotherapy Depends Upon the Tumor's Anatomical Site.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Previously, we showed that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) engineered to express a cDNA library from human melanoma cells (ASMEL, Altered Self Melanoma Epitope Library) was an effective systemic therapy to treat subcutaneous (s.c.) murine B16 melanomas. Here, we show that intravenous treatment with the same ASMEL VSV-cDNA library was an effective treatment for established intra-cranial (i.c.) melanoma brain tumors. The optimal combination of antigens identified from the ASMEL which treated s.c. B16 tumors (VSV-N-RAS+VSV-CYTC-C+VSV-TYRP-1) was ineffective against i.c. B16 brain tumors. In contrast, combination of VSV-expressed antigens-VSV-HIF-2?+VSV-SOX-10+VSV-C-MYC+VSV-TYRP1-from ASMEL which was highly effective against i.c. B16 brain tumors, had no efficacy against the same tumors growing subcutaneously. Correspondingly, i.c. B16 tumors expressed a HIF-2?(Hi), SOX-10(Hi), c-myc(Hi), TYRP1, N-RAS(lo)Cytc(lo) antigen profile, which differed significantly from the HIF-2?(lo), SOX-10(lo), c-myc(lo), TYRP1, N-RAS(Hi)Cytc(Hi) phenotype of s.c. B16 tumors, and was imposed upon the tumor cells by CD11b(+) cells within the local brain tumor microenvironment. Combining T-cell costimulation with systemic VSV-cDNA treatment, long-term cures of mice with established i.c. tumors were achieved in about 75% of mice. Our data show that the anatomical location of a tumor profoundly affects the profile of antigens that it expresses.
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Cytokine conditioning enhances systemic delivery and therapy of an oncolytic virus.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Optimum clinical protocols require systemic delivery of oncolytic viruses in the presence of an intact immune system. We show that preconditioning with immune modulators, or loading virus onto carrier cells ex vivo, enhances virus-mediated antitumor activity. Our early trials of systemic reovirus delivery showed that after infusion reovirus could be recovered from blood cells--but not from plasma--suggesting that rapid association with blood cells may protect virus from neutralizing antibody. We therefore postulated that stimulation of potential carrier cells directly in vivo before intravenous viral delivery would enhance delivery of cell-associated virus to tumor. We show that mobilization of the CD11b(+) cell compartment by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor immediately before intravenous reovirus, eliminated detectable tumor in mice with small B16 melanomas, and achieved highly significant therapy in mice bearing well-established tumors. Unexpectedly, cytokine conditioning therapy was most effective in the presence of preexisting neutralizing antibody. Consistent with this, reovirus bound by neutralizing antibody effectively accessed monocytes/macrophages and was handed off to tumor cells. Thus, preconditioning with cytokine stimulated recipient cells in vivo for enhanced viral delivery to tumors. Moreover, preexisting neutralizing antibody to an oncolytic virus may, therefore, even be exploited for systemic delivery to tumors in the clinic.
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Optimising measles virus-guided radiovirotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and specific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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We previously reported a therapeutic strategy comprising replication-defective NIS-expressing adenovirus combined with radioiodide, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA repair inhibition. We have now evaluated NIS-expressing oncolytic measles virus (MV-NIS) combined with NIS-guided radioiodide, EBRT and specific checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition in head and neck and colorectal models.
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The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer.
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Dose-response analysis of parotid gland function: what is the best measure of xerostomia?
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To describe the dose-response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC).
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Therapeutic effect of sodium iodide symporter gene therapy combined with external beam radiotherapy and targeted drugs that inhibit DNA repair.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Adenoviral (AdV) transfer of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene has translational potential, but relatively low levels of transduction and subsequent radioisotope uptake limit the efficacy of the approach. In previous studies, we showed that combining NIS gene delivery with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA damage repair inhibitors increased viral gene expression and radioiodide uptake. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. An adenovirus expressing NIS from a telomerase promoter (Ad-hTR-NIS) was cytotoxic combined with relatively high-dose (50 microCi) (131)I therapy and enhanced the efficacy of EBRT combined with low-dose (10 and 25 microCi) (131)I therapy in colorectal and head and neck cancer cells. Combining this approach with ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition caused maintenance of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at 24 hours and increased cytotoxicity on clonogenic assay. When the triplet of NIS-mediated (131)I therapy, EBRT, and DNA-PKi was used in vivo, 90% of mice were tumor-free at 5 weeks. Acute radiation toxicity in the EBRT field was not exacerbated. In contrast, DNA-PKi did not enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EBRT plus adenovirus-mediated HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV). Therefore, combining NIS gene therapy and EBRT represents an ideal strategy to exploit the therapeutic benefits of novel radiosensitizers.
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Novel targeted radiosensitisers in cancer treatment.
Curr Drug Discov Technol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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The last few years have seen a significant increase in our understanding of the molecular pathways governing cell function in cancer. This has led to an explosive interest in novel molecularly-targeted agents and, until recently, the focus of research effort has been to combine these agents with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, following a recent trial of an anti-EGFR targeted antibody in combination with radiation, a new paradigm is emerging in which these novel agents will be combined with external beam radiotherapy (RT). In this article we review classes of novel targeted radiosensitisers that are directed at specific aspects of cell function. Such agents are aimed at either single or multiple targets (the latter is a more attractive approach in view of cross-talk between different cell signaling pathways). We review available preclinical and clinical literature with a particular focus on novel agents targeting components of the ErbB and IGF-1R family cell signaling pathways. In this model, radiosensitisers can exert their effects at the cell membrane surface by preventing receptor activation or by interfering with the function of second messengers such as the Ras/PI3K/mTOR pathway. In addition, the effects of novel DNA repair inhibitors will be considered in the context of combination strategies with signal transduction pathway blockade. Other small molecule inhibitors, such as HSP90 inhibitors, that can disrupt signaling in a number of different pathways, will also be discussed. Ultimately, through the synergistic use of these innovative molecules and RT, the therapeutic index may be enhanced by modulating cellular metabolism, proliferation, repair, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. The rapid proliferation of available targeted agents and their entry into phase I clinical trials means that this is an extremely interesting area for research in radiation oncology.
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Targeted radiosensitization by the Chk1 inhibitor SAR-020106.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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To explore the activity of a potent Chk1 inhibitor (SAR-020106) in combination with radiation.
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The HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 radiosensitizes by abrogation of homologous recombination resulting in mitotic entry with unresolved DNA damage.
PLoS ONE
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Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone responsible for the conformational maintenance of a number of client proteins that play key roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair and apoptosis following radiation. HSP90 inhibitors exhibit antitumor activity by modulating the stabilisation and activation of HSP90 client proteins. We sought to evaluate NVP-AUY922, the most potent HSP90 inhibitor yet reported, in preclinical radiosensitization studies.
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Dose-response analysis of acute oral mucositis and pharyngeal dysphagia in patients receiving induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemo-IMRT for head and neck cancer.
Radiother Oncol
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Dose-response curves (DRCs) and the quantitative parameters describing these curves were generated for grade 3 oral mucositis and dysphagia in 144 patients using individual patient DVHs. Curve fits to the oral mucositis clinical data yielded parameter values of mean dose in 2 Gy equivalent, MD(50) = 51 Gy (95% CI 40-61), slope of the curve, k = 1(95% CI 0.6-1.5). R(2) value for the goodness of fit was 0.80. Fits to the grade 3 dysphagia clinical data yielded parameter values of MD(50) = 44.5 Gy (95% CI 36-53), k = 2.6 (95% CI 0.8-4.5). R(2) value for the goodness of fit was 0.65. This is the first study to derive DRCs in patients receiving induction chemotherapy followed by chemo-radiation (IC-C-IMRT) for head and neck cancer. The dose-response model described in this study could be useful for comparing acute mucositis rates for different dose-fractionation schedules when using IMRT for head and neck cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.