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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cyclophosphamide/Fludarabine Nonmyeloablative Allotransplant for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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We compared survival outcomes following myeloablative (MAT) or cyclophosphamide/fludarabine (Cy/Flu) nonmyeloablative (NMAT) allotransplant for 165 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in remission or without frank relapse. Patients who received NMAT were more likely to be older, have secondary AML and lower performance status. At a median follow-up of 61 months, median event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival were not different between NMAT and MAT in univariate as well as multivariate analyses. Cy/Flu NMAT may provide similar disease control and survival compared to MAT in patients with AML in remission or without frank relapse.
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Expanding the scope of drug repurposing in pediatrics: The Children's Pharmacy Collaborative™
Drug Discov. Today
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Drug repurposing is the use of 'old' drugs for new indications, avoiding the need for time- and cost-intensive toxicity studies. This approach should be particularly attractive for pediatrics, but its use in this population has been limited. One obstacle has been the lack of a comprehensive database of drugs for which there already is at least one indication in children. We describe the development of The Children's Pharmacy Collaborative™, which should grow over time, serve as a resource for professionals and families, and stimulate drug-repurposing efforts for a range of pediatric disorders.
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Background and future considerations for human cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation, including economic concerns.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Abstract Cord blood (CB) has been used since 1988 as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. CB has both advantages and disadvantages when compared with other tissue sources of HSCs such as bone marrow and mobilized peripheral blood, which are also being used in the setting of HCT. This short review focuses on some historical information, as well as current efforts that are being assessed to enhance the efficacy of CB HCT. Also of importance are the costs of CB, and the feasibility and economics of using such to be identified, and newly confirmed improvements worldwide for the greatest number of patients. In this context, simple methods that would not necessarily entail the need for selected cell-processing facilities to ex vivo expand or improve the CB grafts functional activity may be of interest, with one such possibility being the use of an orally active inhibitor of the enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase 4, alone or in combination with other new and innovative approaches for improving HSC engraftment and in vivo repopulating capability of CB.
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Extraction of phenols from lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil using a switchable hydrophilicity solvent.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Microwave pyrolysis of lignin, an aromatic polymer byproduct from paper-pulping industry, produces char, gases, and lignin pyrolysis oil. Within the oil are valuable phenolic compounds such as phenol, guaiacol and catechol. In this work, we describe a method using switchable hydrophilicity solvents (SHS) to extract phenols as a mixture from lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil at the scale of 10g of bio-oil. Even at this small scale, losses are small; 96% of the bio-oil was recovered in its three fractions, 72% of guaiacol and 70% of 4-methylguaiacol, the most abundant phenols in the bio-oil, were extracted and 91% of the solvent SHS was recovered after extraction. The starting material (lignin microwave-pyrolysis oil) and the three fractions resulted from SHS extraction were characterized by GC-MS and quantitative (13)C{(1)H} and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy.
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Standard pentostatin dose reductions in renal insufficiency are not adequate: selected patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease.
Clin Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Pentostatin is an irreversible inhibitor of adenosine deaminase and has been used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and to treat both acute and chronic GVHD. Dose reduction equations for patients with renal insufficiency are based on few patients with limited pharmacokinetic and clinical results. This phase II study (NCT00201786) was conducted to assess pentostatin efficacy and infectious complications seen from our previous phase I study in steroid-refractory acute GVHD (aGVHD).
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A phase I trial of flavopiridol in relapsed multiple myeloma.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Flavopiridol is primarily a cyclin-dependent kinase-9 inhibitor, and we performed a dose escalation trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose and safety and generate a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile.
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In vivo DPP-4 inhibition to enhance engraftment of single-unit cord blood transplants in adults with hematological malignancies.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Delayed engraftment is a significant limitation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation due to low stem cell numbers. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 enhanced engraftment in murine transplants. We evaluated the feasibility of systemic DPP-4 inhibition using sitagliptin to enhance engraftment of single-unit UCB grafts in adults with hematological malignancies. Twenty-four patients (21-58 years) received myeloablative conditioning, followed by sitagliptin 600?mg orally days -1 to +2, and single UCB grafts day 0. Seventeen receiving red cell-depleted (RCD) grafts, matched at 4 (n=10) or 5 (n=7) of 6 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) loci with median nucleated cell dose 3.6 (2.5-5.2)×10(7)/kg, engrafted at median of 21 (range, 13-50) days with cumulative incidence of 94% (95% confidence interval, 84%-100%) at 50 days. Plasma DDP-4 activity was reduced to 23%±7% within 2?h. Area under DPP-4 activity-time curve (AUCA) correlated with engraftment; 9 of 11 with AUCA <6,000 activity·h engrafted within ?21 days, while all 6 with higher AUCA engrafted later (P=0.002). Seven patients receiving red cell replete grafts had 10-fold lower colony forming units after thawing compared with RCD grafts, with poor engraftment. Systemic DPP-4 inhibition was well tolerated and may enhance engraftment. Optimizing sitagliptin dosing to achieve more sustained DPP-4 inhibition may further improve outcome.
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Differential stem- and progenitor-cell trafficking by prostaglandin E2.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To maintain lifelong production of blood cells, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are tightly regulated by inherent programs and extrinsic regulatory signals received from their microenvironmental niche. Long-term repopulating HSCs reside in several, perhaps overlapping, niches that produce regulatory molecules and signals necessary for homeostasis and for increased output after stress or injury. Despite considerable advances in the specific cellular or molecular mechanisms governing HSC-niche interactions, little is known about the regulatory function in the intact mammalian haematopoietic niche. Recently, we and others described a positive regulatory role for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on HSC function ex vivo. Here we show that inhibition of endogenous PGE2 by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment in mice results in modest HSC egress from the bone marrow. Surprisingly, this was independent of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis implicated in stem-cell migration. Stem and progenitor cells were found to have differing mechanisms of egress, with HSC transit to the periphery dependent on niche attenuation and reduction in the retentive molecule osteopontin. Haematopoietic grafts mobilized with NSAIDs had superior repopulating ability and long-term engraftment. Treatment of non-human primates and healthy human volunteers confirmed NSAID-mediated egress in other species. PGE2 receptor knockout mice demonstrated that progenitor expansion and stem/progenitor egress resulted from reduced E-prostanoid 4 (EP4) receptor signalling. These results not only uncover unique regulatory roles for EP4 signalling in HSC retention in the niche, but also define a rapidly translatable strategy to enhance transplantation therapeutically.
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Treating relapsed or refractory Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia: liposome-encapsulated vincristine.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a disease with poor outcomes in adults. While induction chemotherapy achieves a complete remission in almost 90% of patients, the majority will relapse and die of their disease. Relapsed ALL is associated with a high reinduction mortality and chemotherapy resistance, with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation offering the only therapy with curative potential. However, there is no efficacious and well tolerated standard regimen accepted as a "bridge" to allogeneic stem cell transplantation or as definitive treatment for patients who are not transplant candidates. Vincristine is an active drug in patients with ALL, but its dose intensity is limited by neurotoxicity, and its full potential as an anticancer drug is thus not realized. Encapsulation of vincristine into sphingomyelin and cholesterol nanoparticle liposomes facilitates dose-intensification and densification to enhanced target tissues with reduced potential for toxicity. Vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI) is associated with significant responses in clinically advanced ALL, and has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of relapsed and clinically advanced Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL. This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical studies leading to the approval of VSLI for the treatment of relapsed and refractory ALL, and suggests potential areas of future clinical development.
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IPH2101, a novel anti-inhibitory KIR antibody, and lenalidomide combine to enhance the natural killer cell versus multiple myeloma effect.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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Multiple myeloma (MM) patients who receive killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) ligand-mismatched, T cell-depleted, allogeneic transplantation may have a reduced risk of relapse compared with patients who receive KIR ligand-matched grafts, suggesting the importance of this signaling axis in the natural killer (NK) cell-versus-MM effect. Expanding on this concept, IPH2101 (1-7F9), an anti-inhibitory KIR mAb, enhances NK-cell function against autologous MM cells by blocking the engagement of inhibitory KIR with cognate ligands, promoting immune complex formation and NK-cell cytotoxicity specifically against MM cell targets but not normal cells. IPH2101 prevents negative regulatory signals by inhibitory KIR, whereas lenalidomide augments NK-cell function and also appears to up-regulate ligands for activating NK-cell receptors on MM cells. Lenalidomide and a murine anti-inhibitory NK-cell receptor Ab mediate in vivo rejection of a lenalidomide-resistant tumor. These mechanistic, preclinical data support the use of a combination of IPH2101 and lenalidomide in a phase 2 trial for MM.
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The potential role of Aurora kinase inhibitors in haematological malignancies.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2011
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Aurora kinases play an important role in the control of the cell cycle and have been implicated in tumourigenesis in a number of cancers. Among the haematological malignancies, overexpression of Aurora kinases has been reported in acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, multiple myeloma, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. A large number of Aurora kinase inhibitors are currently in different stages of clinical development. In addition to varying in their selectivity for the different Aurora kinases, some also have activity directed at other cellular kinases involved in important molecular pathways in cancer cells. This review summarizes the biology of Aurora kinases and discusses why they may be good therapeutic targets in different haematological cancers. We describe preclinical data that has served as the rationale for investigating Aurora kinase inhibitors in different haematological malignancies, and summarize published results from early phase clinical trials. While the anti-tumour effects of Aurora kinase inhibitors appear promising, we highlight important issues for future clinical research and suggest that the optimal use of these inhibitors is likely to be in combination with cytotoxic agents already in use for the treatment of various haematological cancers.
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T cell-depleted partial matched unrelated donor transplant for advanced myeloid malignancy: KIR ligand mismatch and outcome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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To evaluate the applicability of high-dose conditioning, CD34 selection, and enhanced natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity reported as promising after haploidentical transplantation, we tested the same strategy for patients with advanced/high-risk myeloid leukemia lacking either related or well-matched unrelated donors (URD). In a prospective multicenter clinical trial using pretransplantation conditioning of thiotepa (5 mg/kg/day × 2), fludarabine (40 mg/mg/M(2)/day × 5), and total body radiation (800 cGy) plus thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg/day × 2), as well as a CD34 selected filgrastim stimulated peripheral blood graft from a partial matched URD, we treated 24 patients. The patients (median age 40 [range: 22-61]) were mismatched at 1-3 of 10 HLA loci with their donors; all were mismatched at HLA-C. Thirty-seven percent were ethnic or racial minorities. Twenty-one of 24 engrafted promptly with 1 primary graft failure and 2 early deaths. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (34%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 14-54%), chronic GVHD (20%, 95% CI, 2%-38%), and relapse (26%, 95% CI, 8%-84%) were unaffected by KIR ligand donor:recipient mismatch (n = 5) versus KIR ligand match (n = 19). Only 3 (12%) had grade III-IV GVHD. Nonrelapse occurred in 17% (95% CI, 30%-31%) by 100 days and in 35% (95% CI, 15%-55%) by 1 year. Two-year survival and leukemia-free survival were each 40% (95% CI, 21%-59%) and was similar in KIR ligand matched or mismatched patients. Infections, mostly in the first 2 months, were frequent, and were the cause of death in 5 patients (35% of deaths). T cell recovery and NK cell proliferation and functional maturation were not altered by KIR ligand match or mismatch status. For these high-risk patients, this high intensity regimen and T depleted approach yielded satisfactory outcomes, but logistical difficulties in arranging URD grafts for patients with high-risk, unstable leukemia limited accrual. Improvements in peritransplantation disease control and additional measures to augment the allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia effect are still required.
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Phase I trial of lenalidomide and CCI-779 in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma: evidence for lenalidomide-CCI-779 interaction via P-glycoprotein.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma-cell neoplasm for which most treatments involve a therapeutic agent combined with dexamethasone. The preclinical combination of lenalidomide with the mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 has displayed synergy in vitro and represents a novel combination in MM.
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From cell biology to therapy: ENMD-2076 in the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable, indicating the need for continued investigation of innovative strategies. Recent progress in molecular biology has advanced the discovery of novel drugs for MM. ENMD-2076 is an orally bioavailable, multi-target kinase inhibitor with multiple mechanisms of action, including anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity, and anti-angiogenic effects.
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Comparison of reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation with chemotherapy in patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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We compared the outcomes of patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia receiving reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Research (n = 94) with the outcomes in patients treated with induction and postremission chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocols (n = 96). All patients included had been in CR1 for at least 4 months. The HCT recipients were slightly younger than the chemotherapy patients (median age, 63 years vs 65 years; P < .001), but there were no significant between-group differences in the proportion with therapy-related leukemia or in different cytogenetic risk groups. Time from diagnosis to CR1 was longer for the HCT recipients (median, 44 days vs 38 days; P = .031). Allogeneic HCT was associated with significantly lower risk of relapse (32% vs 81% at 3 years; P < .001), higher nonrelapse mortality (36% vs 4% at 3 years; P < .001), and longer leukemia-free survival (32% vs 15% at 3 years; P = .001). Although overall survival was longer for HCT recipients, the difference was not statistically significant (37% vs 25% at 3 years; P = .08). Our findings suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HCT in patients age 60-70 with acute myelogenous leukemia in CR1 reduces relapse and improves leukemia-free survival. Strategies that reduce nonrelapse mortality may yield significant improvements in overall survival.
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Reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation provides high event-free and overall survival in patients with advanced indolent B cell malignancies: CALGB 109901.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with allogeneic transplantation to treat patients with recurrent low-grade B cell malignancies. Patients over age 18 with a diagnosis of relapsed, chemotherapy-sensitive disease underwent transplantation with a matched sibling donor, and conditioning with cyclophosphamide (1 g/m(2)/day × 3) and fludarabine phosphate (25 mg/m(2)/day × 5). Graft-versus-host prophylaxis included cyclosporine or tacrolimus plus low-dose methotrexate. Forty-four evaluable patients with a median age of 53 and median of 2 prior regimens were accrued. Sixteen patients had follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 28 had histologies including 7 indolent B cell lymphomas, 4 mantle cell, 15 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 2 prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) patients. The 6-month treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 2.4% and 3-year TRM was 9%. Three-year event-free and overall survival were 0.75 and 0.81 for the follicular patients, 0.59 and 0.71 for the CLL/PLL patients, and 0.55 and 0.64 for the other histologies. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 29%, and extensive chronic GVHD was 18%. This report demonstrates that allogeneic sibling transplantation with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen is safe and efficacious for patients with advanced indolent B cell malignancies enrolled on a Cooperative Group study.
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Increased mobilization and yield of stem cells using plerixafor in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for the treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
Stem Cells Cloning
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkins lymphoma remain the most common indications for high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue. While a CD34+ cell dose of 1 × 10(6)/kg is considered the minimum required for engraftment, higher CD34+ doses correlate with improved outcome. Numerous studies, however, support targeting a minimum CD34+ cell dose of 2.0 × 10(6)/kg, and an "optimal" dose of 4 to 6 × 10(6)/kg for a single transplant. Unfortunately, up to 40% of patients fail to mobilize an optimal CD34+ cell dose using myeloid growth factors alone. Plerixafor is a novel reversible inhibitor of CXCR4 that significantly increases the mobilization and collection of higher numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Two randomized multi-center clinical trials in patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myeloma have demonstrated that the addition of plerixafor to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor increases the mobilization and yield of CD34+ cells in fewer apheresis days, which results in durable engraftment. This review summarizes the pharmacology and evidence for the clinical efficacy of plerixafor in mobilizing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and discusses potential ways to utilize plerixafor in a cost-effective manner in patients with these diseases.
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A phase I trial of high-dose clofarabine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with primary refractory and relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Clofarabine has significant single-agent activity in patients with indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and synergizes with DNA-damaging drugs. Treatment, however, may be associated with severe and prolonged myelosuppression. We conducted a phase I trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine in combination with high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients received clofarabine at 30-70 mg/m(2)/day on days -6 to -2 in successive cohorts, in combination with etoposide 60 mg/kg (day -8), and cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg (day -6), followed by filgrastim-mobilized PBSC on day 0. Sixteen patients of median age 57 (range: 32-67) years with diffuse large B cell (n = 8), follicular (n = 5), or mantle cell (n = 3) lymphoma that was either primary refractory (n = 2) or relapsed and refractory (n = 14) were treated at 5 clofarabine dose levels: 30 (n = 3), 40 (n = 3), 50 (n = 3), 60 (n = 3), and 70 mg/m(2)/day (n = 4) in combination with etoposide and cyclophosphamide. All patients had grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was evenly distributed across all 5 dose levels, and included diarrhea (n = 3), mucositis (n = 1), nausea (n = 1), reversible elevation of alanine aminotranferease/aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ALT) (n = 1) or bilirubin (n = 1), and hemorrhagic cystitis (n = 1); all resolved by day +30 following transplantation. The MTD was not reached. No treatment-related deaths occurred. At day +30, 13 patients achieved a complete remission (CR) or unconfirmed CR (CR(U)), and 2 patients achieved a partial response, for an overall response rate of 94%. After a median follow-up of 691 days, the 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43%-91%) and 68% (95% CI: 49%-96%), respectively. We recommend clofarabine 70 mg/m(2)/day × 5 days as a phase II dose in combination with high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide for further testing as a preparative regimen in NHL patients undergoing autologous PBSC transplantation.
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Preclinical activity of a novel multiple tyrosine kinase and aurora kinase inhibitor, ENMD-2076, against multiple myeloma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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ENMD-2076 is a novel, orally-active molecule that has been shown to have significant activity against aurora and multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. We investigated the activity of ENMD-2076 against multiple myeloma (MM) cells in vitro and in vivo. ENMD-2076 showed significant cytotoxicity against MM cell lines and primary cells, with minimal cytotoxicity to haematopoietic progenitors. ENMD-2076 inhibited the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway and downregulated survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis as early as 6 h after treatment. With longer treatment (24-48 h), ENMD-2076 also inhibited aurora A and B kinases, and induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. In non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with H929 human plasmacytoma xenografts, oral treatment with ENMD-2076 (50, 100, 200 mg/kg per day) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumour growth. Immunohistochemical staining of excised tumours showed significant reduction in phospho-Histone 3 (pH3), Ki-67, and angiogenesis, and also a significant increase in cleaved caspase-3 at all dose levels compared to tumours from vehicle-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in p-FGFR3 was observed on Western blot. ENMD-2076 shows significant activity against MM cells in vitro and in vivo, and acts on several pathways important for myeloma cell growth and survival. These results provide preclinical rationale for clinical investigation of ENMD-2076 in MM.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse following autologous transplantation: a multi-institutional prospective study from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB t
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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We prospectively treated 80 patients with relapse of malignancy or secondary myelodysplasia after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) with allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of fludarabine 150 mg/m(2) plus intravenous busulfan 6.4 mg/kg. Both matched sibling (MSD) and unrelated donors (MUD) were allowed. Patients transplanted from MUD donors received more intensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, including rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) 10 mg/kg, mycophenolate mofetil, and an extended schedule of tacrolimus. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years (0.9-5.8), treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 6 months and 2 years was 8% and 23%, respectively. Neither TRM nor the rates of acute GVHD (aGVHD) were different in those with sibling or MUD donors. Donor CD3 cell chimerism >90% at day +30 was achieved more often in patients with MUD than with matched sibling donors, 70% versus 23% (P < .0001). Median event-free suvival was higher in patients who achieved early full donor chimerism (14.2 versus 8 months, P = .0395). Allo-HCT using this reduced-intensity conditioning regimen can be performed with low TRM in patients who have received a prior AHCT. Efforts to improve early donor CD3 chimerism may improve event-free survival.
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The novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, inhibits gp130/Stat3 pathway and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in multiple myeloma cells.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with current therapy, indicating the need for continued development of novel therapeutic agents. We evaluated the activity of a novel phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, in primary human myeloma cells and cell lines. AR-42 was cytotoxic to MM cells at a mean LC(50) of 0.18 ± 0.06 ?mol/l at 48 hr and induced apoptosis with cleavage of caspases 8, 9 and 3, with cell death largely prevented by caspase inhibition. AR-42 downregulated the expression of gp130 and inhibited activation of STAT3, with minimal effects on the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, indicating a predominant effect on the gp130/STAT-3 pathway. AR-42 also inhibited interleukin (IL)-6-induced STAT3 activation, which could not be overcome by exogenous IL-6. AR-42 also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated targets, including Bcl-xL and cyclin D1. Overexpression of Bcl-xL by a lentivirus construct partly protected against cell death induced by AR-42. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21, were also significantly induced by AR-42, which together with a decrease in cyclin D1, resulted in G(1) and G(2) cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, AR-42 has potent cytotoxicity against MM cells mainly through gp130/STAT-3 pathway. The results provide rationale for clinical investigation of AR-42 in MM.
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Prophylaxis with sirolimus and tacrolimus ± antithymocyte globulin reduces the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease without an overall survival benefit following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Methotrexate (MTX) is a standard agent used in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell (HCT) transplantation. We retrospectively compared the incidence of acute GVHD (aGVHD), transplant-related morbidity, and mortality in patients given sirolimus/tacrolimus ± antithymocyte globulin (ATG) versus MTX/tacrolimus or cyclosporine and allogeneic transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Between January 1, 2005, and April 30, 2009, 106 consecutive patients received peripheral blood HCT or bone marrow grafts after 1 of 6 myeloablative conditioning regimens. The incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD was 18.6% in patients who received sirolimus/tacrolimus compared to 48.9% who received MTX (P = .001). The incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD was 5% and 17% (P = .045), respectively. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the groups (P = .160). Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) occurred in 40.4% who received sirolimus and 41.9% receiving MTX (P = .89). The incidence of thrombotic microangiopathy or interstitial pneumonitis was not significantly different between groups. The reduction in the risk of severe aGVHD was offset by an increased (20% versus 4%, P = .015) incidence of and mortality from sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS). Sirolimus/tacrolimus appears to reduce the incidence of aGVHD after conventional allotransplantion compared to MTX-calcineurin inhibitor prophylaxis; however, this did not improve survival.
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Phase II trial of temsirolimus in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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In a phase II trial, 16 patients with relapsed refractory multiple myeloma received temsirolimus 25mg I.V. weekly until progression. One partial response and 5 minor responses were observed for a total response rate of 38%. The median time to progression was 138 days. Grade 3-4 toxicity included fatigue (n=3), neutropenia (n=2), thrombocytopenia (n=2), interstitial pneumonitis (n=1), stomatitis (n=1) and diarrhea (n=1). Clinical activity was associated with a higher area under the curve (AUC) and maximal reduction in phosphorylated p70(S6)K and 4EBP1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. At the dose and schedule used, temsirolimus had low single agent activity. Investigation of alternate dosing schedules and use in combinations is indicated.
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Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 negatively regulates colony-stimulating factor activity and stress hematopoiesis.
Nat. Med.
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Enhancement of hematopoietic recovery after radiation, chemotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is clinically relevant. Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP4) cleaves a wide variety of substrates, including the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). In the course of experiments showing that inhibition of DPP4 enhances SDF-1-mediated progenitor cell survival, ex vivo cytokine expansion and replating frequency, we unexpectedly found that DPP4 has a more general role in regulating colony-stimulating factor (CSF) activity. DPP4 cleaved within the N-termini of the CSFs granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF, G-CSF, interleukin-3 (IL-3) and erythropoietin and decreased their activity. Dpp4 knockout or DPP4 inhibition enhanced CSF activities both in vitro and in vivo. The reduced activity of DPP4-truncated versus full-length human GM-CSF was mechanistically linked to effects on receptor-binding affinity, induction of GM-CSF receptor oligomerization and signaling capacity. Hematopoiesis in mice after radiation or chemotherapy was enhanced in Dpp4(-/-) mice or mice receiving an orally active DPP4 inhibitor. DPP4 inhibition enhanced engraftment in mice without compromising HSC function, suggesting the potential clinical utility of this approach.
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The use of synthetic mesh in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair during colorectal resection: risk of infection and recurrence.
Asian J Surg
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The aim was to evaluate the risk of infection and hernia recurrence for patients undergoing repair of ventral hernia (VH) with prosthetic mesh during colorectal resection.
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A phase 1 trial of the anti-KIR antibody IPH2101 in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
Blood
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Natural killer (NK) cells elicit cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma (MM); however, MM cells express HLA class I molecules as ligands to NK cell inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) as a means of immunoevasion. KIR-ligand mismatch may improve outcomes in allogeneic transplantation for MM. Extrapolating on this concept, we conducted a phase 1 trial of IPH2101, an anti-KIR antibody, in patients with relapsed/refractory MM. IPH2101 was administered intravenously every 28 days in 7 dose-escalated cohorts (0.0003-3 mg/kg) for up to 4 cycles. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and correlative immunologic studies were completed. A total of 32 patients were enrolled. The biologic endpoint of full KIR2D occupancy across the dosing cycle was achieved without dose-limiting toxicity or maximally tolerated dose. One severe adverse event was noted. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic findings approximated preclinical predictions, and IPH2101 enhanced ex vivo patient-derived NK cell cytotoxicity against MM. No objective responses were seen. No evidence of autoimmunity was observed. These findings suggest that IPH2101 is safe and tolerable at doses that achieve full inhibitory KIR saturation, and this approach warrants further development in MM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00552396.
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Modelling the Sitagliptin Effect on Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity in Adults with Haematological Malignancies After Umbilical Cord Blood Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Clin Pharmacokinet
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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibition is a potential strategy to increase the engraftment rate of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. A recent clinical trial using sitagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor approved for type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been shown to be a promising approach in adults with haematological malignancies after umbilical cord blood (UCB) haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). On the basis of data from this clinical trial, a semi-mechanistic model was developed to simultaneously describe DPP4 activity after multiple doses of sitagliptin in subjects with haematological malignancies after a single-unit UCB HCT.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.