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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci.
Vinicius Tragante, Michael R Barnes, Santhi K Ganesh, Matthew B Lanktree, Wei Guo, Nora Franceschini, Erin N Smith, Toby Johnson, Michael V Holmes, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Konrad J Karczewski, Berta Almoguera, John Barnard, Jens Baumert, Yen-Pei Christy Chang, Clara C Elbers, Martin Farrall, Mary E Fischer, Tom R Gaunt, Johannes M I H Gho, Christian Gieger, Anuj Goel, Yan Gong, Aaron Isaacs, Marcus E Kleber, Irene Mateo Leach, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthijs F L Meijs, Olle Melander, Christopher P Nelson, Ilja M Nolte, Nathan Pankratz, Tom S Price, Jonathan Shaffer, Sonia Shah, Maciej Tomaszewski, Peter J van der Most, Erik P A van Iperen, Judith M Vonk, Kate Witkowska, Caroline O L Wong, Li Zhang, Amber L Beitelshees, Gerald S Berenson, Deepak L Bhatt, Morris Brown, Amber Burt, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, John M Connell, Karen J Cruickshanks, Sean P Curtis, George Davey-Smith, Christian Delles, Ron T Gansevoort, Xiuqing Guo, Shen Haiqing, Claire E Hastie, Marten H Hofker, G Kees Hovingh, Daniel S Kim, Susan A Kirkland, Barbara E Klein, Ronald Klein, Yun R Li, Steffi Maiwald, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Eoin T O'Brien, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Walter Palmas, Afshin Parsa, Brenda W Penninx, Mary Pettinger, Ramachandran S Vasan, Jane E Ranchalis, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Peter Sever, Daichi Shimbo, Laura Steele, Ronald P Stolk, Barbara Thorand, Mieke D Trip, Cornelia M van Duijn, W Monique Verschuren, Cisca Wijmenga, Sharon Wyatt, J Hunter Young, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Connie R Bezzina, Eric Boerwinkle, Juan P Casas, Mark J Caulfield, Aravinda Chakravarti, Daniel I Chasman, Karina W Davidson, Pieter A Doevendans, Anna F Dominiczak, Garret A FitzGerald, John G Gums, Myriam Fornage, Hakon Hakonarson, Indrani Halder, Hans L Hillege, Thomas Illig, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, John J P Kastelein, Wolfgang Koenig, Meena Kumari, Winfried März, Sarah S Murray, Jeffery R O'Connell, Albertine J Oldehinkel, James S Pankow, Daniel J Rader, Susan Redline, Muredach P Reilly, Eric E Schadt, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Harold Snieder, Michael Snyder, Alice V Stanton, Martin D Tobin, André G Uitterlinden, Pim van der Harst, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nilesh J Samani, Hugh Watkins, Andrew D Johnson, Alex P Reiner, Xiaofeng Zhu, Paul I W de Bakker, Daniel Levy, Folkert W Asselbergs, Patricia B Munroe, Brendan J Keating.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ~50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10(-7)) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification.
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Framing body size among African American women and girls.
J Child Health Care
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Obesity continues to affect African Americans in epidemic proportions, particularly among women and adolescent females. Perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and body sizes of adolescents are associated with those of their mothers, yet little is known about the transgenerational meanings and experiences of obese African American adolescent girls and their mothers. An interpretive phenomenological study was conducted with seven African American adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17, and their adult female caregivers. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a multicultural interpretive team. Two constitutive patterns and associated themes were identified. One pattern, Framing: sizing it up; sizing it down, with its three associated themes is presented. Mothers and daughters are engaged in multiple common practices in which they self-define body size, while protecting their self-esteem and self-image. This pattern illustrates how the women and girls created an image of their bodies as they confronted and acknowledged their self-perceptions, compared themselves to others in their environment, and evaluated themselves against specific parameters of acceptable size.
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Socioeconomic status, John Henryism and blood pressure among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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John Henryism connotes a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in effortful, active coping with difficult social and economic stressors. This behavioral predisposition is measured by the 12 item John Henryism Scale for Active Coping (JHAC). The John Henry hypothesis predicts that the well-known inverse socioeconomic status (SES)-blood pressure association will be stronger among persons who score high rather than low on the JHAC. We tested this hypothesis in a large African American cohort using baseline data from the Jackson Heart Study. Unlike previous studies, we used multiple indicators of SES: income, education, occupation, childhood SES and cumulative SES. Because the hypothesis is most relevant for adults still in the labor force, we excluded retired participants, yielding a sample size of 3978. Gender-specific Poisson regression models for hypertension adjusting for age, John Henryism, SES, and a John Henryism-SES interaction term, were fit to examine associations. Separate models were fit for each SES indicator. We found some evidence that John Henryism modified the association between income and hypertension in men: low income was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension in men who scored high on John Henryism (prevalence ratio (PR) for low vs. high income tertile 1.12), but with lower hypertension prevalence among men who scored low on John Henryism (PR 0.85, one sided P value for multiplicative interaction <0.05). For women, the association of low income with higher hypertension prevalence was stronger at lower than higher levels of John Henryism (PR 1.27 and 1.06 at low and high levels of John Henryism respectively, P value<0.05). There was no evidence that John Henryism modified the associations of hypertension with other SES indicators in men or women. The modest support of the John Henryism Hypothesis in men only, adds to the literature on this subject, but underscores questions regarding the gender, spatial, socioeconomic and historical contexts in which the hypothesis is valid.
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Treatment of hypertension among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Hypertension treatment regimens used by African American adults in the Jackson Heart Study were evaluated at the first two clinical examinations (2415 treated hypertensive persons at examination I [exam I], 2000-2004; 2577 at examination II [exam II], 2005-2008). Blood pressure (BP) was below 140/90 mm Hg for 66% and 70% of treated participants at exam I and exam II, respectively. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure treatment targets were met for 56% and 61% at exam I and exam II, respectively. Persons with diabetes or chronic kidney disease were less likely to have BP at target, as were men compared with women. Thiazide diuretics were the most commonly used antihypertensive medication, and persons taking a thiazide were more likely to have their BP controlled than persons not taking them; thiazides were used significantly less among men than women. Although calcium channel blockers are often considered to be effective monotherapy for African Americans, persons using calcium channel blocker monotherapy were significantly less likely to be at target BP than persons using thiazide monotherapy.
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Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array.
Santhi K Ganesh, Vinicius Tragante, Wei Guo, Yiran Guo, Matthew B Lanktree, Erin N Smith, Toby Johnson, Berta Almoguera Castillo, John Barnard, Jens Baumert, Yen-Pei Christy Chang, Clara C Elbers, Martin Farrall, Mary E Fischer, Nora Franceschini, Tom R Gaunt, Johannes M I H Gho, Christian Gieger, Yan Gong, Aaron Isaacs, Marcus E Kleber, Irene Mateo Leach, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthijs F L Meijs, Olle Mellander, Cliona M Molony, Ilja M Nolte, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Tom S Price, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Jonathan Shaffer, Sonia Shah, Haiqing Shen, Nicole Soranzo, Peter J van der Most, Erik P A van Iperen, Jessica van Setten, Jessic A Van Setten, Judith M Vonk, Li Zhang, Amber L Beitelshees, Gerald S Berenson, Deepak L Bhatt, Jolanda M A Boer, Eric Boerwinkle, Ben Burkley, Amber Burt, Aravinda Chakravarti, Wei Chen, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Sean P Curtis, Albert Dreisbach, David Duggan, Georg B Ehret, Richard R Fabsitz, Myriam Fornage, Ervin Fox, Clement E Furlong, Ron T Gansevoort, Marten H Hofker, G Kees Hovingh, Susan A Kirkland, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Abdullah Kutlar, Andrea Z LaCroix, Taimour Y Langaee, Yun R Li, Honghuang Lin, Kiang Liu, Steffi Maiwald, Rainer Malik, , Gurunathan Murugesan, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Jeffery R O'Connell, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Willem H Ouwehand, Walter Palmas, Brenda W Penninx, Carl J Pepine, Mary Pettinger, Joseph F Polak, Vasan S Ramachandran, Jane Ranchalis, Susan Redline, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Hubert Scharnag, Nicholas J Schork, Daichi Shimbo, Alan R Shuldiner, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Ronald P Stolk, Herman A Taylor, Barbara Thorand, Mieke D Trip, Cornelia M van Duijn, W Monique Verschuren, Cisca Wijmenga, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Sharon Wyatt, J Hunter Young, Bernhard O Boehm, Mark J Caulfield, Daniel I Chasman, Karina W Davidson, Pieter A Doevendans, Garret A FitzGerald, John G Gums, Hakon Hakonarson, Hans L Hillege, Thomas Illig, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, John J P Kastelein, Wolfgang Koenig, Winfried März, Braxton D Mitchell, Sarah S Murray, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Alex P Reiner, Eric E Schadt, Roy L Silverstein, Harold Snieder, Alice V Stanton, André G Uitterlinden, Pim van der Harst, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nilesh J Samani, Andrew D Johnson, Patricia B Munroe, Paul I W de Bakker, Xiaofeng Zhu, Daniel Levy, Brendan J Keating, Folkert W Asselbergs.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ?50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ?2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.
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New models for large prospective studies: is there a risk of throwing out the baby with the bathwater?
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Manolio et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:859-866) proposed that large cohort studies adopt novel models using "temporary assessment centers" to enroll up to a million participants to answer research questions about rare diseases and "harmonize" clinical endpoints collected from administrative records. Extreme selection bias, we are told, will not harm internal validity, and "process expertise to maximize efficiency of high-throughput operations is as important as scientific rigor" (p. 861). In this article, we describe serious deficiencies in this model as applied to the United States. Key points include: 1) the need for more, not less, specification of disease endpoints; 2) the limited utility of data collected from existing administrative and clinical databases; and 3) the value of university-based centers in providing scientific expertise and achieving high recruitment and retention rates through community and healthcare provider engagement. Careful definition of sampling frames and high response rates are crucial to avoid bias and ensure inclusion of important subpopulations, especially the medically underserved. Prospective hypotheses are essential to refine study design, determine sample size, develop pertinent data collection protocols, and achieve alliances with participants and communities. It is premature to reject the strengths of large national cohort studies in favor of a new model for which evidence of efficiency is insufficient.
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Genome-wide association study for serum urate concentrations and gout among African Americans identifies genomic risk loci and a novel URAT1 loss-of-function allele.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Serum urate concentrations are highly heritable and elevated serum urate is a key risk factor for gout. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of serum urate in African American (AA) populations are lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis of GWAS of serum urate levels and gout among 5820 AA and a large candidate gene study among 6890 AA and 21 708 participants of European ancestry (EA) within the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium. Findings were tested for replication among 1996 independent AA individuals, and evaluated for their association among 28 283 EA participants of the CHARGE Consortium. Functional studies were conducted using (14)C-urate transport assays in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the discovery GWAS of serum urate, three loci achieved genome-wide significance (P< 5.0 × 10(-8)): a novel locus near SGK1/SLC2A12 on chromosome 6 (rs9321453, P= 1.0 × 10(-9)), and two loci previously identified in EA participants, SLC2A9 (P= 3.8 × 10(-32)) and SLC22A12 (P= 2.1 × 10(-10)). A novel rare non-synonymous variant of large effect size in SLC22A12, rs12800450 (minor allele frequency 0.01, G65W), was identified and replicated (beta -1.19 mg/dl, P= 2.7 × 10(-16)). (14)C-urate transport assays showed reduced urate transport for the G65W URAT1 mutant. Finally, in analyses of 11 loci previously associated with serum urate in EA individuals, 10 of 11 lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed direction-consistent association with urate among AA. In summary, we identified and replicated one novel locus in association with serum urate levels and experimentally characterize the novel G65W variant in URAT1 as a functional allele. Our data support the importance of multi-ethnic GWAS in the identification of novel risk loci as well as functional variants.
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Socioeconomic position is positively associated with blood pressure dipping among African-American adults: the Jackson Heart Study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Blunted nocturnal blood pressure (NBP) dipping is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) may be an important predictor of NBP dipping, especially in African Americans (AA). However, the determinants of NBP dipping are not fully understood.
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Associations of fast food restaurant availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000-2004.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States.
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The socioeconomic gradient of diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Little research has focused on the social patterning of diabetes among African Americans. We examined the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes among African Americans.
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Combined admixture mapping and association analysis identifies a novel blood pressure genetic locus on 5p13: contributions from the CARe consortium.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Admixture mapping based on recently admixed populations is a powerful method to detect disease variants with substantial allele frequency differences in ancestral populations. We performed admixture mapping analysis for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), followed by trait-marker association analysis, in 6303 unrelated African-American participants of the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium. We identified five genomic regions (P< 0.001) harboring genetic variants contributing to inter-individual BP variation. In follow-up association analyses, correcting for all tests performed in this study, three loci were significantly associated with SBP and one significantly associated with DBP (P< 10(-5)). Further analyses suggested that six independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributed to the phenotypic variation observed in the admixture mapping analysis. These six SNPs were examined for replication in multiple, large, independent studies of African-Americans [Womens Health Initiative (WHI), Maywood, Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) and Howard University Family Study (HUFS)] as well as one native African sample (Nigerian study), with a total replication sample size of 11 882. Meta-analysis of the replication set identified a novel variant (rs7726475) on chromosome 5 between the SUB1 and NPR3 genes, as being associated with SBP and DBP (P< 0.0015 for both); in meta-analyses combining the CARe samples with the replication data, we observed P-values of 4.45 × 10(-7) for SBP and 7.52 × 10(-7) for DBP for rs7726475 that were significant after accounting for all the tests performed. Our study highlights that admixture mapping analysis can help identify genetic variants missed by genome-wide association studies because of drastically reduced number of tests in the whole genome.
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Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10(-8)) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10(-8)). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10(-6)) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10(-6)) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity.
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Genetic association for renal traits among participants of African ancestry reveals new loci for renal function.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing global public health concern, particularly among populations of African ancestry. We performed an interrogation of known renal loci, genome-wide association (GWA), and IBC candidate-gene SNP association analyses in African Americans from the CARe Renal Consortium. In up to 8,110 participants, we performed meta-analyses of GWA and IBC array data for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and microalbuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) and interrogated the 250 kb flanking region around 24 SNPs previously identified in European Ancestry renal GWAS analyses. Findings were replicated in up to 4,358 African Americans. To assess function, individually identified genes were knocked down in zebrafish embryos by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of kidney-specific genes was assessed by in situ hybridization, and glomerular filtration was evaluated by dextran clearance. Overall, 23 of 24 previously identified SNPs had direction-consistent associations with eGFR in African Americans, 2 of which achieved nominal significance (UMOD, PIP5K1B). Interrogation of the flanking regions uncovered 24 new index SNPs in African Americans, 12 of which were replicated (UMOD, ANXA9, GCKR, TFDP2, DAB2, VEGFA, ATXN2, GATM, SLC22A2, TMEM60, SLC6A13, and BCAS3). In addition, we identified 3 suggestive loci at DOK6 (p-value?=?5.3×10(-7)) and FNDC1 (p-value?=?3.0×10(-7)) for UACR, and KCNQ1 with eGFR (p?=?3.6×10(-6)). Morpholino knockdown of kcnq1 in the zebrafish resulted in abnormal kidney development and filtration capacity. We identified several SNPs in association with eGFR in African Ancestry individuals, as well as 3 suggestive loci for UACR and eGFR. Functional genetic studies support a role for kcnq1 in glomerular development in zebrafish.
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Age is positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among African Americans in cross-sectional analysis: the Jackson Heart Study.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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African Americans have historically had high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with other races and ethnicities.
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Physical activity and obesity in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
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To better understand how obesity and low levels of physical activity (PA) contribute to racial health disparities, we examined the association of PA domains (work, home life, and leisure) with indicators of socioeconomic status and markers of obesity in African Americans.
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Geographic representation of the jackson heart study cohort to the African-American population in Jackson, Mississippi.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
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Recent advances in geographic information systems software and multilevel methodology provide opportunities for more extensive characterization of "at-risk" populations in epidemiologic studies. The authors used age-restricted, geocoded data from the all-African-American Jackson Heart Study (JHS), 2000-2004, to demonstrate a novel use of the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to determine the representativeness of the JHS cohort to the African-American population in a geographic setting. The authors also used a spatial binomial model to assess the geographic variability in participant recruitment across the Jackson, Mississippi, Metropolitan Statistical Area. The overall Gini coefficient, an equality measure that ranges from 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (perfect inequality), was 0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30, 0.45), indicating moderate representation. The population of sampled women (Gini coefficient = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.39) tended to be more representative of the underlying population than did the population of sampled men (Gini coefficient = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.61). Representative recruitment of JHS participants was observed in predominantly African-American and mixed-race census tracts and in the center of the study area, the area nearest the examination clinic. This is of critical importance as the authors continue to explore novel approaches to investigate the geographic variation in disease etiology.
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The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio fails to predict insulin resistance in African-American women: an analysis of Jackson Heart Study.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ?2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans.
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Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.
J Urban Health
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the studys sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.
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Race, stability of health insurance coverage, and prescription medication use.
ABNF J
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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To determine the effects of health insurance and race on prescription medication use and expense.
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The role of community health advisors in community-based participatory research.
Nurs Ethics
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Mistrust and fear of research often exist in minority communities because of assumptions, preconceived ideas, and historical abuse and racism that continue to influence research participation. The research establishment is full of well-meaning outsider investigators who recognize discrimination, health disparities, and insufficient health care providers in minority communities, but struggle in breaking through this history of mistrust. This article provides ethical insights from one such insider-outsider, community-based participatory research project implemented via community health advisors in the Mississippi Delta. Both community-based participatory research and community health advisors provide opportunities to address the ethical issues of trust, non-maleficence, and justice in minority communities. Implications for ethics-driven nursing research are discussed.
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Association of socioeconomic status and CKD among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Socioeconomic status (SES) is recognized as a key social environmental factor because it has implications for access to resources that help individuals care for themselves and others. Few studies have examined the association of SES with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in high-risk populations.
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Psychometric testing of the daily spiritual experiences scale among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
J Relig Health
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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This study provided the first examination of the psychometric properties of the 6-item Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) in a large African American sample, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The JHS included measures of spiritual (DSES) and religious practices. Internal reliability, dimensionality, fit indices, and correlation were assessed. DSES scores reflected frequent daily spiritual experiences (12.84 ± 4.72) and reliability scores were high (? = 0.85; 95% CI 0.84-0.86). The DSES loaded on a single factor, with significant goodness-of-fit scores (RMSEA = 0.094, P < 0.01). Moderate significant correlations were noted among DSES items. Our findings confirm that the 6-item DSES had excellent psychometric properties in this sample.
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Employment status, coronary heart disease, and stroke among women.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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To investigate the association of employment status with coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke among middle-aged women.
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Dyslipidemia and the treatment of lipid disorders in African Americans.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease documented among the African-American population, there has been little emphasis on the role of dyslipidemia as a prominent risk factor in this large subpopulation. Questions of medication efficacy also have been raised. Together, these factors may have affected awareness, diagnosis, and treatment rates.
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Development and psychometric testing of a multidimensional instrument of perceived discrimination among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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Assessing the discrimination-health disparities hypothesis requires psychometrically sound, multidimensional measures of discrimination. Among the available discrimination measures, few are multidimensional and none have adequate psychometric testing in a large, African American sample. We report the development and psychometric testing of the multidimensional Jackson Heart Study Discrimination (JHSDIS) Instrument.
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Social environmental stressors, psychological factors, and kidney disease.
J. Investig. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Kidney disease is one of the most striking examples of health disparities in American public health. Disparities in the prevalence and progression of kidney disease are generally thought to be a function of group differences in the prevalence of kidney disease risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. However, the presence of these comorbidities does not completely explain the elevated rate of progression from chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease among high-risk populations such as African Americans. We believe that the social environment is an important element in the pathway from CKD risk factors to CKD and end-stage renal disease. This review of the literature draws heavily from social science and social epidemiology to present a conceptual frame specifying how social, economic, and psychosocial factors interact to affect the risks for and the progression of kidney disease.
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Prevalence and awareness of CKD among African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to end-stage renal disease and is a growing epidemic throughout the world. In the United States, African Americans have an incidence of end-stage renal disease 4 times that of whites.
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The contribution of stress to the social patterning of clinical and subclinical CVD risk factors in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.
Soc Sci Med
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It is often hypothesized that psychosocial stress may contribute to associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few studies have investigated this hypothesis among African Americans, who may be more frequently exposed to stressors due to social and economic circumstances. Cross-sectional data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a large population-based cohort of African Americans, were used to examine the contributions of stressors to the association of SEP with selected cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors and subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Among women, higher income was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, obesity, diabetes and carotid plaque and lower levels of stress. Higher stress levels were also weakly, albeit positively, associated with hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, but not with plaque. Adjustment for the stress measures reduced the associations of income with hypertension, diabetes and obesity by a small amount that was comparable to, or larger, than the reduction observed after adjustment for behavioral risk factors. In men, high income was associated with lower prevalence of diabetes and stressors were not consistently associated with any of the outcomes examined. Overall, modest mediation effects of stressors were observed for diabetes (15.9%), hypertension (9.7%), and obesity (5.1%) among women but only results for diabetes were statistically significant. No mediation effects of stressors were observed in men. Our results suggest that stressors may partially contribute to associations of SEP with diabetes and possibly hypertension and obesity in African American women. Further research with appropriate study designs and data is needed to understand the dynamic and interacting effects of stressors and behaviors on CVD outcomes as well as sex differences in these effects.
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Sleep-disordered breathing symptoms among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
Sleep Med.
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Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited data are available from large African American cohorts.
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Social patterning of cumulative biological risk by education and income among African Americans.
Am J Public Health
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We examined the social patterning of cumulative dysregulation of multiple systems, or allostatic load, among African Americans adults.
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Pedometer determined physical activity tracks in African American adults: the Jackson Heart Study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
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This study investigated the number of pedometer assessment occasions required to establish habitual physical activity in African American adults.
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Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
Am J Public Health
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Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined whether perceived discrimination was associated with prevalent hypertension in African Americans.
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Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.
Soc Sci Med
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Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000-2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N=5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.