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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Anti-obesity effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has molecular structures and intracellular signaling pathways that are similar to those of leptin and ciliary neurotropic factor (CNTF). It also has immune-modulatory properties. Given that leptin and CNTF play important roles in energy homeostasis and that obesity is an inflammatory condition in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that G-CSF could also play a role in energy homeostasis. We treated 12 38-week-old male Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats (OLETF, diabetic) and 12 age-matched male Long-Evans-Tokushima rats (LETO, healthy) with 200 µg/day G-CSF or saline for 5 consecutive days. Body weight reduction was greater in G-CSF-treated OLETF (G-CSF/OLETF) than saline-treated OLETF (saline/OLETF) following 8 weeks of treatment (-6.9±1.6% vs. -3.1±2.2%, p<0.05). G-CSF treatment had no effect on body weight in LETO or on food intake in either OLETF or LETO. Body fat in G-CSF/OLETF was more reduced than in saline/OLETF (-32.2±3.1% vs. -20.8±6.2%, p<0.05). Energy expenditure was higher in G-CSF/OLETF from 4 weeks after the treatments than in saline/OLETF. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? were lower in G-CSF/OLETF than in saline/OLETF. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was higher in G-CSF/OLETF than in saline/OLETF, but was unaffected in LETO. Immunofluorescence staining and PCR results revealed that G-CSF receptors were expressed in BAT. In vitro experiments using brown adipocyte primary culture revealed that G-CSF enhanced UCP-1 expression from mature brown adipocytes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In conclusion, G-CSF treatment reduced body weight and increased energy expenditure in a diabetic model, and enhanced UCP-1 expression and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels may be associated with the effects of G-CSF treatment.
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Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel 2',2'-difluoro 5'-norcarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides as antiviral agents.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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A very efficient synthetic route to novel 2',2'-difluoro 5'-norcarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides from but-3-en-1-ol 5 is described. The discovery of 2'-fluorinated furanose nucleoside 1 as a potent anti-HIV-1 agent has led to the synthesis and biological evaluation of 2'-modified 5'-norversions of the carbocyclic phosphonate nucleosides. The synthesized nucleoside analogues 18, 19, 23a, 23b, and 24 were tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. Adenine analogue 19 shows significant anti-HIV-1 activity (EC(50) = 13 ?M).
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Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis serine proteases and evidence for their indirect role in insecticide tolerance.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 ?g/g ?-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with ?-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis.
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Prognostic value of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele in patients with traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Current scientific evidence suggests that the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOE4) allele may be associated with a good prognosis for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aims to obtain a more precise estimation of the association between APOE4 allele and prognosis of TBI patients.
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Hepcidin1 knockout mice display defects in bone microarchitecture and changes of bone formation markers.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Iron accumulation is a risk factor of osteoporosis; mechanisms leading to iron-related bone loss are not fully determined. We sought to better understand the effect of chronic iron accumulation on bone over the life span in a mouse model. Hepcidin1 knockout (Hepc1(-/-)) male mice and their littermate control wild type (WT) mice at 7 months old were used in this study. Serum iron and ferritin as well as iron contents in liver and femur were significantly increased in Hepc1(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. We found that Hepc1(-/-) mice had a phenotype of low bone mass and alteration of the bone microarchitecture, most likely caused by a decreased osteoblastic activity. Cell culture studies indicated that chronic iron accumulation decreased bone formation, probably by affecting bone morphogenetic protein signaling.
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[Effects of actinomycetes agent on ginseng growth and rhizosphere soil microflora].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Taking the ginseng in Xiao Xing an Mountains of Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the effects of applying Streptomyces pactum (Act12) on ginseng growth and on the soil microflora in root zone and root surface. After treated with Act12, the yield and quality of ginseng s medicinal part improved, the induced enzyme activities in leaves and the root activity increased, and the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased significantly while those of soil fungi decreased. Compared with the control, the soil microflora in treatment Act12 changed. The numbers of the dominant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas koreensis, and Microbacterium oxydans were much higher in root zone soil and root surface soil, and the pathogen Plectosphaerella cucumerina decreased in root zone soil and disappeared in root surface soil. These results suggested that the addition of Act12 could improve the soil microflora, enhance the resistance and root activity of ginseng plant, and increase the ginseng yield and its quality.
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Determination of thermodynamic affinities of various polar olefins as hydride, hydrogen atom, and electron acceptors in acetonitrile.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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A series of 69 polar olefins with various typical structures (X) were synthesized and the thermodynamic affinities (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the polar olefins obtaining hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) obtaining protons and hydrogen atoms, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the polar olefins (XH(•)) obtaining electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure C?C ?-bond heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the polar olefins (X) in acetonitrile and the pure C?C ?-bond homolytic dissociation energies of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) in acetonitrile were estimated. The remote substituent effects on the six thermodynamic affinities of the polar olefins and their related reaction intermediates were examined using the Hammett linear free-energy relationships; the results show that the Hammett linear free-energy relationships all hold in the six chemical and electrochemical processes. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of the chemical thermodynamics of olefins as one class of very important organic unsaturated compounds but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of olefins.
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Synthesis and evaluation of novel 6,6-difluoro 5-deoxycarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides as antiviral agents.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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The authors describe highly efficient synthetic routes for the preparation of novel 6,6-difluoro 5-deoxycarbocyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides from 1,4-dihydroxy-2-butene. The discovery that the 6-fluorinated carbocyclic nucleoside (2, EC?? = 0.16 ?M) is a potent anti-HSV-1 agent led to the syntheses and biological evaluations of 6-modified 5-deoxyversions of carbocyclic phosphonate nucleosides. The synthesized nucleoside analogues 15, 18, 22, and 25 were tested for anti-HIV activity and for cytotoxicity. However, none of them showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity or cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 100 ?M.
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Involvement of superoxide dismutase in oxidative stress in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis: molecular cloning and expression profiles.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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BACKGROUND: Bactrocera dorsalis, one of the most economically important fruit fly pests in East Asia, is well adapted to various environmental conditions. Pesticides, pathogens and other stresses can cause oxidative damage in most organisms. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) family contains some of the most important enzymes in the antioxidant protection system of the fruit fly and other organisms. RESULTS: Four full-length cDNA sequences encoding one MnSOD (BdSOD2-1) and three Cu-ZnSODs (BdSOD1-1, BdSOD1-2 and BdSOD1-3) were cloned. The expression profiles of these four genes under different stresses showed them to be involved in response to detrimental conditions including heavy metals, pesticides, extreme temperatures and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stresses. More specifically, the expression levels of these genes were found to be depressed in the presence of copper, zinc and manganese. The expression of all four SOD genes increased upon exposure to lead, cadmium, low temperature (0 °C) and LPS stresses. Only BdSOD1-3 transcription increased significantly at high temperature (40 °C) exposure. The expressions levels of BdSOD1-2 and BdSOD1-3 increased significantly in the presence of ?-cypermethrin and malathion, but only the expression of BdSOD2-1 increased in the presence of avermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: These different expression profiles suggest that the four BdSODs play different roles and respond to different oxidative stresses in B. dorsalis. Some BdSODs undergo specific reaction in the response to specific oxidative stresses. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Mining Genes Involved in Insecticide Resistance of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel by Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies indicate that infestations of psocids pose a new risk for global food security. Among the psocids species, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel has gained recognition in importance because of its parthenogenic reproduction, rapid adaptation, and increased worldwide distribution. To date, the molecular data available for L. bostrychophila is largely limited to genes identified through homology. Also, no transcriptome data relevant to psocids infection is available.
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Design and synthesis of carbocyclic versions of furanoid nucleoside phosphonic Acid analogues as potential anti-hiv agents.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Novel 5-norcarbocyclic adenine and guanine phosphonic acid analogues with 6,6-difluorine moiety were designed and synthesized from commercially available epichlorohydrin 5. A regioselective Mitsunobu reaction successfully proceeded from an allylic functional group 16b at low reaction temperature in polar cosolvent to give purine phosphonate analogues 17 and 24, respectively. The purine nucleoside phosphonate and phosphonic acid analogues were subjected to antiviral screening against HIV-1. Adenine analogue 21 and its SATE prodrug 29 show significant anti-HIV activity in MT-4 cell lines.
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N,N-Bis(pyridin-3-yl)terephthalamide-terephthalic acid (1/1).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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In the title compound, C(18)H(14)N(4)O(2)·C(8)H(6)O(4), both types of mol-ecule lie on inversion centers. In the N,N-bis-(pyridin-3-yl)terephthalamide mol-ecule, the pyridine ring forms a dihedral angle of 11.33?(9)° with the central benzene ring. In the crystal, N-H?O and O-H?N hydrogen bonds connect the components into a three-dimensional network.
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[Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82.3%) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8%, 81.3%, 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42.1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and > 3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24.1% of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4%, 6.9% and 11.2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. in strawberry and Neonectria radiciccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil.
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Transcriptome analysis of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis.
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Effects of RNAi-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene silencing on the invasiveness and adhesion of esophageal carcinoma cells, KYSE150.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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Esophageal carcinoma is one of the main malignancies in China. Previous studies indicated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in the process of tumor invasion and metastasis in several types of solid tumors. Among all of the MMPs, MMP-2 is one of the MMPs closely associated with tumor invasion. In this study, we suppressed MMP-2 expression with RNA interference and then observed inhibitory effects on the invasion and migration of the esophageal carcinoma cell line KYSE150.
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Evaluation of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during development and abiotic stress in Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is preferred for gene expression analysis in living organisms. Currently, it is a valuable tool for biological and ecological studies as it provides a relatively straightforward way to assess the relevance of transcriptional regulation under developmental and stress tolerance conditions. However, studies have shown that some commonly used reference genes varied among different experimental treatments, thus, systematic evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of arthropods. The aim of this study is to identify the suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments involving various developmental stages and/or under abiotic stresses in citrus red mite Panonychus citri, a key pest in citrus orchards worldwide. GeNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper software analysis indicates that elongation factor-1 alpha (ELF1A), RNA polymerase II largest subunit, alpha tublin, and glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are the most stable reference genes in various developmental stages, meanwhile, ELF1A and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes under various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, this study will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other spider mite species.
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Long-term outcomes of percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy in 3370 patients with trigeminal neuralgia.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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To assess the long-term outcomes of percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy (PRGR) in patients with medically unresponsive idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. MATERIAL and
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Synthesis of novel 4-cyclopropyl-5-norcarbocyclic adenosine phosphonic acid analogues.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2010
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Novel 4-cyclopropyl-5-norcarbocyclic adenosine phosphonic acid analogues were designed and racemically synthesized from propionaldehyde 5 through a de novo acyclic stereoselective route using triple Grignard addition and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key reactions. To improve cellular permeability and enhance the anti-HIV activity of this phosphonic acid, SATE phosphonodiester nucleoside prodrug 23 was prepared. The synthesized adenosine phosphonic acids analogues 17, 18, 19, 21, and 23 were subjected to antiviral screening against HIV-1. Compound 23 exhibits enhanced anti-HIV activity than its parent nucleoside phosphonic acid 18.
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[Infection status of freshwater fishes with metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Liujiang River of Guangxi].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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From March 2008 to March 2009, fishes were caught from the rivers in Sanjiang, Rongan, Rongshui, Liucheng, Liuzhou and Xiangzhou counties, and their metacercarial infections were examined by the muscle compression and digestion techniques. A total of 16,204 freshwater fishes of 35 species were collected. C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 32 species of fishes with an overall infection rate of 10.5% and a mean infection intensity of 4.6 metacercariae per gram. The highest prevalence (21.5%) and intensity of infection (9.9 per gram) were found in Pseudorasbora parva, followed by Zacco platypus (17.8% and 8.9 per gram, respectively). There were significant differences in infection rate among different localities. The infection rate in Xiangzhou County (12.3%) was higher than that in Sanjiang County (9.1%) and Liuzhou City (9.7%). The infection rate was higher in summer and autumn, but lower in spring and winter. Compared with low water layer, the infection rate was higher in the upper and medium water layers. The infection rates of omnivorous and herbivorous fishes were higher than that of carnivorous fishes.
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Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).
BMC Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2010
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quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of azobicyclo[3.3.0] octane derivatives as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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A series of novel azobicyclo[3.3.0]octane derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. The effort resulted in the discovery of inhibitor 2a, which exhibited excellent efficacies in an oral glucose tolerance test. Introduction of methyl group (2j) could prolong the inhibition of serum DPP-4 activity.
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[Survivin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibits the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and enhances 5-FU sensitivity].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of survivin antisense oligodeoxynuleotides (ASODN) mediated by polyethylenimine (PEI) on hepatocelluar carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell proliferation and its effect on chemosensitivity to 5-FU in tumor-bearing mice.
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[Survivin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibits the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and enhances the cell chemosensitivity to 5-Fu].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2009
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of survivin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN) mediated by polyethylenimine(PEI) on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells, and assess its detect on the chemosensitivity of the cells to 5-FU.
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LaZnB(5)O(10), the first lanthanum zinc borate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Lanthanum zinc penta-borate, LaZnB(5)O(10), was synthesized by flux-supported solid-state reaction. It is a member of the LnMB(5)O(10) (Ln = rare earth ion and M = divalent metal ion) structure type. The crystal shows a three-dimensional structure constructed from two-dimensional {[B(5)O(10)](5-)}(n) layers with the lanthanum (coordination number nine) and zinc (coordination number six) ions filling in the inter-layers.
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CdZn2KB2O6F, a new fluoride borate crystal.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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During an attempt to grow crystals of the nonlinear optical material Cd(3)Zn(3)B(4)O(12) using a KBF(4) flux, crystals of a new cadmium dizinc potassium borate fluoride compound, CdZn(2)KB(2)O(6)F, were unexpectedly isolated. The structure consists of layers constructed of distorted corner-sharing ZnO(3)F tetrahedra and BO(3) triangles. Both Zn and B reside on threefold rotation axes, while the F(-) anion is located at a site of 3.2 symmetry. The Cd(II) (site symmetry 3) and K(+) (site symmetry 3.2) ions occupy six- and nine-coordinate interlayer sites, respectively. The BO(3) triangles and ZnO(3) pyramids from the ZnO(3)F tetrahedra share bridging O atoms with each other to form an extended [ZnBO(3)] layer parallel to (001). Although these layers are similar to the [MBO(3)] layers seen in other compounds, they are uniquely bridged here by the Cd centres and F(-) anions to form a three-dimensional framework. In so doing, a series of channels is formed along the [010] direction and the K(+) cations are found in these channels.
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[Comparative study of measuring pulse blood oxygen saturation and osteofascial compartmental pressure in forecasting osteofascial compartmental syndrome].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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To investigate of the value of monitoring of saturation of blood oxygen of the injured extremity on prevention of osteofascial compartmental syndrome.
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Catalytic dynamic spectrofluorimetry determination of trace antimony using new type arsenoxylphenylazo rhodanine.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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A precise, simple, new spectrofluorimetry method is proposed for determination of trace antimony which is based on the reaction between potassium periodate and the new type fluorescent reagent 3-o-chlorophenyl-5-(2- arsenoxylphenylazo) rhodanine (2ClRAAP). The possible mechanism is proposed. The fluorescence intensity is investigated to be sharply enhanced by the oxidation of 3-o-chlorophenyl-5-(2-arsenoxylphenylazo) rhodanine by potassium periodate with antimony as catalyst in the buffer medium of potassium hydrogen phthalate-sodium hydroxide (pH 5.2). Under the optimum conditions the great increase of fluorescence intensity has a linear relationship against the concentration of antimony in the range of 0.2-10 microg L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.65 x 10(-10) g mL(-1). This proposed method led to the satisfied determination of antimony in environment water.
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Synthesis of novel 3-hydroxymethyl 5-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleoside analogues as potent antiviral agents.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
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A very efficient synthetic route to novel 3-hydroxymethyl 5-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleosides was described. The discovery of threosyl phosphonate nucleoside (PMDTA, EC(50) = 2.53 ?M) as a potent antihuman immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) agent has led to the synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-modified 5-deoxy versions of the threosyl phosphonate nucleosides. 3-Hydroxymethyl 5 -deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleoside analogues 15, 19, 24, and 28 were synthesized from 1,3-dihydroxyacetone and tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. The adenine analogue 19 exhibits moderate in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity (EC(50) = 10.2 ?M).
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[Cloning, physical and chemical property analysis of the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 gene and its expression following Vibrio harveyi infection].
Zool. Res.
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The warm temperature acclimation related 65 kDa protein-2 (Wap65-2), a teleost plasma glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune regulation against bacterial infection. Here, for the first time we determined the full length cDNA sequence of the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 gene (1 601 bp in length excluding the 3-polyA tail). The sequence contains an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 436 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4.87×10(4). The predicted protein had a signal peptide in the N-terminal domain containing 19 residues. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 has a relatively high similarity to the Dicentrarchus labrax Wap65-2. In the healthy Japanese sea bass, Wap65-2 mRNA was expressed mainly in the liver and weakly in the heart and muscle. qRT-PCR results revealed that liver Wap65-2 transcripts were significantly increased after a Vibrio harveyi infection, and peaked 24 hour post injection (6.89 fold increase). The Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used for antiserum preparation. Western blot analysis showed that Wap65-2 was significantly increased in V. harveyi infected Japanese sea bass and reached a maximum of 5.33-fold increase at 36 h. In conclusion, the alteration of Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 expression was tightly associated with the progression of the V. harveyi bacterial infection.
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Biochemical and molecular characterisation of acetylcholinesterase in four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Pest Manag. Sci.
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The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a major pest that infects fruits and agricultural products worldwide. The latest resistance monitoring of B. dorsalis from mainland China has identified high levels of resistance to insecticides. In this study, the biochemical and molecular characteristics of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in four field populations of B. dorsalis are investigated.
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Synthesis of novel 2-spirocyclopropyl-5- deoxyphosphonic acid furanosyl nucleoside analogues as potent antiviral agents.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
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Novel 5-deoxyfuranosyl purine phosphonic acid analogues with 2 -electropositive moiety, such as spirocyclopropanoid, were designed and synthesized from commercially available diethyl malonate. Condensation reaction successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor 15 at low reaction temperature in Vorbruggen conditions to give desired phosphonate analogues 16b and 23b. The synthesized nucleotide analogues 19, 22, 26, and 29 were subjected to antiviral screening against HIV-1. Adenine phosphonic acid analogue 22 shows significant anti-HIV activity (EC(50) = 7.9 ?M).
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[Effects of different water-saving irrigation modes on chestnut growth and fruiting in drought hilly land].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
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Taking the chestnut trees in a semi-arid and semi-humid hilly orchard of Tai an, Shandong Province of East China as test objects, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (pottery jar storing water, small hole storing water, and border irrigation with covering) on the soil moisture characteristics and the growth, fruiting, and development of chestnut roots. Comparing with the control (border irrigation), all the three water-saving irrigation modes could prolong the period of soil keeping moist, and the best effect came from pottery, jar treatment, with the soil keeping moist for 32 days, 13 days longer than the control. Under water-saving irrigations, the bearing branches length and number, leaf area and mass, and shoot mixed buds all increased obviously. Both pottery jar storing water and small hole storing water could irrigate deeper roots and induce root growth in deeper soil layers, and thus, relieve the drought stress on superficial roots. The three water-saving irrigation modes could increase chestnut yield markedly, with an increment of 18.8%, 16.5%, and 14.2%, respectively, as compared with the control.
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: assessing tumor angiogenesis using multi-slice CT perfusion imaging.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between multi-slice computed tomographic perfusion imaging (CTPI) parameters and immunohistologic markers of angiogenesis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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