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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sex Difference for Urologic Malignancy Risk in Uremic Patients After Kidney Transplantation: A Population-Based Study.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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High urologic malignancy incidence has been reported in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, especially of female sex. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether female recipients still carry an aggravated risk of this malignancy after kidney transplantation (KT).
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Long-term prognosis of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning: a nationwide cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) often produces severe complications and can be fatal. Because this topic has not been well delineated, we investigated long-term prognoses of patients with COP (COP[+]).
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Peptic ulcer as a risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia in adult patients with herpes zoster.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster. Identifying predictors for postherpetic neuralgia may help physicians screen herpes zoster patients at risk of postherpetic neuralgia and undertake preventive strategies. Peptic ulcer has been linked to immunological dysfunctions and malnutrition, both of which are predictors of postherpetic neuralgia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine whether adult herpes zoster patients with peptic ulcer were at greater risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Adult zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia patients were automatically selected from a medical center's electronic database using herpes zoster/postherpetic neuralgia ICD-9 codes supported with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consequently, medical record review was performed to validate the diagnostic codes and all pertaining data including peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medications. Because no standard pain intensity measurement exists, opioid usage was used as a proxy measurement for moderate to severe pain. In total, 410 zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and 115 postherpetic neuralgia patients were included. Multivariate logistic regressions identified 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain as independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia. Among etiologies of peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and usage of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly associated with the increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia; conversely, other etiologies were not significantly associated with the postherpetic neuralgia risk. In conclusion, 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain are independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia in adult herpes zoster patients. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The risk of acute coronary syndrome after retinal artery occlusion: a population-based cohort study.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) following retinal artery occlusion (RAO).
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Risk of head and neck cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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An increasing body of evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) in patients with DM has seldom been explored.
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Probing Water Environment of Trp59 in Ribonuclease T1: Insight of the Structure-Water Network Relationship.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In this study, we used the tryptophan analogue, (2,7-aza)Trp, which exhibits water catalyzed proton transfer isomerization among N(1)-H, N(7)-H, and N(2)-H isomers, to probe the water environment of tryptophan-59 (Trp59) near the connecting loop region of ribonuclease Tl (RNase T1) by replacing the tryptophan with (2,7-aza)Trp. The resulting (2,7-aza)Trp59 triple emission bands and their associated relaxation dynamics, together with relevant data of 7-azatryptophan and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, lead us to propose two Trp59 containing conformers in RNase T1, namely, the loop-close and loop-open forms. Water is rich in the loop-open form around the proximity of (2,7-aza)Trp59, which catalyzes (2,7-aza)Trp59 proton transfer in the excited state, giving both N(1)-H and N(7)-H isomer emissions. The existence of N(2)-H isomer in the loop-open form, supported by the MD simulation, is mainly due to the specific hydrogen bonding between N(2)-H proton and water molecule that bridges N(2)-H and the amide oxygen of Pro60, forming a strong network. The loop-close form is relatively tight in space, which squeezes water molecules out of the interface of ?-helix and ?2 strand, joined by the connecting loop region; accordingly, the water-scant environment leads to the sole existence of the N(1)-H isomer emission. MD simulation also points out that the Trp-water pairs appear to preferentially participate in a hydrogen bond network incorporating polar amino acid moieties on the protein surface and bulk waters, providing the structural dynamic features of the connecting loop region in RNase T1.
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Obstructive sleep apnea and risk of osteoporosis: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases. It is characterized by repetitive episodes of apnea/hypopnea and hypoxia in tissues, which might also impact bone metabolism. This study investigates the possible association between OSA and osteoporosis.
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Insomnia subtypes and the subsequent risks of stroke: report from a nationally representative cohort.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The studies assessing the impact of insomnia on stroke are still lacking. We aim to investigate insomnia in relation to subsequent stroke during the 4-year follow-up.
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Effect of metformin on the incidence of head and neck cancer in diabetics.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of metformin on head and neck cancer in patients with diabetes.
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Induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1) by garcinol via downregulation of p38-MAPK signaling in p53-independent H1299 lung cancer.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone, from Garcinia indica fruit rind has possessed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferation, and anticancer activities. However, the anticancer mechanisms of garcinol in lung cancer were still unclear. Therefore, we examine the effects of garcinol on antiproliferation in human lung cancer cells. Treatments with garcinol for 24 h exhibited morphological changes and inhibited the proliferation of H460 (p53-wild type) and H1299 (p53-null) cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, a significant G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in a dose-dependent treatment after H1299 cells were exposed in garcinol, whereas garcinol induced apoptosis rather than cell cycle arrest in H460 cells. Moreover, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), cyclin D1, and cyclin D3 were decreased, although cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) were increased in garcinol-treated H1299 cells. Meanwhile, the protein levels of CDK inhibitors p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(KIP1) also exhibited upregulation after garcinol treatments. The enhanced protein-associated level between p21(Waf1/Cip1) and CDK4/2 rather than p27(KIP1) and CDK4/2 was demonstrated in garcinol-treated cells. Additionally, knock-down p21(Waf1/Cip1) by specific siRNA competently prevented garcinol-induced G1 arrest. Besides, garcinol also inhibited ERK and p38-MAPK activations in time-dependent mode. The pretreatment with p38-MAPK inhibitor but not ERK inhibitor raised garcinol-induced G1 population cells. Co-treatment with p38-MAPK inhibitor and garcinol synergistically elevated cyclin E, p21(Waf1/Cip1), and p27(Kip1) expressions. Meanwhile, overexpression dominant negative p38-MAPK also enhanced garcinol-induced p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression in H1299 cells. Accordingly, our data suggested that garcinol induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer cells under different p53 statuses. The p53-independent G1 cell cycle arrest induced by garcinol might be through upregulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) triggered from p38-MAPK signaling inactivation.
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Trends in reoperation for female stress urinary incontinence: A nationwide study.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Using the National Health Insurance (NHI) database in Taiwan, the study aimed to evaluate the rates and associated factors for reoperation of female stress incontinence.
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Association between mechanical ventilation and neurodevelopmental disorders in a nationwide cohort of extremely low birth weight infants.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Mechanical ventilation for preterm infants independently contributes to poor neurodevelopmental performance. However, few studies have investigated the association between the duration of mechanical ventilation and the risk for various developmental disorders in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (<1000g) infants. Using a large nationwide database, we did a 10-year retrospective follow-up study to explore the effect of mechanical ventilation on the incidence of cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in ELBW infants born between 1998 and 2001. Seven hundred twenty-eight ELBW infants without diagnoses of brain insults or focal brain lesions in the initial hospital stay were identified and divided into three groups (days on ventilator: ?2, 3-14, ?15 days). After adjusting for demographic and medical factors, the infants in the ?15 days group had higher risks for CP (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.50-4.59; p<0.001) and ADHD (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-3.76; p<0.05), than did infants in the ?2 days group. The risk for ASD or ID was not significantly different between the three groups. We conclude that mechanical ventilation for ?15 days increased the risk for CP and ADHD in ELBW infants even without significant neonatal brain damage. Developing a brain-protective respiratory support strategy in response to real-time cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes has the potential to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in ELBW infants.
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The surgical trends and time-frame comparison of primary surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2006-2010 vs 1997-2005: a population-based nation-wide follow-up descriptive study.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The purpose of our study was to describe the surgical trends for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during 2006-2010, and a time-frame comparison with 1997-2005, based upon the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data in Taiwan.
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Erectile dysfunction and risk of end stage renal disease requiring dialysis: a nationwide population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have suggested that erectile dysfunction (ED) is an independent risk factor for macrovascular disease. Very few studies have evaluated the relationship between ED and risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis.
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Renal transplantation: relationship between hospital/surgeon volume and postoperative severe sepsis/graft-failure. a nationwide population-based study.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTS: We explored the relationship between hospital/surgeon volume and postoperative severe sepsis/graft-failure (including death).
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Epidemiology of treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal treated prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults.
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What's in the pipeline? Drugs in development for autism spectrum disorder.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with both core symptoms and associated symptoms (eg, irritability, aggression, and comorbidities) that affect both the individual and the family/systems around them. There have been recent advances in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of ASD pertaining to genetics, epigenetics, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors that contribute to the difficulties found in individuals with ASD. With this improved understanding, there has been a shift in the application of psychopharmacology in ASD and its related disorders. A literature review was conducted to examine research published in the last 5 years between different classes of psychotropic medications and ASD. The broad scope of the existing literature for the use of conventional medications is summarized and novel medications are discussed.
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Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of atopic dermatitis: a population-based case control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with systemic inflammation and induces various comorbid medical diseases. To date, no study has explored the relationship between OSA and atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory and autoimmune skin disorder. This study investigated the longitudinal risk for AD in patients with OSA.
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Epidemiology and mortality among dialysis patients with parathyroidectomy: Taiwan ?National Cohort Study.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Background and objectives: Parathyroidectomy (PTx) is usually necessary in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. Risk factors for higher PTx rates are controversial. The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors for PTx in patients on dialysis and evaluate the mortality after PTx.  ?Methods: We analyzed data obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 35,162 ESRD dialysis patients. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the incidence of PTx and survival rate after PTx. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify the risk factors.  ?Results: The PTx rate was 8.09 per 1,000 patient-years. Stratified on the basis of gender and diabetic mellitus (DM), the highest incidence rate of PTx was in females without DM. Stratified by age and DM, the highest incidence rate of PTx was in those aged 18-44 years without DM. The significant risk factors for PTx were younger age, female (hazard ratio (HR) 1.409, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.257-1.580), DM (HR 0.479, 95% CI: 0.413-0.555), peritoneal dialysis (HR 1.657, 95% CI: 1.418-1.938) and hypertension (HTN) (HR 1.317, 95% CI: 1.162-1.492). The cumulative survival rates after ?PTx were 97.1%, 94.5%, 82.8% and 77.4% at the first, second, fifth and seventh year, respectively. Only ?age was significantly associated with higher mortality ?after PTx.?Conclusions: Higher PTx rates were found in dialysis ?patients who were female and younger, did not have DM, were on peritoneal dialysis and had HTN. Advanced age was associated with a higher mortality after PTx.
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Epstein-Barr virus is rarely associated with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in Taiwan and carries a trend for a shorter median survival time.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is characterised by frequent extranodal involvement, a morphological spectrum from polymorphous to monomorphous and a poor prognosis. The frequency is higher in Japan and Korea but lower in the West, while the status in Taiwan has not been reported yet.
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Impact of head and neck malignancies on risk factors and survival in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased risk of developing a head and neck malignancy (HNM). A history of SLE did not significantly impact the survival of our study cohort after cancer developed.
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Dipeptide repeat protein pathology in C9ORF72 mutation cases: clinico-pathological correlations.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease. Recently, unconventional non-ATG translation of the expanded hexanucleotide repeat, resulting in the production and aggregation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins (poly-GA, -GR and GP), was identified as a potential pathomechanism of C9ORF72 mutations. Besides accumulation of DPR proteins, the second neuropathological hallmark lesion in C9ORF72 mutation cases is the accumulation of TDP-43. In this study, we characterized novel monoclonal antibodies against poly-GA and performed a detailed analysis of the neuroanatomical distribution of DPR and TDP-43 pathology in a cohort of 35 cases with the C9ORF72 mutation that included a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. We found the pattern of DPR pathology to be highly consistent among cases regardless of the phenotype with high DPR load in the cerebellum, all neocortical regions (frontal, motor cortex and occipital) and hippocampus, moderate pathology in subcortical areas and minimal pathology in lower motor neurons. No correlation between DPR pathology and the degree of neurodegeneration was observed, while a good association between TDP-43 pathology with clinical phenotype and degeneration in key anatomical regions was present. Our data confirm that the presence of DPR pathology is intimately related to C9ORF72 mutations. The observed dissociation between DPR inclusion body load and neurodegeneration might suggest inclusion body formation as a potentially protective response to cope with soluble toxic DPR species. Moreover, our data imply that alterations due to the C9ORF72 mutation resulting in TDP-43 accumulation and dysmetabolism as secondary downstream effects likely play a central role in the neurodegenerative process in C9ORF72 pathogenesis.
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Bidirectional transcripts of the expanded C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat are translated into aggregating dipeptide repeat proteins.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Massive GGGGCC repeat expansion in the first intron of the gene C9orf72 is the most common known cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite its intronic localization and lack of an ATG start codon, the repeat region is translated in all three reading frames into aggregating dipeptide-repeat (DPR) proteins, poly-(Gly-Ala), poly-(Gly-Pro) and poly-(Gly-Arg). We took an antibody-based approach to further validate the translation of DPR proteins. To test whether the antisense repeat RNA transcript is also translated, we raised antibodies against the predicted products, poly-(Ala-Pro) and poly-(Pro-Arg). Both antibodies stained p62-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions throughout the cerebellum and hippocampus indicating that not only sense but also antisense strand repeats are translated into DPR proteins in the absence of ATG start codons. Protein products of both strands co-aggregate suggesting concurrent translation of both strands. Moreover, an antibody targeting the putative carboxyl terminus of DPR proteins can detect inclusion pathology in C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers suggesting that the non-ATG translation continues through the entire repeat and beyond. A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody against poly-(Gly-Arg), visualized abundant inclusion pathology in all cortical regions and some inclusions also in motoneurons. Together, our data show that the GGGGCC repeat is bidirectionally translated into five distinct DPR proteins that co-aggregate in the characteristic p62-positive TDP-43 negative inclusions found in FTLD/ALS cases with C9orf72 repeat expansion. Novel monoclonal antibodies against poly-(Gly-Arg) will facilitate pathological diagnosis of C9orf72 FTLD/ALS.
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Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is correlated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction: a population-based cohort study.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Previous studies have indicated that hypercholesterolemia and a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that SSHL is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction (MI).
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Risk of retinal vein occlusion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort study.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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To investigate the risk of developing retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Increased risk of erectile dysfunction in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a nationwide, population-based cohort study.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Previous studies have proposed that impaired cochlear blood perfusion and microvascular damage are important etiopathogenetic events in the development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that SSHL is a risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED).
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DNA topoisomerase II is involved in regulation of cyst wall protein genes and differentiation in Giardia lamblia.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The protozoan Giardia lamblia differentiates into infectious cysts within the human intestinal tract for disease transmission. Expression of the cyst wall protein (cwp) genes increases with similar kinetics during encystation. However, little is known how their gene regulation shares common mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases maintain normal topology of genomic DNA. They are necessary for cell proliferation and tissue development as they are involved in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome condensation. A putative topoisomerase II (topo II) gene has been identified in the G. lamblia genome. We asked whether Topo II could regulate Giardia encystation. We found that Topo II was present in cell nuclei and its gene was up-regulated during encystation. Topo II has typical ATPase and DNA cleavage activity of type II topoisomerases. Mutation analysis revealed that the catalytic important Tyr residue and cleavage domain are important for Topo II function. We used etoposide-mediated topoisomerase immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of Topo II to the cwp promoters in vivo. Interestingly, Topo II overexpression increased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of cwp and specific vsp genes by Topo II. We also found that the type II topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide has growth inhibition effect on Giardia. Addition of etoposide significantly decreased the levels of cwp gene expression and cyst formation. Our results suggest that Topo II has been functionally conserved during evolution and that Topo II plays important roles in induction of the cwp genes, which is key to Giardia differentiation into cysts.
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Increased risk of deep neck infection among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy---a population-based follow-up study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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BACKGROUND: Deep neck infections (DNIs) in HIV-infected patients often produce severe complications, even death. Data on the incidence rates and risks of DNI among HIV-infected patients are scarce, particularly with the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We evaluated the incidence rates and risks for DNI among HIV-infected patients and observed the long-term trends. METHODS: A total of 9888 new HIV-infected patients diagnosed in 2001--2007 were included and matched with 49440 randomly selected subjects. The HIV-infected subjects were offered free access to HAART. All subjects were traced until December 2009. A Kaplan-Meier analysis generated the cumulative DNI incidence rate. The adjusted hazard ratio was computed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. RESULTS: From the HIV-infected and comparison cohorts, 222 individuals (57.01 cases per 10000 person-years) and 735 individuals (35.54 cases per 10000 person-years) developed DNI, respectively. The log rank test indicated that patients with HIV had a significantly higher 8-year incidence rate of DNI than the control group (P < 0.0001). The adjusted hazard ratio for developing DNI after an HIV attack during the mean 3.94 years follow-up period was 1.59. The incidence rate and relative risk of DNI were 74.58 (per 10000 person-years) and 2.05 (P < 0.0001). Both figures were highest in the first follow-up year and decreased year-by-year thereafter. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing DNI is significantly elevated among HIV-infected patients, even with free access to HAART. Additional research is needed to examine the role of HAART in reducing the risk.
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A microfluidic device mimicking acinar concentration gradients across the liver acinus.
Biomed Microdevices
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The acinus-mimicking microfluidic chip, which simulates the in vivo condition of the liver, was developed and reported in this paper. The gradient microenvironment of the liver acinus is replicated within this proposed microfluidic chip. The advantage of this acinus-mimicking chip is capable of adjusting the concentration gradient in a relatively short period of time at around 10 s. At the same instance the non-linear concentration gradient can be presented in the various zones within this microfluidic chip. The other advantage of this proposed design is in the convenience of allowing the direct injection of the cells into the chip. The environment within the chip is multi-welled and gel-free with high cell density. The multi-row pillar microstructure located at the entrance of the top and bottom flow channels is designed to be able to balance the pressure of the perfusion medium. Through this mechanism the shear stress experienced by the cultured cells can be minimized to reduce the potential damage flow from the perfusion process. ((3))The fluorescence staining and the observations of the cell morphology verify the life and death of the cells. The shear stress experienced by the cells in the various zones within the chip can be effectively mapped. The serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) collected from the supernatants was used to determine the effects of the degassing process and the shear stress of the medium flow on the cultured cells.
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Increased risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with human immunodeficiency virus aged 18 to 35 years: a population-based cohort study.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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No case series or cohort studies to date in the English literature have evaluated sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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The C9orf72 GGGGCC repeat is translated into aggregating dipeptide-repeat proteins in FTLD/ALS.
Science
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Expansion of a GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat upstream of the C9orf72 coding region is the most common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTLD/ALS), but the pathomechanisms involved are unknown. As in other FTLD/ALS variants, characteristic intracellular inclusions of misfolded proteins define C9orf72 pathology, but the core proteins of the majority of inclusions are still unknown. Here, we found that most of these characteristic inclusions contain poly-(Gly-Ala) and, to a lesser extent, poly-(Gly-Pro) and poly-(Gly-Arg) dipeptide-repeat proteins presumably generated by non-ATG-initiated translation from the expanded GGGGCC repeat in three reading frames. These findings directly link the FTLD/ALS-associated genetic mutation to the predominant pathology in patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansion.
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Longitudinal trends of the healthcare-seeking prevalence and incidence of insomnia in Taiwan: an 8-year nationally representative study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal healthcare-seeking prevalence and incidence of insomnia.
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Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for urticaria in Taiwan during 2009: analysis of the national health insurance database.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Large-scale pharmaco-epidemiological studies of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treatment of urticaria are few, even though clinical trials showed some CHM are effective. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequencies and patterns of CHM prescriptions for urticaria by analysing the population-based CHM database in Taiwan.
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Medical attendance for lower urinary tract symptoms is associated with subsequent increased risk of outpatient visits and hospitalizations based on a nationwide population-based database.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which encompass storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, are highly prevalent and recognized globally. Based on a nationwide population-based database, this study tests the hypothesis that medical attendance for LUTS is associated with a subsequent increase in the number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations, with differences among medical specialties and age groups.
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Cancer survival in patients with HIV/AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Taiwan: a population-based cohort study.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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HIV-related immunosuppression has been associated with the development of AIDS-defining malignancies. We examined the overall survival of HIV-infected patients who developed cancer.
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UV-induced effects on chlorination of creatinine.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is commonly employed for water treatment in swimming pools to complement conventional chlorination, and to reduce the concentration of inorganic chloramine compounds. The approach of combining UV irradiation and chlorination has the potential to improve water quality, as defined by microbial composition. However, relatively little is known about the effects of this process on water chemistry. To address this issue, experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sequential UV254 irradiation/chlorination, as will occur in recirculating system of swimming pools, on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Creatinine, which is present in human sweat and urine, was selected as the target precursor for these experiments. Enhanced formation of dichloromethylamine (CH3NCl2) and inorganic chloramines was observed to result from post-chlorination of UV-irradiated samples. Chlorocreatinine was found to be more sensitive to UV254 irradiation than creatinine; UV254 irradiation of chlorocreatinine resulted in opening of the ring structure, thereby yielding a series of intermediates that were more susceptible to free chlorine attack than their parent compound. The quantum yields for photodegradation of creatinine and chlorocreatinine at 254 nm were estimated at 0.011 ± 0.002 mol/E and 0.144 ± 0.011 mol/E, respectively. The N-Cl bond was found to be common to UV-sensitive chlorinated compounds (e.g., inorganic chloramines, CH3NCl2, and chlorocreatinine); compounds that were less susceptible to UV-based attack generally lacked the N-Cl bond. This suggested that the N-Cl bond is susceptible to UV254 irradiation, and cleavage of the N-Cl bond appears to open or promote reaction pathways that involve free chlorine, thereby enhancing formation of some DBPs and promoting loss of free chlorine. Proposed reaction mechanisms to describe this behavior based on creatinine as a precursor are presented.
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Risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A population-based cohort study.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the risk of developing of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was conducted. From 2001 to 2006, 9121 patients with newly diagnosed NPC and 45,605 comparison subjects without NPC were selected. The incidence of SSHL at the end of 2009 was determined. RESULTS: The incidence of SSHL was 6.53-fold higher in the NPC group compared to the non-NPC group (p < .001). Using Cox proportional hazard regressions, the risk of developing SSHL increased with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 6.747 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.366-8.484) in patients with NPC compared with patients without NPC. CONCLUSION: NPC was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing SSHL. The risk of developing SSHL increased over follow-up time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
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Risk of second primary malignancies after nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) after nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: We compared the incidence of SPM in patients diagnosed with NPC at the end of 2009 using the data extracted from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database between 2001 and 2008 (n = 10,299), with age-matched controls (1:10; n = 102,990). RESULTS: We found a 55% increased risk of SPM in patients diagnosed with NPC, compared to the risk of first malignancy in the age-matched controls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.55; p < .0001). Although the diagnosis of SPM was negatively correlated with the survival of patients with NPC (p = .0011), primary NPC did not display any synergic effect on the survival of patients with SPM, compared to age-matched controls with a newly diagnosed malignancy (p = .8986). CONCLUSION: NPC is associated with an increased risk of developing an SPM. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
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Role for gender in colorectal cancer risk: a Taiwan population-based study.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Gender differences in the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain controversial. The aim of this study was to complete a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in CRC survival derived from population registries in Taiwan.
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Higher prevalence of autism in Taiwanese children born prematurely: a nationwide population-based study.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The reported prevalence of autism in preterm and full-term children varies partially because of small sample sizes. Moreover, little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the risk of autism in preterm children. We aimed to compare the prevalence of autism in preterm and full-term children and to identify neonatal risk factors for autism in preterm children using a large national health system database. We analyzed data from 1078 early preterm (<28 weeks of gestation or birth weight<1000 g), 28,947 later preterm (28-36 weeks), and 1,104,071 full-term (? 37 weeks) children who were 8-11 years old in 2009. The descending order of prevalence was early preterm (2.2%), later preterm (1.3%), and full-term (0.6%). The prevalence of autism was approximately 2-4 times higher in preterm children than in children born at full-term. The male-female ratio (4:1) in preterm and full-term children was not significantly different. Most of the children were first diagnosed with autism between 3 and 6 years old. Preterm children with autism were not diagnosed earlier than were full-term children. Regression analysis showed that male gender, a very low birth weight, and neonatal cerebral dysfunction were risk factors for autism in the preterm group. We conclude that autism is more prevalent in preterm children. Preventing extremely preterm birth and significant early brain insults may be helpful in reducing the risk of autism in preterm children.
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The new comorbidity index for predicting survival in elderly dialysis patients: a long-term population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The worldwide elderly (? 65 years old) dialysis population has grown significantly. This population is expected to have more comorbid conditions and shorter life expectancies than the general elderly population. Predicting outcomes for this population is important for decision-making. Recently, a new comorbidity index (nCI) with good predictive value for patient outcomes was developed and validated in chronic dialysis patients regardless of age. Our study examined the nCI outcome predictability in elderly dialysis patients.
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Risk of hospitalization for acute cardiovascular events among subjects with lower urinary tract symptoms: a nationwide population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and may predispose subjects to cardiovascular disease. The magnitude of the impact on the medical care remains to be elucidated. Based on a population-based claims dataset in Taiwan, we explored the association between LUTS and the risk of subsequent hospitalization for acute cardiovascular events.
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Rab5 and class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase Vps34 are involved in hepatitis C virus NS4B-induced autophagy.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Autophagy has been shown to facilitate replication or production of hepatitis C virus (HCV); nevertheless, how HCV induces autophagy remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HCV nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) alone can induce autophagy signaling; amino acid residues 1 to 190 of NS4B are sufficient for this induction. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation levels of S6K and 4E-BP1 were not altered, suggesting that the mTOR/S6 kinase pathway and mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway did not contribute to NS4B- or HCV-induced autophagy. Inhibition of Rab5 function by silencing Rab5 or overexpressing dominant-negative Rab5 mutant (S34N) resulted in significant reduction of NS4B- or HCV-induced autophagic vesicle formation. Moreover, the autophagy induction was impaired by inhibition of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) Vps34 function. Finally, the coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that NS4B formed a complex with Rab5 and Vps34, supporting the notion that Rab5 and Vps34 are involved in NS4B-induced autophagy. Taken together, these results not only reveal a novel role of NS4B in autophagy but also offer a clue to the mechanism of HCV-induced autophagy.
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Dietary patterns affect lung cancer risk in never smokers.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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A number of studies suggest a role of dietary factors as risk predictors of lung cancer in never smokers. However, it is difficult to interpret the observed associations of lung cancer risk with any particular dietary item due to high correlation among different dietary items. In this study, we derived uncorrelated patterns of dietary items in the never smokers and evaluated the association of these patterns with lung cancer risk, using food frequency data from 299 never-smoker lung cancer patients and 317 controls enrolled in an ongoing case-control lung cancer study. We identified 2 major dietary patterns in never smokers: a "healthy eating" pattern including vegetables, fruits, and low-fat food items, and a "mixed dishes" pattern including most foods with positive loadings. Using multivariable regression analysis, we show that the healthy eating pattern is associated with a significant reduction of lung cancer risk among never smokers. The effect of the healthy eating pattern remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, education, caloric intake, secondhand smoke exposure, and family history of cancer. This finding, if confirmed in a prospective study, has a clear preventive significance, by promoting interventions encouraging healthier diets.
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Leak-proof extracorporeal drainage for management of large ovarian tumors.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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To describe our experience with leak-proof extracorporeal drainage through a minilaparotomy for management of large ovarian tumors.
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The impact of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype on the development of resting-state functional connectivity in children and adolescents: a preliminary report.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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A fundamental component of brain development is the formation of large-scale networks across the cortex. One such network, the default network, undergoes a protracted development, displaying weak connectivity in childhood that strengthens in adolescence and becomes most robust in adulthood. Little is known about the genetic contributions to default network connectivity in adulthood or during development. Alterations in connectivity between posterior and frontal portions of the default network have been associated with several psychological disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. These disorders have also been linked to variants of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). The LA allele of 5-HTTLPR results in higher serotonin transporter expression than the S allele or the rarer LG allele. 5-HTTLPR may influence default network connectivity, as the superior medial frontal region has been shown to be sensitive to changes in serotonin. Also, serotonin as a growth factor early in development may alter large-scale networks such as the default network. The present study examined the influence of 5-HTTLPR variants on connectivity between the posterior and frontal structures and its development in a cross-sectional study of 39 healthy children and adolescents. We found that children and adolescents homozygous for the S allele (S/S, n=10) showed weaker connectivity in the superior medial frontal cortex compared to those homozygous for the LA allele (LA/LA, n=13) or heterozygotes (S/LA, S/LG, n=16). Moreover, there was an age-by-genotype interaction, such that those with LA/LA genotype had the steepest age-related increase in connectivity between the posterior hub and superior medial frontal cortex, followed by heterozygotes. In contrast, individuals with the S/S genotype had the least age-related increase in connectivity strength. This preliminary report expands our understanding of the genetic influences on the development of large-scale brain connectivity and lays down the foundation for future research and replication of the results with a larger sample.
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Rett syndrome: from bed to bench.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by delayed-onset loss of spoken language and the development of distinctive hand stereotypies, affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births. Clinical diagnosis has been based on symptoms such as loss of acquired purposeful hand skills, autistic behaviors, motor dysfunctions, seizure disorders, and gait abnormalities. RTT is a genetic disease and is caused almost exclusively by mutations in the X-linked gene, MECP2, to produce a phenotype that is thought to be primarily of neurological origin. Clinical reports show RTT patients to have a smaller brain volume, especially in the cerebral hemispheres, and alterations in various neurotransmitter systems, including acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, substance P, and various trophic factors. Because of its monogenetic characteristic, disruption of Mecp2 is readily recapitulated in mice to produce a prominent RTT-like phenotype and provide an excellent platform for understanding the pathogenesis of RTT. As shown in human studies, Mecp2 mutants also display subtle alterations in neuronal morphology, including smaller cortical neurons with a higher-packing density and reduced dendritic complexity. Neurophysiological studies in Mecp2-mutant mice consistently report alterations in synaptic function, notably, defects in synaptic plasticity. These data suggest that RTT might be regarded as a synaptopathy (disease of the synapse) and thus potentially amenable to rational therapeutic intervention.
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Effects of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene promoter polymorphisms on the risk and clinicopathological development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant neoplasms worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. E-cadherin is an epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and decreased E-cadherin expression in HCC is associated with a poor prognosis. This study investigates the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the E-cadherin/CDH1 gene promoter on the risk and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC METHODS: 131 HCC patients and 347 controls were recruited for this study. Genetic polymorphisms of CDH1-160 and -347 were analyzed by PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis.
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Laparoscopic management of placenta increta after late first-trimester dilation and evacuation manifesting as an unusual uterine mass.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Placenta increta is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The initial symptoms are generally vaginal bleeding during difficult placental removal in the third trimester. However, placenta increta may complicate first- and early second-trimester pregnancy loss. The diagnosis may be difficult during early pregnancy because the lesion is difficult to identify. Herein is reported the case of a woman with a diagnosis of placenta increta that caused prolonged bleeding after a late first-trimester abortion and manifested as an unusual lower segment uterine mass. Management included laparoscopy, and the placental tissue was completely removed successfully and uneventfully.
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Association of smoking with tumor size at diagnosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Tumor size at diagnosis (TSD) indirectly reflects tumor growth rate. The relationship between TSD and smoking is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between smoking and TSD. We reviewed 1712 newly diagnosed and previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients electronic medical records and collected tumor characteristics. Demographic and epidemiologic characteristics were derived from questionnaires administered during personal interviews. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between TSD and smoking controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also investigated the relationship between the rs1051730 SNP in an intron of the CHRNA3 gene (the polymorphism most significantly associated with lung cancer risk and smoking behavior) and TSD. We found a strong dose dependent relationship between TSD and smoking. Current smokers had largest and never smokers smallest TSD with former smokers having intermediate TSD. In the multivariate linear regression model, smoking status (never, former, and current), histological type (adenocarcinoma versus SqCC), and gender were significant predictors of TSD. Smoking duration and intensity may explain the gender effect in predicting TSD. We found that the variant allele of rs1051730 in CHRNA3 gene was associated with larger TSD of squamous cell carcinoma. In the multivariate linear regression model, both rs1051730 and smoking were significant predictors for the size of squamous carcinomas. We conclude that smoking is positively associated with lung tumor size at the moment of diagnosis.
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Interleukin-23 receptor polymorphism as a risk factor for oral cancer susceptibility.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-23 and the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) on the susceptibility to oral cancer.
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Garcinol promotes neurogenesis in rat cortical progenitor cells through the duration of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative found in Garcinia indica fruit rind and other species. The potential antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of garcinol in rat cortical astrocyte were demonstrated in our laboratory recently. Here, the effects of garcinol on the neuritogenesis process in cultured cortical progenitor cells were investigated to understand the roles of garcinol in neuronal survival and differentiation. These cells, derived from embryonic day 17 rats, differentiated into EGF-responsive neural precursor cells, would further form neurospheres. Our data exhibited garcinol induced neurite outgrowth in early developing EGF-treated neurospheres and significantly enhanced the expression of neuronal proteins, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Furthermore, the neuronal marker, high-molecular-weight subunit of neurofilaments (NFH), was highly expressed after 5 ?M garcinol treatment in neural precursor cells for 20 days. To identify the extracellular mechanism, rat cortical progenitor cells were treated garcinol and accordingly mediated the sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) for different periods up to 20 h. In this regard, NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx led to excitotoxic death and activated tyrosine phosphatase which limited the duration of ERK in cultured neurons. MK801, the NMDA receptor antagonist, treatment also induced the sustained phosphorylation of ERK and therefore enhanced neuronal survival. In our observation, garcinol treatment reduced growth factor deprivation-mediated cell death and nuclear import of C/EBP? levels. Noteworthy, garcinol could promote neurite outgrowth in EGF-responsive neural precursor cells and modulate the ERK pathway in the enhancement of neuronal survival.
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Effects of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene promoter polymorphisms on the risk and clinicopathologic development of oral cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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This study investigates the association between polymorphism in the E-cadherin/CDH1 promoter region and the risk and progression of oral cancer.
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Neural activation to emotional faces in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve a core deficit in social functioning and impairments in the ability to recognize face emotions. In an emotional faces task designed to constrain group differences in attention, the present study used functional MRI to characterize activation in the amygdala, ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC), and striatum, three structures involved in socio-emotional processing in adolescents with ASD.
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Using a self-organizing map algorithm to detect age-related changes in functional connectivity during rest in autism spectrum disorders.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Healthy individuals show robust functional connectivity during rest, which is stronger in adults than in children. Connectivity occurs between the posterior and anterior portions of the default network, a group of structures active in the absence of a task, including the posterior cingulate cortex and the superior frontal gyrus. Previous studies found weaker posterior-anterior connectivity in the default network in adults and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, these studies used small a priori regions of interest ("seeds") to calculate connectivity. Since seed location for all participants was chosen based on controls brains, these studies analyses are more tailored to controls than individuals with ASD. An alternative is to use a data-driven approach, such as self-organizing maps (SOM), to create a reference for each participant to calculate connectivity. We used individualized resting-state clusters identified by an SOM algorithm to corroborate previous findings of weaker posterior-anterior connectivity in the ASD group and examine age-related changes in the ASD and control groups. Thirty-nine adolescents with ASD and 41 controls underwent a 10-minute, eyes-open, resting-state functional MRI scan. The SOM analysis revealed that adolescents with ASD versus controls have weaker connectivity between the posterior hub of the default network and the right superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, controls have larger increases in connectivity with age compared to the ASD group. These findings indicate that SOM is a complementary method for calculating connectivity in a clinical population. Additionally, adolescents with ASD have a different developmental trajectory of the default network compared to controls.
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Synergism between p53 and Mcl-1 in protecting from hepatic injury, fibrosis and cancer.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Mcl-1-deficient hepatocytes are prone to undergo apoptosis. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays an important role in apoptosis control as well as other cellular responses. This study was initially aimed to examine whether p53 was involved in Mcl-1 deficiency-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes.
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Neural circuitry of emotional face processing in autism spectrum disorders.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with severe impairments in social functioning. Because faces provide nonverbal cues that support social interactions, many studies of ASD have examined neural structures that process faces, including the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior and middle temporal gyri. However, increases or decreases in activation are often contingent on the cognitive task. Specifically, the cognitive domain of attention influences group differences in brain activation. We investigated brain function abnormalities in participants with ASD using a task that monitored attention bias to emotional faces.
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Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs that leads to profound disability and premature death. To identify new SSc susceptibility loci, we conducted the first genome-wide association study in a population of European ancestry including a total of 2,296 individuals with SSc and 5,171 controls. Analysis of 279,621 autosomal SNPs followed by replication testing in an independent case-control set of European ancestry (2,753 individuals with SSc (cases) and 4,569 controls) identified a new susceptibility locus for systemic sclerosis at CD247 (1q22-23, rs2056626, P = 2.09 x 10(-7) in the discovery samples, P = 3.39 x 10(-9) in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of the MHC (P = 2.31 x 10(-18)), IRF5 (P = 1.86 x 10(-13)) and STAT4 (P = 3.37 x 10(-9)) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors.
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Alterations of resting state functional connectivity in the default network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2009
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with disturbances of neural connectivity. Functional connectivity between neural structures is typically examined within the context of a cognitive task, but also exists in the absence of a task (i.e., "rest"). Connectivity during rest is particularly active in a set of structures called the default network, which includes the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), retrosplenial cortex, lateral parietal cortex/angular gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, temporal lobe, and parahippocampal gyrus. We previously reported that adults with ASD relative to controls show areas of stronger and weaker connectivity within the default network. The objective of the present study was to examine the default network in adolescents with ASD. Sixteen adolescents with ASD and 15 controls participated in a functional MRI study. Functional connectivity was examined between a PCC seed and other areas of the default network. Both groups showed connectivity in the default network. Relative to controls, adolescents with ASD showed widespread weaker connectivity in nine of the eleven areas of the default network. Moreover, an analysis of symptom severity indicated that poorer social skills and increases in restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests correlated with weaker connectivity, whereas poorer verbal and non-verbal communication correlated with stronger connectivity in multiple areas of the default network. These findings indicate that adolescents with ASD show weaker connectivity in the default network than previously reported in adults with ASD. The findings also show that weaker connectivity within the default network is associated with specific impairments in ASD.
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Selective decomposition of aqueous nitrate into nitrogen using iron deposited bimetals.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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In the case of the reduction of nitrate in groundwater, the problem is how to convert nitrate [N(+V)] selectively to nontoxic dinitrogen [N(O)] and not to completely reduced ammonia [N(-III)]. Unfortunately, near 100% of the total nitrogen in nitrate is reductively converted to ammonia using naked zerovalent iron (ZVI) thus far reported. In this study, deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Au) and Cu on iron surface to offer favorable pathways for nitrate reduction was fabricated using either the complete mixing orthe successive method with spontaneous redox reactions. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy, and electrochemical analysis. The formation of N2 from the reduction of nitrate was confirmed by residual gas analyzer coupled to a high vacuum system. Based on the experimental results, the ZVI deposited Pd and Cu closely is suggested to promote the abstraction of oxygen from NOx by adsorbed atomic hydrogen on the Cu surface, and enhance N2 formation on the Pd surface. An optimum N2 selectivity of approximately 30% obtained in the alkaline solution containing nitrate using 0.3 wt.% Pd-0.5 wt% Cu/Fe is evident. For groundwater treatment, iron deposited Pd and Cu could facilitate the development of a process requiring neither a massive addition of chemicals nor complex equipment.
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Abnormalities of intrinsic functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact social functioning and communication, and individuals with these disorders often have restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Accumulating data indicate that ASD is associated with alterations of neural circuitry. Functional MRI (FMRI) studies have focused on connectivity in the context of psychological tasks. However, even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic or resting connectivity. Notably, the default network, which includes the posterior cingulate cortex, retro-splenial, lateral parietal cortex/angular gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, temporal lobe, and parahippocampal gyrus, is strongly active when there is no task. Altered intrinsic connectivity within the default network may underlie offline processing that may actuate ASD impairments. Using FMRI, we sought to evaluate intrinsic connectivity within the default network in ASD. Relative to controls, the ASD group showed weaker connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and superior frontal gyrus and stronger connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and both the right temporal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, poorer social functioning in the ASD group was correlated with weaker connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, more severe restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD were correlated with stronger connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and right parahippocampal gyrus. These findings indicate that ASD subjects show altered intrinsic connectivity within the default network, and connectivity between these structures is associated with specific ASD symptoms.
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Risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based cohort study.
Audiol. Neurootol.
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Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) may be a manifestation of systemic vascular involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may have an important impact on the health of patients with SLE. To investigate the risk of developing SSHL in patients with SLE, we conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 7168 patients diagnosed with SLE and 35840 control subjects without SLE were selected from claims made from 2001 to 2006. The incidence of SSHL was assessed and determined at the end of 2010. The incidence of SSHL was 2.22-fold higher in the SLE group than in the non-SLE group (6.52 vs. 2.93 per 10000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.253 (95% confidence interval, CI=1.407-3.608) calculated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Age was an independent risk factor for SSHL, with adjusted HRs of 2.103 for individuals aged?35 years compared with those 0-34 years. In the 0-34 age range, the incidence of developing SSHL was 4.27-fold (95% CI=2.11-8.67) higher in the SLE group compared with the non-SLE group. In female patients, the incidence of developing SSHL was 2.19-fold (95% CI=1.73-3.50) higher in the SLE group than in the non-SLE group. Systemic lupus erythematosus was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing SSHL. Scheduled auditory examinations for patients with SLE to assess the presence of chronic hearing impairment are advised to enable the early detection of SSHL.
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Reintervention for distal stent graft-induced new entry after endovascular repair with a stainless steel-based device in aortic dissection.
J. Vasc. Surg.
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Stent graft-induced new entry (SINE) has been increasingly observed after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for aortic dissection. We investigated the mechanism of late distal SINE, prevention strategies, proper size selection of the stent graft, and implantation sequence.
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Healthcare-seeking prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms among national health insurance enrollees in Taiwan, 2000-2009.
Urology
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To investigate the healthcare-seeking prevalence of those with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan.
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Genome-wide association study reveals novel genetic determinants of DNA repair capacity in lung cancer.
Cancer Res.
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Suboptimal cellular DNA repair capacity (DRC) has been shown to be associated with enhanced cancer risk, but genetic variants affecting the DRC phenotype have not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, with the available DRC phenotype data, we analyzed correlations between the DRC phenotype and genotypes detected by the Illumina 317K platform in 1,774 individuals of European ancestry from a Texas lung cancer genome-wide association study. The discovery phase was followed by a replication in an independent set of 1,374 cases and controls of European ancestry. We applied a generalized linear model with single nucleotide polymorphisms as predictors and DRC (a continuous variable) as the outcome. Covariates of age, sex, pack-years of smoking, DRC assay-related variables, and case-control status of the study participants were adjusted in the model. We validated that reduced DRC was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in both independent datasets. Several suggestive loci that contributed to the DRC phenotype were defined in ERCC2/XPD, PHACTR2, and DUSP1. In summary, we determined that DRC is an independent risk factor for lung cancer, and we defined several genetic loci contributing to DRC phenotype.
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Risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study.
Otol. Neurotol.
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To explore the risk of development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) among diabetes mellitus patients.
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Factors predictive of distal stent graft-induced new entry after hybrid arch elephant trunk repair with stainless steel-based device in aortic dissection.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
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Stent graft-induced new entry (SINE) has been increasingly observed after thoracic endovascular aortic repair of aortic dissection. We illustrate the possible mechanism by exploring predictive factors of late distal SINE after hybrid arch elephant trunk repair for aortic dissection.
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Increased risk of getting sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study.
Laryngoscope
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To examine the risk of getting Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHL) among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Retinal artery occlusion and the 3-year risk of stroke in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
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To verify the association between retinal artery occlusion (RAO) and stroke with a large-scale nationwide study.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.