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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Molluscicidal effect of Rongbao in Mianyang City].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of Rongbao in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Mianyang City.
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[Effects of different LED light qualities on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and nutritional quality of savoy].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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LED lighting has several unique advantages over traditional lighting, including the ability to control spectral composition, the ability to produce very high light levels with low radiant heat output when cooled properly, and the ability to maintain useful light output for years without replacement. LED light sources have the capability of controlling true spectral composition, allowing wavelengths to match plant photoreceptors to provide more optimal production to regulate plant morphology and nutritional quality. In this paper, the effects of different light qualities on the growth, photosynthetic response and nutritional quality of savoy were studied. With 'Juhua-Xiaobaye' savoy as the test plant, full red light, full blue light, red/blue (3/1) light, red/blue (7/1) light and white/red/blue (3/2/1) light generated by light-emitting diodes were applied with white light generated by fluorescent lamps as control. The results showed that red light could increase biomass and stem diameter, but blue light showed the opposite effect. The chlorophyll (a+b) content was the highest in the red/blue (7/1) light treatment, and chlorophyll (a+b) content was correlated with the red/blue ratio positively. Blue light decreased chlorophyll (a + b) content of savoy, and increased chlorophyll a/b. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate under red light were the highest, and increased by 43.8% and 55.1% compared with the control. Intercellular CO2 concentration and conductance were the highest under blue light. The fluorescence parameters of the plant were significantly affected by light quality. Values of the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), Fv/Fo and Phi(PS II) were the highest under white light. Soluble sugar, soluble protein and vitamin C contents were the highest under red, blue and white light, respectively. Comprehensive analysis indicated that red/blue (7/1) light was the best light combination to increase leaf chlorophyll (a+b) content and net photosynthetic rate, as well as plant growth and nutritional quality.
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MicroRNA-26b Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Transcription and Replication by Targeting the Host Factor CHORDC1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans, and HBV infection is a major threat to global health. HBV replication is regulated by a series of host factors including microRNAs (miRNAs), which are highly conserved small noncoding RNAs that participate in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Here we report that a chemically synthesized mimic of miR-26b inhibited HBV antigen expression, transcription, and replication, whereas antisense knockdown of endogenous miR-26b enhanced HBV replication in HepG2 cells. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that miR-26b significantly decreased HBV enhancer/promoter activities. We identified cysteine and histidine-rich domain containing 1 (CHORDC1) as a novel host factor target of miR-26b. CHORDC1 protein but not mRNA was markedly decreased by miR-26b overexpression via base-pairing with complementary sequences in the 3'UTR of its mRNA. Overexpression and knockdown studies showed that CHORDC1 increased viral antigen expression, transcription, and replication by elevating HBV enhancer/promoter activities. Conversely, HBV infection suppressed miR-26b expression and increased CHORDC1 protein level in human liver cells. Another mature miRNA of the hsa-miR-26 family, miR-26a, had similar function as miR-26b in targeting CHORDC1 and affecting HBV production. These results suggest that suppression of miR-26b expression upregulates its target gene CHORDC1, which increases HBV enhancer/promoter activities and promotes viral transcription, gene expression, and replication. Our study could provide new insights into miRNA expression and the persistence of HBV infection.
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[Clinical Efficacy of Decitabine Combined with Modified CAG Regimen for Relapsed-Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia with AML1-ETO(+)].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of relapsed-refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with AML1-ETO(+), and its therapeutic efficacy and side effects when decitabine combined with modified CAG regimen was used. Clinical data of 5 cases of AML with AML1-ETO(+) from January 2013 to Agust 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The analyzed data included age, sex, initial symptoms, peripheral blood and bone marrow characteristics. Meanwhile, the therapeutic effecacy and side effects of decitabine combined with modified CAG regimen were evaluated. The 5 patients were with median age of 35 (17-43) years. Among these 5 patients, 2 patients were relapsed and other 3 patients were relapsed-refractory patients, their median white blood cell count was 12.55 (7.8-66.55) ×10(9)/L, median platelets count was 44 (20-72) ×10(9)/L, median hemoglobin level was 110 (77-128) g/L, median lactate dehydrogenase level was 312.9 U/L (123.6-877.8) at the initial diagnosis. The results showed that after decitabine combined with modified CAG regimen was administered, 4 patients achieved complete remission, 1 patient did not achieve remission, the overall remission rate was 80% (4/5). The main side effects of this regimen was myelosupp-ression, these were no new lung infection and other serious complications, one case without complete remission treated with FLAG once again died of heart failure when being mobilized for transplantation. It is concluded that according to preliminary results of decitabine combined with modified CAG regimen for relapsed and refractory AML patients with AML1-ETO(+) displays higher remission rate and lower side effects, which worthy to further explore for clinal application.
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Current advances in fused tetrathiafulvalene donor-acceptor systems.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) systems have been studied extensively. Among them, fused D-A systems have attracted much attention during the past decades. Herein, we will present the evolution of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) fused D-A systems and their potential applications in areas such as solar cells, OFETs, molecular wires and optoelectronics just to name a few. The synthesis and electrochemical, photophysical and intrinsic properties of fused D-A systems will be described as well.
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Modeling spin-forbidden monomer self-initiation reactions in spontaneous free-radical polymerization of acrylates and methacrylates.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A spin-forbidden reaction is a reaction in which the total electronic spin-state changes. The standard transition-state theory that assumes a reaction occurs on a single potential energy surface with spin-conservation cannot be applied to a spin-forbidden reaction directly. In this work, we derive the crossing coefficient based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) theory to quantify the effect of intersystem crossing on the kinetics of spin-forbidden reactions. Acrylates and methacrylates, by themselves, can generate free radicals that initiate polymerization at temperatures above 120 °C. Previous studies suggest that a triplet diradical is a key intermediate in the self-initiation. The formation of a triplet diradical from two closed-shell monomer molecules is a spin-forbidden reaction. This study provides a quantitative analysis of singlet-triplet spin crossover of diradical species in self-initiation of acrylates and methacrylates, taking into account the effect of intersystem crossing. The concept of crossing control is introduced and demonstrated computationally to be a new likely route to generate monoradicals via monomer self-initiation in high temperature polymerization.
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Ferroelectric polarization reversal via successive ferroelastic transitions.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Switchable polarization makes ferroelectrics a critical component in memories, actuators and electro-optic devices, and potential candidates for nanoelectronics. Although many studies of ferroelectric switching have been undertaken, much remains to be understood about switching in complex domain structures and in devices. In this work, a combination of thin-film epitaxy, macro- and nanoscale property and switching characterization, and molecular dynamics simulations are used to elucidate the nature of switching in PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin films. Differences are demonstrated between (001)-/(101)- and (111)-oriented films, with the latter exhibiting complex, nanotwinned ferroelectric domain structures with high densities of 90° domain walls and considerably broadened switching characteristics. Molecular dynamics simulations predict both 180° (for (001)-/(101)-oriented films) and 90° multi-step switching (for (111)-oriented films) and these processes are subsequently observed in stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. These results have implications for our understanding of ferroelectric switching and offer opportunities to change domain reversal speed.
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Triazolyl-based copper-molybdate hybrids: from composition space diagram to magnetism and catalytic performance.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The multicomponent mixed-metal Cu(II)/Mo(VI) oxides/1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)adamantane (tr2ad) system was thoroughly studied employing a compositional diagram approach. The concept allowed us to prepare three layered copper-molybdate hybrid solids [Cu(II)2(tr2ad)4](Mo8O26) (1), [Cu4(II)(?4-O)(tr2ad)2(MoO4)3]·7.5H2O (2), and [Cu(I)2(tr2ad)2](Mo2O7)·H2O (3), and to elucidate the relationship between initial reagent concentration/stoichiometry and the stability of the resultant structural motifs. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to dominate throughout a wide crystallization range of the concentration triangle, whereas compound 3 was formed by redox processes in the narrow crystallization area having a high excess of Cu(OAc)2·H2O. Independent experiments carried out with Cu(OAc)2 and (NH4)6Mo7O24 in the absence of tr2ad, under the same conditions, revealed the formation of low-valent and bimetallic oxides, including Cu2O, MoO2, Cu(Mo3O10)·H2O, and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2. Compounds 1 and 2 show high thermal and chemical stability as examined as catalysts in the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene and the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) with different types of oxidants. The oxidation reaction of BzOH using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant, in the presence of 1 or 2, led to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid (PhCO2H), with the latter being formed in up to 90% yield at 24 h. The results suggest that 1 and 2 may be favorable heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of PhCO2H. Whereas compound 1 only reveals a weak ferromagnetic coupling between neighboring Cu(II) centers (J = 0.41 cm(-1)), compound 2 shows distinct intracluster antiferromagnetic exchange interactions (J = -29.9 cm(-1), J' = -25.7 cm(-1)), which consequently results in a diamagnetic ground state.
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Near-infrared emitting fluorescent BODIPY nanovesicles for in vivo molecular imaging and drug delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Near-infrared fluorescent nanovesicles were prepared by self-assembly of block copolymer hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) boron-dipyrromethenes in aqueous solution. The fluorescence enhancement induced by dissociation of nanovesicles could be used as a smart imaging and diagnostic tool. This nanovesicle could encapsulate the antitumor drug, and provide a powerful platform for imaging-guided tumor-specific drug delivery and therapy.
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The Metallofullerene Field-Induced Single-Ion Magnet HoSc2 N@C80.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The low-temperature magnetic properties of the endohedral metallofullerene HoSc2 N@C80 have been studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements reveal that this molecule exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization in a small applied field with timescales in the order of milliseconds. The equilibrium magnetic properties of HoSc2 N@C80 indicate strong magnetic anisotropy. The large differences in magnetization relaxation times between the present compound and the previously investigated DySc2 N@C80 are discussed.
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Logic nanoparticle beacon triggered by the binding-induced effect of multiple inputs.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Recently, the toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement reaction has been widely used in detecting molecular signals. However, traditional strand displacement, without cooperative signaling among DNA inputs, is insufficient for the design of more complicated nanodevices. In this work, a logic computing system is established using the cooperative "binding-induced" mechanism, based on the AuNP-based beacons, in which five kinds of multiple-input logic gates have been constructed. This system can recognize DNA and protein streptavidin simultaneously. Finally, the manipulations of the logic system are also demonstrated by controlling programmed conjugate DNA/AuNP clusters. This study provides the possibility of detecting multiple input signals and designing complex nanodevices that can be potentially applied to the detection of multiple molecular targets and the construction of large-scale DNA-based computation.
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HMGA1 is a new target of miR-195 involving isoprenaline-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
Biochemistry Mosc.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Emerging data have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) have important functions in the processes of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure that occur during the postnatal period. Cardiac overexpression of miR-195 results in pathological cardiac growth and heart failure in transgenic mice. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of miR-195 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and found that miR-195 was greatly upregulated during isoprenaline-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. By using mRNA microarray and molecular approach, we identified a novel putative target of miR-195 called high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1). Total mRNA microarray showed that HMGA1 was downregulated in primary cardiomyocytes that overexpressed miR-195. Using luciferase activity assay, we demonstrated that miR-195 interacts with the 3'-untranslated region of HMGA1 mRNA. Moreover, we showed that miR-195 in primary cardiomyocytes downregulates the expression of HMGA1 at the protein level. Taken together, our data demonstrated that miR-195 can negatively regulate a new target, HMGA1, which is involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.
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Effects of Melatonin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Sheep Granulosa Cells under Thermal Stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The cross-talk between oocyte and somatic cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. As a result, granulosa cell apoptosis causes follicular atresia. In this study, sheep granulosa cells were cultured under thermal stress to induce apoptosis, and melatonin (MT) was examined to evaluate its potential effects on heat-induced granulosa cell injury. The results demonstrated that the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) of granulosa cells was significantly decreased (heat 19.70% ± 1.29% vs. control 26.96% ± 1.81%, p < 0.05) and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased (heat 56.16% ± 13.95% vs. control 22.80% ± 12.16%, p < 0.05) in granulosa cells with thermal stress compared with the control group. Melatonin (10-7 M) remarkably reduced the negative effects caused by thermal stress in the granulosa cells. This reduction was indicated by the improved CFE and decreased apoptotic rate of these cells. The beneficial effects of melatonin on thermal stressed granulosa cells were not inhibited by its membrane receptor antagonist luzindole. A mechanistic exploration indicated that melatonin (10-7 M) down-regulated p53 and up-regulated Bcl-2 and LHR gene expression of granulosa cells under thermal stress. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of melatonin on granulosa cells during thermal stress.
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Coagulation state in patients with Crohn's disease: the effect of infliximab therapy.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Growing evidence has shown that coagulation processes play an important role in disease pathogenesis and/or disease progression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, no study has ever focused on the possible influence of infliximab (IFX) therapy on the coagulation status in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).
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A meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir in patients with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) is inconsistent. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a current review of the literature addressing the efficacy and safety of entecavir and tenofovir. Electronic databases were searched through June 2014 for relevant clinical trials. We included two randomized controlled trials, two prospective cohort studies,and seven case-control studies that included 1656 patients. In the entecavir group, 842 of 992 were nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic HBV patients, and in the tenofovir group 481 of 664 were nucleos(t)ide-naïve. The virological response to tenofovir was superior to entecavir (RR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.72 to 0.93), especially in nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic HBV patients at 48 weeks (RR: 0.78; 95%CI: 0.65 to 0.92). Additionally, there was no difference between entecavir and tenofovir for virological response at 24 weeks(RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.05). The alanine aminotransferase normalization rate, serological response, and adverse event rate was also not significantly different between entecavir and tenofovir at 24 or 48 weeks after treatment. These results suggest that tenofovir is a better choice to treat chronic HBV patients than entecavir as it is better able to suppress HBV viral load and has a similar safety profile.
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HOMO Stabilisation in ?-Extended Dibenzotetrathiafulvalene Derivatives for Their Application in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Three new organic semiconductors, in which either two methoxy units are directly linked to a dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DB-TTF) central core and a 2,1,3-chalcogendiazole is fused on the one side, or four methoxy groups are linked to the DB-TTF, have been synthesised as active materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Their electrochemical behaviour, electronic absorption and fluorescence emission as well as photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer were studied. The electron-withdrawing 2,1,3-chalcogendiazole unit significantly affects the electronic properties of these semiconductors, lowering both the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and hence increasing the stability of the semiconducting material. The solution-processed single-crystal transistors exhibit high performance with a hole mobility up to 0.04?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) as well as good ambient stability.
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Healing of stoma after magnetic biliary-enteric anastomosis in canine peritonitis models.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To assese the healing of stoma after magnetic anastomosis for the reconstruction of biliary-enteric continuity under severe inflammation.
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Antitumor effect of Kanglaite® injection in human pancreatic cancer xenografts.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Kanglaite® injection (KLT), with a main ingredient of Coix seed oil (a traditional Chinese medicine), has been widely used for cancer treatment in China. KLT has an inhibitory effect on many kinds of tumors and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling promotes cell survival, proliferation, and progression in cancer cells. Therefore, targeting this pathway may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for human cancers.
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Regulating a benzodifuran single molecule redox switch via electrochemical gating and optimization of molecule/electrode coupling.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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We report a novel strategy for the regulation of charge transport through single molecule junctions via the combination of external stimuli of electrode potential, internal modulation of molecular structures, and optimization of anchoring groups. We have designed redox-active benzodifuran (BDF) compounds as functional electronic units to fabricate metal-molecule-metal (m-M-m) junction devices by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ). The conductance of thiol-terminated BDF can be tuned by changing the electrode potentials showing clearly an off/on/off single molecule redox switching effect. To optimize the response, a BDF molecule tailored with carbodithioate (-CS2(-)) anchoring groups was synthesized. Our studies show that replacement of thiol by carbodithioate not only enhances the junction conductance but also substantially improves the switching effect by enhancing the on/off ratio from 2.5 to 8.
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Structural and functional analysis of an asymmetric bidirectional promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Bidirectional promoters are relatively abundant in eukaryotic genomes, suggesting that they have an important biological significance. As yet, few of these promoters have been characterized in detail. Here, using a promoter::GUS transgene approach has revealed that the intergenic region of Arabidopsis thaliana divergent genes At1g71850 and At1g71860 is an asymmetric bidirectional promoter, which exhibits an orientation-dependent expression profile. The strength of the forward promoter was greater than that of the reverse promoter, and their tissue specificities were not identical. Deletion analyses revealed that this bidirectional promoter could be divided into three functional regions. The basal level and tissue specificity of the promoter in the reverse orientation were regulated positively by region II and negatively by region III, whereas promoter activity in the forward orientation was regulated negatively by region II and positively by region I. Thus the 52-bp stretch of region II had a dual function, enhancing expression in the reverse orientation and suppressing it in the forward orientation. These results demonstrated that the activity of the At1g71850-At1g71860 bidirectional promoter was modulated by complex interactions between both positive and negative cis-acting elements. These findings will enhance our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of plant bidirectional promoters.
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Antitumor activity of electrospun polylactide nanofibers loaded with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin against colorectal cancer.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities against colorectal cancer (CRC) of electrospun polylactide (PLA) nanofibers loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-Flu) and oxaliplatin. For in vitro evaluation, human CRC HCT8 cells were directly exposed to the drug-loaded fiber mats, followed with MTT and flow cytometry (FCM) assay. For in vivo evaluation, the drug-loaded fiber mats were locally implanted into mouse colorectal CT26 tumor-bearing mice, followed with histological analysis and detection of survival rate. The results showed that the drug-loaded fiber mats was similar to that of the combination of free 5-Flu and oxaliplatin in vitro cytotoxicity but was much superior to intravenous injection of free drug in vivo anticancer activities, presenting with suppressed tumor growth rate and prolonged survival time of mice. In conclusion, anticancer activities of 5-Flu and oxaliplatin against CRC can be significantly improved by using PLA electrospun nanofibers as local drug delivery system.
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Contrast formation in Kelvin probe force microscopy of single ?-conjugated molecules.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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We report the contrast formation in the local contact potential difference (LCPD) measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on single charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) on a NaCl bilayer on Cu(111). At different tip heights, we found quantitatively different LCPD contrasts that characterize different properties of the molecule. In the small distance regime, the tip penetrates the electron density of the molecule, and the contrast is related to the size and topography of the electron shell of the molecule. For larger distances, the LCPD contrast corresponds to the electrostatic field above the molecule. However, in the medium-distance regime, that is, for tip heights similar to the size of the molecule, the nonspherical distribution of ?- and ?-electrons often conceals the effect of the partial charges within the molecule. Only for large distances does the LCPD map converge toward the simple field of a dipole for a polar molecule.
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Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and risk of gout in Chinese Han male population.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Previous studies have showed that patients with gout showed lower serum 25(OH)D levels. As the specific receptor of vitamin D, VDR plays an important role in regulating immune system by combining with vitamin D. In this study, we investigated whether the functional VDR polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to gout in Chinese Han male population. A total of 504 patients with gout and 523 gout-free controls were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College, Qingdao University. Genotyping of VDR rs11568820, rs2228570 and rs1544410 was performed by TaqMan allele discrimination assays. An association analysis was carried out using the ? (2) test. A genotype-phenotype analysis was also conducted. Our results showed that polymorphisms of rs11568820 and rs1544410 in VDR were associated with gout in Chinese Han male population. The A allele of both rs11568820 and rs1544410 was associated with the risk of gout [P = 0.012 OR 1.251, 95 % CI (1.051-1.490); P = 0.006, OR 1.574, 95 % CI (1.139-2.175)]. However, there was no statistic significance between rs2228570 and gout (P = 0.186). Our study suggested that the polymorphisms of VDR may be relevant host susceptibility factors for the development of gout in Chinese Han male population. However, further study should be done in a larger size sample and other ethic to test and verify our result.
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Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05). The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p>0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.
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A quinoxaline-fused tetrathiafulvalene-based sensitizer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A new quinoxaline-fused tetrathiafulvalene-based sensitizer has been prepared and characterized. The resulting power conversion efficiency of 6.47% represents the best performance to date for tetrathiafulvalene-sensitized solar cells.
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Effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine combined with trichostatin A on RPMI-8226 cell proliferation, apoptosis and DLC-1 gene expression.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on DLC-1 gene transcription regulation and molecular biological behaviours in the human multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 cells. The cells were treated respectively with 5-Aza-CdR and TSA alone, or the both combination; the cell proliferation and apoptosis, DLC-1 expression, the protein expression of Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) were examined by CCK-8 method, RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that the 5-Aza-CdR and TSA had cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects in dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Compared with a single drug (5-Aza-CdR or TSA alone), the effects were significantly enhanced after treatment with the combination of 5-Aza-CdR and TSA (P < 0.05). DLC-1 was weakly expressed in the control group; the treatment with 5-Aza-CdR alone enhanced its re-expression dose-dependently (P < 0.05). Compared with 5-Aza-CdR alone, 5-Aza-CdR plus TSA enhanced DLC-1 re-expression significantly.Compared with the control, 5-Aza-CdR and TSA significantly decreased RhoA and Rac1 protein expression (P < 0.05). It is concluded that 5-Aza-CdR and TSA can effectively reverse DLC-1 expression of RPMI-8226 cells; TSA has a synergistic effect on its re-expression. 5-Aza-CdR and TSA have significant cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on RPMI-8226 cells. These effects may be related to the inhibition of Rho/Rho kinase signalling pathway.
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Mixed-ligand hydroxocopper(II)/pyridazine clusters embedded into 3D framework lattices.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Rational combination of pyridazine, hydroxo and carboxylate bridging ligands led to the assembly of three types of mixed-ligand polynuclear Cu(II) clusters (A: [Cu2(?-OH)(?-pdz)(?-COO)]; B: [Cu4(?3-OH)2(?-pdz)2]; C: [Cu5(?-OH)2(?-pdz)4(?-COO)2(?-H2O)2]) and their integration into 3D framework structures. Mixed-ligand complexes [Cu2(?-OH){TMA}(L)(H2O)] (1), [Cu4(?3-OH)2{ATC}2(L)2(H2O)2]·H2O (2) [Cu4(?3-OH)2{TDC}3(L)2(H2O)2]·7H2O (3) (L = 1,3-bis(pyridazin-4-yl)adamantane; TMA(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, ATC(3-) = adamantane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, TDC(2-) = 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate) and [Cu5(?-OH)2{X}4(L)2(H2O)2]·nH2O (X = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate, BDC(2-), n = 5 (4) and 5-hydroxybenzene-1,3-dicarboxylate, HO-BDC(2-), n = 6 (5)) are prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Trigonal bridges TMA(3-) and ATC(3-) generate planar Cu(II)/carboxylate subtopologies further pillared into 3D frameworks (1: binodal 3,5-coordinated, doubly interpenetrated tcj-3,5-Ccc2; 2: binodal 3,8-coordinated tfz-d) by bitopic pyridazine ligands. Unprecedented triple bridges in 1 (cluster of type A) support short CuCu separations of 3.0746(6) Å. The framework in 3 is a primitive cubic net (pcu) with multiple bis-pyridazine and TDC(2-) links between the tetranuclear nodes of type . Compounds 4 and 5 adopt uninodal ten-coordinated framework topologies (bct) embedding unprecedented centrosymmetric open-chain pentanuclear clusters of type C with two kinds of multiple bridges, Cu(?-OH)(?-pdz)2Cu and Cu(?-COO)(?-H2O)Cu (CuCu distances are 3.175 and 3.324 Å, respectively). Magnetic coupling phenomena were detected for every type of cluster by susceptibility measurements of 1, 3 and 4. For binuclear clusters A in 1, the intracluster antiferromagnetic exchange interactions lead to a diamagnetic ground state (J = -17.5 cm(-1); g = 2.1). Strong antiferromagnetic coupling is relevant also for type B, which consequently results in a diamagnetic ground state (J1 = -110 cm(-1); J2 = -228 cm(-1), g = 2.07). For pentanuclear clusters of type C in 4, the exchange model is based on a strongly antiferromagnetically coupled central linear trinuclear Cu3 group (J1 = -125 cm(-1)) and two outer Cu centers weakly antiferromagnetically coupled to the terminal Cu ions of the triad (J2 = -12.5 cm(-1)).
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A fluorescence turn-on probe for cysteine and homocysteine based on thiol-triggered benzothiazolidine ring formation.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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We synthesized a new coumarin-based probe TP, containing a disulfide moiety, to detect biothiols in cells. A fluorescence turn-on response is induced by the thiol-disulfide exchange of the probe, with subsequent intramolecular benzothiazolidine ring formation giving rise to a fluorescent product. The probe exhibits an excellent selectivity for cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy) over glutathione (GSH) and other amino acids. The fluorescent probe also exhibits a highly sensitive fluorescence turn-on response to Cys and Hcy with detection limits of 0.8?M for Cys and 0.5?M for Hcy. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging using RAW264.7 macrophages demonstrates that the probe TP could be an efficient fluorescent detector for thiols in living cells.
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Alterations in cardiac structure and function in a modified rat model of myocardial hypertrophy.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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This study was aimed to establish a stable animal model of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to provide theoretical and experimental basis for understanding the development of LVH. The abdominal aorta of male Wistar rats (80-100 g) was constricted to a diameter of 0.55 mm between the branches of the celiac and anterior mesenteric arteries. Echocardiography using a linear phased array probe was performed as well as pathological examination and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement at 3, 4 and 6 weeks after abdominal aortic constriction (AAC). The results showed that the acute mortality rate (within 24 h) of this modified rat model was 8%. Animals who underwent AAC demonstrated significantly increased interventricular septal (IVS), LV posterior wall (LVPWd), LV mass index (LVMI), cross-sectional area (CSA) of myocytes, and perivascular fibrosis; the ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), and cardiac output (CO) were consistently lower at each time point after AAC. Notably, differences in these parameters between AAC group and sham group were significant by 3 weeks and reached peaks at 4th week. Following AAC, the plasma BNP was gradually elevated compared with the sham group at 3rd and 6th week. It was concluded that this modified AAC model can develop LVH, both stably and safely, by week four post-surgery; echocardiography is able to assess changes in chamber dimensions and systolic properties accurately in rats with LVH.
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A compact tetrathiafulvalene-benzothiadiazole dyad and its highly symmetrical charge-transfer salt: ordered donor ?-stacks closely bound to their acceptors.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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A compact and planar donor-acceptor molecule 1 comprising tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and benzothiadiazole (BTD) units has been synthesised and experimentally characterised by structural, optical, and electrochemical methods. Solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films of 1 have also been explored as active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). For these devices, hole field-effect mobilities of ?FE = (1.3±0.5)×10(-3) and (2.7±0.4)×10(-3) ?cm(2) ?V?s(-1) were determined for the solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films, respectively. An intense intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition at around 495?nm dominates the optical absorption spectrum of the neutral dyad, which also shows a weak emission from its ICT state. The iodine-induced oxidation of 1 leads to a partially oxidised crystalline charge-transfer (CT) salt {(1)2I3}, and eventually also to a fully oxidised compound {1I3}?1/2I2. Single crystals of the former CT compound, exhibiting a highly symmetrical crystal structure, reveal a fairly good room temperature electrical conductivity of the order of 2?S?cm(-1). The one-dimensional spin system bears compactly bonded BTD acceptors (spatial localisation of the LUMO) along its ridge.
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Tetracarboxylate ligands as new chelates supporting copper(II) paddlewheel-like structures.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Two new ligands N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-methylbenzoic acid)-1,4-diaminomethylbenzene, 5H4, and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-methylbenzoic acid)-4,4'-diaminomethyldiphenyl, 6H4, carrying four carboxylate groups suitable for bridging dinuclear centers have been prepared and their paddlewheel complexes with copper(II) prepared. The phenyl-bridged ligand 5H4 gives a cyclic octanuclear species [(Cu2)4(5)4], while the diphenyl-bridged ligand 6H4 gives a lantern-like tetranuclear species [(Cu2)2(6)2]; both were characterized by X-ray crystallography. If the amine functions of 5 are protonated, intramolecular hydrogen bonds position the four carboxylates in such a way as to allow formation of the unusual compound [Cu4(5H2)2Cl](3+) in which a Cu4 square centered by a chloro ligand is sandwiched between two (5H2)(2-) ligands. The magnetic properties of this compound have been studied and show antiferromagnetic coupling between adjacent coppers (J = -33.7 cm(-1)).
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Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A theranostic nanomedicine (CD-Oxa) is synthesized by means of the condensation reaction between the amino groups on the surface of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) and the carboxyl group of the oxaliplatin derivative Oxa(IV)-COOH. CD-Oxa, which integrates the optical properties of CDs and the anticancer function of oxaliplatin, could be used for simultaneous drug delivery and fluorescent tracking.
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Multiscale reconstruction algorithm for compressed sensing.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Compressed sensing (CS) method has attracted increasing attention owing to providing a novel insight for signal and image processing technology. Acquiring high-quality reconstruction results plays a crucial role in successful applications of CS method. This paper presents a multiscale reconstruction model that simultaneously considers the inaccuracy properties on the measurement data and the measurement matrix. Based on the wavelet analysis method, the original inverse problem is decomposed into a sequence of inverse problems, which are solved successively from the largest scale to the original scale. An objective functional, that integrate the beneficial advantages of the least trimmed sum of absolute deviations (LTA) estimation and the combinational M-estimation, is proposed. An iteration scheme that incorporates the advantages of the homotopy method and the evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm is designed for solving the proposed objective functional. Numerical simulations are implemented to validate the feasibility of the proposed reconstruction method.
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Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for drug delivery applications.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Electrospinning has been recognized as a simple and versatile method for fabrication of polymer nanofibers. Various polymers that include synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers. The inherently high surface to volume ratio of electrospun fibers can enhance cell attachment, drug loading, and mass transfer properties. Drugs ranging from antibiotics and anticancer agents to proteins, DNA, RNA, living cells, and various growth factors have been incorporated into electrospun fibers. This article presents an overview of electrospinning techniques and their application in drug delivery.
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Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare. Here we describe a 37-year-old man with multiple recurrent carcinoid tumor of the right middle ear. The CT demonstrated the recurrent mass that filled the tympanum and mastoid with osteolytic invasion, and the tumor was removed by surgery. The pathological findings showed the tumor cells, without necrosis and mitotic activity, had round, oval, or slightly irregular nuclei and finely-dispersed chromatin, arranged in cords, nests, and glandular structures. They were strongly positive for synaptophysin and CD56, but were negative for S-100 and chromogranin A. Ki-67 proliferation activity was low (<2%). With a review of the literature, the clinical, pathological characteristics and treatment modalities of this rare tumor are discussed.
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Clinical utility of recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene therapy: current perspectives.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gene therapy has promised to be a highly effective antitumor treatment by introducing a tumor suppressor gene or the abrogation of an oncogene. Among the potential therapeutic transgenes, the tumor suppressor gene p53 serves as an attractive target. Restoration of wild-type p53 function in tumors can be achieved by introduction of an intact complementary deoxyribonucleic acid copy of the p53 gene using a suitable viral vector, in most cases an adenoviral vector (Adp53). Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Adp53 triggers a dramatic tumor regression response in various cancers. These viruses are engineered to lack certain early proteins and are thus replication defective, including Gendicine, SCH-58500, and Advexin. Several types of tumor-specific p53-expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus vectors (known as replication-competent CRAdp53 vectors) have been developed, such as ONYX 015, AdDelta24-p53, SG600-p53, OBP-702, and H101. Various clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the safety and efficiency of these adenoviral vectors. In this review we will talk about the biological mechanisms, clinical utility, and therapeutic potentials of the replication-deficient Adp53-based and replication-competent CRAdp53-based gene therapy.
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Evaluation of the highly variable agomelatine pharmacokinetics in chinese healthy subjects to support bioequivalence study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We aim to obtain the intra-subject coefficient of variability of a highly variable antidepressant agomelatine in humans, and propose an adjusted bioequivalence assessment strategy.
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Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tonsil: a case report and review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) that originates in the tonsil is extremely rare and carries a poor prognosis. Only a few cases of this tumor have been reported so far and the standard treatment protocol remains uncertain. Here we describe a 74-year-old woman presented with throat pain for about 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 3.4×1.8 cm tumor with moderate enhancement in the left tonsil and a 1.3×1.0 cm neck mass in left level II. A biopsy of the tonsillar mass was performed and histologic examination revealed small round to oval tumor cells were arranged in cords or nests, containing hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were readily identified. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were strongly positive for CD56, focally positive for PCK and negative for LCA. A diagnosis of primary small cell NEC of the left tonsil was obtained. The patient was treated by six cycles of cisplatin combined with etoposide and the masses showed initial complete response. But recurrence in the left neck was found 9 months after initial diagnosis and the patient refused any further treatment. With a review of the literature, the nomenclature, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment modalities of this rare tumor are discussed.
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Folate-targeted paclitaxel-conjugated polymeric micelles inhibits pulmonary metastatic hepatoma in experimental murine H22 metastasis models.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma shows low response to most conventional chemotherapies; additionally, extrahepatic metastasis from hepatoma is considered refractory to conventional systemic chemotherapy. Target therapy is a promising strategy for advanced hepatoma; however, targeted accumulation and controlled release of therapeutic agents into the metastatic site is still a great challenge. Folic acid (FA) and paclitaxel (PTX) containing composite micelles (FA-M[PTX]) were prepared by coassembling the FA polymer conjugate and PTX polymer conjugate. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory efficacy of FA-M(PTX) on the pulmonary metastasis of intravenously injected murine hepatoma 22 (H22) on BALB/c mice models. The lung metastatic burden of H22 were measured and tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology (hematoxylin and eosin stain), followed by survival analysis. The results indicated that FA-M(PTX) prevented pulmonary metastasis of H22, and the efficacy was stronger than pure PTX and simple PTX-conjugated micelles. In particular, the formation of lung metastasis colonies in mice was evidently inhibited, which was paralleled with the downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, the mice bearing pulmonary metastatic hepatoma in the FA-M(PTX) group gained significantly prolonged survival time when compared with others given equivalent doses of PTX of 30 mg/kg. The enhanced efficacy of FA-M(PTX) is theoretically ascribed to the target effect of FA; moreover, the extensive pulmonary capillary networks may play a role. In conclusion, FA-M(PTX) displayed great potential as a promising antimetastatic agent, and the FA-conjugated micelles is a preferential targeted delivery system when compared to micelles without FA.
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Effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of melanoma cells.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vietnamese Sophora Root mainly contains active constituents such as alkaloids, and it has anti-tumour, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of the paper was to study the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of mouse melanoma B16BL6 cells, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action.
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[Effect of notoginseng radix on expression quantity of TGF-beta1/ Smads and CTGF mRNA in rats with alcoholic liver disease].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To evaluate the effect of Notoginseng Radix on hepatic expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in rats with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), in order to discuss its protective effect on alcoholic cirrhosis.
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[A prospective multicenter clinical trial of medical and surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To demonstrate the clinical outcomes of maximal medical therapy(MMT) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery+ maximal medical therapy (FESS+MMT) for moderate to severe chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) in China, to provide clinical evidence for treatment recommendation.
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Binding Assistance Triggering Attachments of Hairpin DNA onto Gold Nanoparticles.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Here, we present a strategy to trigger monovalent attachments of thoilated hairpin DNA onto AuNP, assisted by molecular binding. Without binding helper strands, it is hard to control the attachments of thiolated hairpin DNA, because of spatial hindrances. By introducing a binding helper strand, the thiol-group can be brought into close proximity to the surface of AuNPs, which will greatly increase the local molecular concentration and attaching efficiency. In the experiments, the strategy is verified by the methods of DNA strand branch migration and dynamic assembly of AuNPs clusters. In addition, unique and complex AuNPs clusters with well-defined arrangements of DNA scaffolds are produced. Using this method, it is able to selectively manipulate and control different kinds and numbers of DNA attaching onto AuNPs. Our strategy also could be extended to assembling large complicated DNA/AuNPs programmable structures and nanodevices.
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Glycogen synthase kinase-3? is involved in C-reactive protein-induced endothelial cell activation.
Biochemistry Mosc.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is a significant contributor to atherosclerosis and a powerful predictor of cardiovascular risk. The role of CRP in endothelial cell (EC) activation has been extensively investigated, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The effect of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) on CRP-induced EC activation was evaluated in this study. We observed that CRP decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity during EC activation. CRP also activated GSK-3? by dephosphorylating its Ser9 level and reducing ?-catenin protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We also found that the GSK-3? inhibitors TDZD-8 and SB415286 partially restored eNOS activity and suppressed the release of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 from ECs. These data provide new evidence for the involvement of GSK-3? in EC activation.
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Electroacupuncture at ST36 increases contraction of the gastric antrum and improves the SCF/c-kit pathway in diabetic rats.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 is effective for improving gastric motility. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EA on gastric contraction and to determine whether interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are involved. Rats were randomized into control, diabetic (DM), diabetic with sham EA (DM + SEA), diabetic with low frequency EA (DM + LEA) and diabetic with high frequency EA (DM + HEA) groups. EA was performed everyday for four and eight weeks. Contractions in antrum strips were explored using the organ bath technique. Western blotting was employed to determine c-kit and transmembrane stem cell factor (M-SCF) expression in the gastric antrum, and levels of soluble stem cell factor (S-SCF) in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The distribution of ICCs was further assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: (1) Contractions in the DM group were attenuated at four and eight weeks, but LEA and HEA restored the attenuated contraction. (2) ICCs were significantly decreased at eight weeks without alteration at four weeks in DM group, but were rescued in the LEA and HEA groups. (3) Whereas M-SCF and S-SCF in the DM group were slightly decreased at four weeks and were dramatically reduced at eight weeks, LEA and HEA markedly enhanced SCF at eight weeks. Collectively, the data suggest that in diabetic rats, LEA and HEA at ST36 could facilitate contraction of the gastric antrum, possibly by involving the SCF/c-kit pathway.
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A molecular logical switching beacon controlled by thiolated DNA signals.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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A logical switching MB is established, with an "ON/OFF" switching function. In this study, thiolated DNA can participate as a switching controller to regulate the fluorescent increments of other DNA input signals. Assisted by gold nanoparticles and DNA branch migration, one and two-switch systems have been achieved.
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Directed metalation cascade to access highly functionalized thieno[2,3-f]benzofuran and exploration as building blocks for organic electronics.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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A tandem directed metalation has been successfully applied to the preparation of thieno[2,3-f]benzofuran-4,8-dione, providing an efficient and facile approach to symmetrically and unsymmetrically functionalize the thieno[2,3-f]benzofuran core at the 2,6 positions as well as to introduce the electron-withdrawing or -donating groups (EWG or EDG) at its 4,8 positions. The presence of various functional groups makes late-stage derivatization attainable.
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[Family-based association study of a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of DAT1 gene with Tourette syndrome in a Chinese Han population].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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To assess the association of a 40 bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism within 3 untranslated region of dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) with Tourette syndrome (TS) in a Chinese Han population.
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[Toxicity of 50% ethanol salt powder of niclosamide on growth of silkworms].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To observe the toxity of niclosamide on the growth of silkworms.
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[Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of macrophage migration inhibitory factor-rs1007888 and the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene-rs1007888 and the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
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Electroacupuncture regulates apoptosis/proliferation of intramuscular interstitial cells of cajal and restores colonic motility in diabetic constipation rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Injury of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is associated with gut dysmotility in diabetic rats. We have shown an acceleration of the colonic contractility by electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS). However, little is known about potential roles of EAS on colonic transit and ICC. In this study, we evaluate the effect of EAS on colonic transit and investigate whether apoptosis/proliferation of ICC was involved in regulative effect of EAS on colonic transit. Rats were randomly assigned to normal, diabetic, diabetic-plus-sham stimulation, diabetic-plus-low-frequency stimulation, and diabetic-plus-high-frequency stimulation groups. Bead expulsion test was used for measuring the distal colonic transit. The Kit (ICC marker) was detected by western blot. Apoptotic ICC was detected by terminal dUTP nucleotide end labeling. Proliferating ICC was identified by Kit/Ki67 double immunofluorescent staining on whole mount preparations. Ultrastructure changes of ICC were studied using electron microscopy. Results showed that high-frequency stimulation significantly promoted colonic transit. Low- and high-frequency stimulation markedly rescued intramuscular ICC from apoptosis. Abundant proliferating intramuscular ICC was found in low- and high-frequency stimulation groups. Our results indicate that high-frequency EAS has stimulatory effect on the distal colonic transit, which may be mediated by downregulation of the apoptosis and upregulation of the proliferation of intramuscular ICC.
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Soluble interleukin-6 receptor-mediated innate immune response to DNA and RNA viruses.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, which exists as membrane-bound and soluble forms, plays critical roles in the immune response. The soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL6R) has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for preventing coronary heart disease. However, little is known about the role of this receptor during viral infection. In this study, we show that sIL6R, but not IL-6, is induced by viral infection via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. Interestingly, sIL6R, but not IL-6, exhibited extensive antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses, including hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, human enterovirus 71, and vesicular stomatitis virus. No synergistic effects on antiviral action were observed by combining sIL6R and IL-6. Furthermore, sIL6R mediated antiviral action via the p28 pathway and induced alpha interferon (IFN-?) by promoting the nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-?B, which led to the activation of downstream IFN effectors, including 2,5-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and myxovirus resistance protein (Mx). Thus, our results demonstrate that sIL6R, but not IL-6, plays an important role in the host antiviral response.
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A new veno-venous bypass type for ex-vivo liver resection in dogs.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Ex-vivo liver resection is a procedure in which the liver is completely removed, perfused and after bench surgery, the liver is autotransplanted to the original site. Ex-vivo liver resection is an important treatment for unresectable liver tumors. This surgical procedure requires long operation time, during which blood flow must be carefully maintained to avoid venous congestion. An effective veno-venous bypass (VVB) may meet this requirement. The present study was to test our new designed VVB device which comprised one heparinized polyvinylchloride tube and three magnetic rings. The efficacy of this device was tested in five dogs. A VVB was established in 6-10 minutes. There was no leakage during the procedure. Hemodynamics was stable at anhepatic phase, which indicated that the bypass was successful. This newly-developed VVB device maintained circulation stability during ex-vivo liver resection in our dog model and thus, this VVB device significantly shortened the operation time.
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Bifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for analysis of aldehyde metabolites in exhaled breath of lung cancer patients.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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We report here the preparation of dual-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, with the nanoparticles as extraction sorbents, a magnetic solid phase extraction method was developed and applied for the analysis of trace amount of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensate. In the material, octyl-functionalized internal surface provided hydrophobic groups for extraction, non-ionic surfactant (Tween-20)-coated outer surface offered hydrophilic network structure to prevent the access of macromolecules, strong magnetic property of nanoparticles simplified the analytical procedure. The experimental results showed that the prepared nanoparticles exhibited good dispersibility in aqueous solution and excellent extraction efficiency toward aldehydes. Six aldehydes were derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then the formed hydrazones were extracted by the nanoparticles and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array detector. Under the optimal conditions, the method provided low limits of detection (2.9-21.5nmolL(-1)), satisfactory reproducibility (relative standard deviations, 2.9-13.1%) and acceptable recoveries (73.7-133.1%). The developed method was applied successfully to determine the aldehydes metabolites in the exhaled breath condensate samples of healthy people and lung cancer patients. The dual-functionalized material is suitable for biological sample analysis. The proposed method provides an alternative approach for quantification of aldehyde metabolites in complex biological samples.
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Unprecedented trapping of difluorooctamolybdate anions within an ?-polonium type coordination network.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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New fluorinated hybrid solids [Mo2F2O5(tr2pr)] (1), [Co3(tr2pr)2(MoO4)2F2]·7H2O (2), and [Co3(H2O)2(tr2pr)3(Mo8O26F2)]·3H2O (3) (tr2pr = 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)propane) were prepared from the reaction systems consisting of Co(OAc)2/CoF2 and MoO3/(NH4)6Mo7O24, as Co(II) and Mo(VI) sources, in water (2) or in aqueous HF (1, 3) employing mild hydrothermal conditions. The tr2pr ligand serves as a conformationally flexible tetradentate donor. In complex 1, the octahedrally coordinated Mo atoms are linked in the discrete corner-sharing {Mo2(?2-O)F2O4N4} unit in which a pair of tr-heterocycles (tr = 1,2,4-triazole) is arranged in cis-positions opposite to "molybdenyl" oxygen atoms. The anti-anti conformation type of tr2pr facilitates the tight zigzag chain packing motif. The crystal structure of the mixed-anion complex salt 2 consists of trinuclear [Co3(?3-MoO4)2(?2-F)2] units self-assembling in Co(II)-undulating chains (Co···Co 3.0709(15) and 3.3596(7) Å), which are cross-linked by tr2pr in layers. In 3, containing condensed oxyfluoromolybdate species, linear centrosymmetric [Co3(?2-tr)6](6+) SBUs are organized at distances of 10.72-12.45 Å in an ?-Po-like network using bitopic tr-linkers. The octahedral {N6} and {N3O3} environments of the central and peripheral cobalt atoms, respectively, are filled by triazole N atoms, water molecules, and coordinating [Mo8O26F2](6-) anions. Acting as a tetradentate O-donor, each difluorooctamolybdate anion anchors four [Co3(?2-tr)6](6+) units through their peripheral Co-sites, which consequently leads to a novel type of a two-nodal 4,10-c net with the Schläfli symbol {3(2).4(3).5}{3(4).4(20).5(16).6(5)}. The 2D and 3D coordination networks of 2 and 3, respectively, are characterized by significant overall antiferromagnetic exchange interactions (J/k) between the Co(II) spin centers on the order of -8 and -4 K. The [Mo8O26F2](6-) anion is investigated in detail by quantum chemical calculations.
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The learning curve for laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly: a single surgeons experience.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) for massive splenomegaly is more technically challenging than for a normal-sized spleen. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of operative experience on perioperative outcomes of LS for massive splenomegaly.
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Fluorescent nanoparticle beacon for logic gate operation regulated by strand displacement.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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A mechanism is developed to construct a logic system by employing DNA/gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates as a basic work unit, utilizing a fluorescent beacon probe to detect output signals. To implement the logic circuit, a self-assembly DNA structure is attached onto nanoparticles to form the fluorescent beacon. Moreover, assisted by regulation of multilevel strand displacement, cascaded logic gates are achieved. The computing results are detected by methods using fluorescent signals, gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This work is expected to demonstrate the feasibility of the cascaded logic system based on fluorescent nanoparticle beacons, suggesting applications in DNA computation and biotechnology.
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MicroRNA-26 was decreased in rat cardiac hypertrophy model and may be a promising therapeutic target.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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: MicroRNA (miR)-26 was found to be downregulated in cardiac diseases. In this study, the critical role of miR-26 in myocardial hypertrophy in both in vivo and in vitro was investigated. Sixteen male Wistar rats that underwent sham or transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAAC) surgery were divided into control or TAAC group. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Our study demonstrated that miR-26a/b was downregulated in both TAAC rat model and cardiomyocytes. The results of luciferase assays also suggested that glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) may be a direct target of miR-26. The overexpression of miR-26 attenuated GSK3? expression and inhibited myocardial hypertrophy. The downregulation of miR-26 reversed these effects. Furthermore, silence of GSK3? gene phenocopied the anti-hypertrophy effects of miR-26, whereas overexpression of this protein attenuated the effects of miR-26. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-26 regulates pathological structural changes in the rat heart, which may be associated with suppression of the GSK3? signaling pathway, and implicate the potential application of miR-26 in diagnosis and therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.
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PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling is involved in (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling promotes cell survival, proliferation and progression in cancer cells. Targeting this pathway may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for human cancers. Here, we examined the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in pancreatic cancer cells, and assessed its therapeutic potential. In this study, the proliferation and apoptosis of PANC-1 cells were examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of genes and proteins involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway were measured by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Our results revealed that EGCG dramatically inhibited the proliferation of PANC-1 cells and induced apoptosis simultaneously. Furthermore, it upregulated PTEN mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as downregulating the expression of phospho-AKT and phospho-mTOR. In conclusion, these results suggest that EGCG can suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis of PANC-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; moreover, EGCG also can upregulate PTEN expression and downregulate the expression of pAKT and p-mTOR to modulate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
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miR-10a restores human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by repressing KLF4.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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miRNAs have recently been shown to play a significant role in human aging. However, data demonstrating the effects of aging-related miRNAs in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are limited. We observed that hMSC differentiation decreased with aging. We also identified that miR-10a expression was significantly decreased with age by comparing the miRNA expression of hMSCs derived from young and aged individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the downregulation of miR-10a may be associated with the decreased differentiation capability of hMSCs from aged individuals. Lentiviral constructs were used to up- or downregulate miR-10a in young and old hMSCs. Upregulation of miR-10a resulted in increased differentiation to adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and in reduced cell senescence. Conversely, downregulation of miR-10a resulted in decreased cell differentiation and increased cell senescence. A chimeric luciferase reporter system was generated, tagged with the full-length 3-UTR region of KLF4 harboring the seed-matched sequence with or without four nucleotide mutations. These constructs were cotransfected with the miR-10a mimic into cells. The luciferase activity was significantly repressed by the miR-10a mimic, proving the direct binding of miR-10a to the 3-UTR of KLF4. Direct suppression of KLF4 in aged hMSCs increased cell differentiation and decreased cell senescence. In conclusion, miR-10a restores the differentiation capability of aged hMSCs through repression of KLF4. Aging-related miRNAs may have broad applications in the restoration of cell dysfunction caused by aging.
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Sutureless anastomoses using magnetic rings in canine liver transplantation model.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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In the first posttransplant month, the most frequent complications are due to technical problems related to complex vascular and bile duct reconstructions during the operation. Moreover, despite great improvements in suturing technique and materials, severe organ ischemia-reperfusion caused by time-consuming hand suturing is still an important factor in graft survival. During the operation, severe hypotension, hypoxic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and renal dysfunction may occur during the anhepatic phase due to the prolonged venous clamping time required for hand suturing. Therefore, hand suturing is a handicap in the development of further advancements in liver transplantation. In this study, we aimed to test a new "mechanical installation method" for rapid vascular reconstruction.
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Probing charge transfer in benzodifuran-C60 dumbbell-type electron donor-acceptor conjugates: ground- and excited-state assays.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Rigid electron donor-acceptor conjugates (1-3) that combine ?-extended benzodifurans as electron donors and C60 molecules as electron acceptors with different linkers have been synthesized and investigated with respect to intramolecular charge-transfer events. Electrochemistry, fluorescence, and transient absorption measurements revealed tunable and structure-dependent charge-transfer processes in the ground and excited states. Our experimental findings are underpinned by density-functional theory calculations.
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HCV-induced miR-21 contributes to evasion of host immune system by targeting MyD88 and IRAK1.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Upon recognition of viral components by pattern recognition receptors, such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases, cells are activated to produce type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. In this study, we revealed a novel mechanism in which hepatitis C virus (HCV) evades the immune surveillance system to proliferate by activating microRNA-21 (miR-21). We demonstrated that HCV infection upregulates miR-21, which in turn suppresses HCV-triggered type I IFN production, thus promoting HCV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-21 targets two important factors in the TLR signaling pathway, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), which are involved in HCV-induced type I IFN production. HCV-mediated activation of miR-21 expression requires viral proteins and several signaling components. Moreover, we identified a transcription factor, activating protein-1 (AP-1), which is partly responsible for miR-21 induction in response to HCV infection through PKC?/JNK/c-Jun and PKC?/ERK/c-Fos cascades. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-21 is upregulated during HCV infection and negatively regulates IFN-? signaling through MyD88 and IRAK1 and may be a potential therapeutic target for antiviral intervention.
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Insulin-like growth factor 1 opposes the effects of C-reactive protein on endothelial cell activation.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Emerging evidence demonstrates that high plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or low plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations may be separately associated with the increased risk of coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction. Interestingly, animal model studies and epidemiological investigations indicate that circulating IGF-1 and CRP levels have an inverse correlation. The present study aims to evaluate if IGF-1 can directly oppose the effects of CRP on endothelial cell (EC) activation. We found that IGF-1 rescues endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and decreases the release of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 from ECs. We also showed that IGF-1 antagonizes the effects of CRP by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppressing the JNK/c-Jun and MAPK p38/ATF2 signaling pathways, rather than inhibiting ERK1/2 activity. These findings provide evidence of the physiopathological mechanisms of endothelial activation and novel insights into the protective properties of IGF-1.
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Simultaneous electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid based on graphene anchored with Pd-Pt nanoparticles.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles anchored on functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanomaterials were synthesized via a one-step in situ reduction process, in which Pt and Pd ions were first attached to poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) sheets, and then the encased metal ions and GO were subjected to simultaneous reduction by ethylene glycol. The as-prepared Pd3Pt1/PDDA-RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. In addition, an electrochemical sensor based on the graphene nanocomposites was fabricated for the simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) in their ternary mixture. Three well-separated voltammetric peaks along with remarkable increasing electro-oxidation currents were obtained in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements. Under the optimized conditions, there were linear relationships between the peak currents and the concentrations in the range of 40-1200?M for AA, 4-200?M for DA and 4-400?M for UA, with the limit of detection (LOD) (based on S/N=3) of 0.61, 0.04 and 0.10?M for AA, DA and UA, respectively. This improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of metallic nanoparticles and RGO and the combination of the bimetallic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the practical electroanalytical utility of the sensor was demonstrated by the determination of AA, DA and together with UA in human urine and blood serum samples with satisfactory results.
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Gastrointestinal symptoms and associated factors in Chinese patients with functional dyspepsia.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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To study the evolution of gastrointestinal symptoms and associated factors in Chinese patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).
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Computational study of chain transfer to monomer reactions in high-temperature polymerization of alkyl acrylates.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This article presents a computational study of chain transfer to monomer (CTM) reactions in self-initiated high-temperature homopolymerization of alkyl acrylates (methyl, ethyl, and n-butyl acrylate). Several mechanisms of CTM are studied. The effects of the length of live polymer chains and the type of monoradical that initiated the live polymer chains on the energy barriers and rate constants of the involved reaction steps are investigated theoretically. All calculations are carried out using density functional theory. Three types of hybrid functionals (B3LYP, X3LYP, and M06-2X) and four basis sets (6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d), and 6-311G(d,p)) are applied to predict the molecular geometries of the reactants, products and transition sates, and energy barriers. Transition state theory is used to estimate rate constants. The results indicate that abstraction of a hydrogen atom (by live polymer chains) from the methyl group in methyl acrylate, the methylene group in ethyl acrylate, and methylene groups in n-butyl acrylate are the most likely mechanisms of CTM. Also, the rate constants of CTM reactions calculated using M06-2X are in good agreement with those estimated from polymer sample measurements using macroscopic mechanistic models. The rate constant values do not change significantly with the length of live polymer chains. Abstraction of a hydrogen atom by a tertiary radical has a higher energy barrier than abstraction by a secondary radical, which agrees with experimental findings. The calculated and experimental NMR spectra of dead polymer chains produced by CTM reactions are comparable. This theoretical/computational study reveals that CTM occurs most likely via hydrogen abstraction by live polymer chains from the methyl group of methyl acrylate and methylene group(s) of ethyl (n-butyl) acrylate.
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Metabolic profile of puerarin in rats after intragastric administration of puerarin solid lipid nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Puerarin has multiple pharmacological effects and is widely prescribed for patients with cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia, diabetes mellitus, and arteriosclerosis. We have successfully prepared puerarin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Pue-SLNs) for oral administration. Pue-SLNs are prepared using monostearin, soya lecithin, and poloxamer 188. SLNs may alter the course of puerarin absorption predominantly to and through lymphatic routes and regions, presumably following a transcellular path of lipid absorption, especially by enterocytes and polar epithelial cells of the intestine. The alteration of absorption might influence the metabolic profile of puerarin when incorporated into SLNs. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic profile of puerarin in rat plasma and urine using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after a single-dose intragastric administration of Pue-SLNs in comparison with puerarin suspension. Two glucuronidated metabolites of puerarin, puerarin-4-O-glucuronide and puerarin-7-O-glucuronide, were detected in rat plasma and urine after intragastric administration of Pue-SLNs, with the latter acting as the major metabolite. Similar results were found in rat plasma and urine after intragastric administration of puerarin suspension. The results suggest that incorporation of puerarin into SLNs does not change either the position of glucuronidation or the metabolic pathway of puerarin in rats.
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Effect of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism on pharmacokinetic drug interaction between tacrolimus and amlodipine.
Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the CYP3A5*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and amlodipine, and drug-drug interactions between them in healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between tacrolimus and amlodipine were evaluated in a randomized, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy Chinese volunteers according to CYP3A5 genotype. A single-dose and multiple-dose study were designed. A 96-h pharmacokinetic study followed either tacrolimus or amlodipine dose, and the washout periods between the study phases were 14 days. In the single-dose study, apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of tacrolimus (5 mg) in CYP3A5 expressers was 3.8-fold (p = 0.008) higher than that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Amlodipine decreased mean tacrolimus CL/F in CYP3A5 expressers by 2.2-fold (p = 0.005), while it had no effect on that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CL/F of amlodipine in CYP3A5 non-expressers was 2.0-fold (p = 0.001) higher than that in CYP3A5 expressers. Tacrolimus increased mean amlodipine CL/F in CYP3A5 expressers by 1.4-fold (p = 0.016) while it had no effect on that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Tacrolimus slightly reduced the AUC?-? of amlodipine in both CYP3A5 expressers and non-expressers. Dose adjustment of tacrolimus should be considered according to CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism when tacrolimus is coadministered with amlodipine.
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