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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Polyspecific pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetases from directed evolution.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and its cognate tRNA(Pyl) have emerged as ideal translation components for genetic code innovation. Variants of the enzyme facilitate the incorporation >100 noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins. PylRS variants were previously selected to acylate N(?)-acetyl-Lys (AcK) onto tRNA(Pyl). Here, we examine an N(?)-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS), which is polyspecific (i.e., active with a broad range of ncAAs) and 30-fold more efficient with Phe derivatives than it is with AcK. Structural and biochemical data reveal the molecular basis of polyspecificity in AcKRS and in a PylRS variant [iodo-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)] that displays both enhanced activity and substrate promiscuity over a chemical library of 313 ncAAs. IFRS, a product of directed evolution, has distinct binding modes for different ncAAs. These data indicate that in vivo selections do not produce optimally specific tRNA synthetases and suggest that translation fidelity will become an increasingly dominant factor in expanding the genetic code far beyond 20 amino acids.
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Design of poly(acrylonitrile)-based gel electrolytes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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The use of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a host for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) commonly produces a strong dipole-dipole interaction with the polymer. This study presents a strategy for the application of PAN in GPEs for the production of high performance lithium ion batteries. The resulting gel electrolyte GPE-AVM comprises a poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer blending poly(methyl methacrylate) as a host, which is swelled using a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvent. Vinyl acetate and methacrylate groups segregate the PAN chains in the GPE, which produces high ionic conductivity (3.5 × 10 (-3) S cm(-1) at 30 °C) and a wide electrochemical voltage range (>6.5 V) as well as an excellent Li(+) transference number of 0.6. This study includes GPE-AVM in a full-cell battery comprising a LiFePO4 cathode and graphite anode to promote ion motion, which reduced resistance in the battery by 39% and increased the specific power by 110%, relative to the performance of batteries based on LE. The proposed GPE-based battery has a capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) at a discharge rate of 0.1 C and is able to deliver 67 mAh g(-1) of electricity at 17 C. The proposed GPE-AVM provides a robust interface with the electrodes in full-cell batteries, resulting in 93% capacity retention after 100 charge-discharge cycles at 17 C and 63% retention after 1000 cycles.
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Improved Emotional Stability in Experienced Meditators with Concentrative Meditation Based on Electroencephalography and Heart Rate Variability.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Abstract Objective: To determine whether emotional stability distinguishes how experienced and novice meditators react to visual stimuli. Design: Participants practiced concentrative meditation and then responded to visual stimuli while continuing to meditate. Participants: Ten experienced and 10 novice meditators responded to sequences of visual stimuli after concentrative meditation. Results: As predicted, both groups had increased parasympathetic activities during concentrative meditation. Experienced meditators had increased low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms in response to visual stimulation, whereas novices had increased high-frequency EEG rhythms. Correlational analyses revealed that novice meditators changed from a meditative state to a nonrelaxed state when the visual stimuli were presented, whereas experienced meditators maintained the meditative state. Conclusion: The study provides evidence that regular concentrative meditation can improve emotional stability and that recording physiologic responses to visual stimuli can be a good method for identifying the effects of long-term concentrative meditation practice.
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CCL5/CCR5 axis induces vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Chemokines modulate angiogenesis and metastasis that dictate cancer development in tumor microenvironment. Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Chemokine CCL5 (previously called RANTES) has been reported to facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the crosstalk between chemokine CCL5 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment has not been well explored. In this study, we found that CCL5 increased VEGF expression and production in human osteosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium (CM) from CCL5-treated osteosarcoma cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human endothelial progenitor cells. Pretreatment of cells with CCR5 antibody or transfection with CCR5 specific siRNA blocked CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. CCL5/CCR5 axis demonstrably activated protein kinase C? (PKC?), c-Src, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) signaling cascades to induce VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of CCL5 suppressed VEGF expression and attenuated osteosarcoma CM-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. CCL5 knockdown dramatically abolished tumor growth and angiogenesis in the osteosarcoma xenograft animal model. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of CCL5 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage according the immunohistochemistry analysis of human osteosarcoma tissues. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment through PKC?/c-Src/HIF-1? signaling pathway. CCL5 may represent a potential therapeutic target against human osteosarcoma.
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Fusion May Not Be a Necessary Procedure for Surgically Treated Burst Fractures of the Thoracolumbar and Lumbar Spines: A Follow-up of at Least Ten Years.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The surgical results of treating thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures were reported to be comparable between patients with and without fusion in an intermediate-term follow-up. To our knowledge, no prior report has compared the results of fusion and non-fusion with long-term follow-up.
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CCL5 promotes VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer, with potential for local invasion and distant metastasis. Chemokine CCL5 (formerly RANTES) of the CC-chemokine family plays a crucial role in metastasis. Angiogenesis is essential for the cancer metastasis. However, correlation of CCL5 with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma is still unknown. CCL5-mediated VEGF expression was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. CCL5-induced angiogenesis was examined by migration and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. CCL5 increased VEGF expression and also promoted chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of chondrosarcoma with CCL5 augmented PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, while PI3K and Akt inhibitor or siRNA abolished CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. We also demonstrated CCL5 inhibiting miR-200b expression and miR-200b mimic reversing the CCL5-enhanced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Moreover, in chondrosarcoma patients showed the positive correlation between CCL5 and VEGF; negative correlation between CCL5 and miR-200b. Taken together, results demonstrate CCL5 promoting VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells by down-regulating miR-200b through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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Effects of anti-Müllerian hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels on in vitro fertilization pregnancy rate.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To analyze the relationship between in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rate and basal serum hormone levels before patients begin an IVF course.
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Osteoblast-derived Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 increases VCAM-1 expression and enhances prostate cancer metastasis by down-regulating miR-126.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Bone metastases of prostate cancer (PCa) may cause intractable pain. Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP-1) belongs to the CCN family (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) that plays a key role in bone formation. We found that osteoblast-conditioned medium (OBCM) stimulates migration and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM)-1 expression in human PCa (PC3 and DU145) cells. Osteoblast transfection with WISP-1 shRNA reduced OBCM-mediated PCa migration and VCAM-1 expression. Stimulation of PCa with OBCM or WISP-1 elevated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p38 phosphorylation. Either FAK and p38 inhibitors or siRNA abolished osteoblast-derived WISP-1-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression. Osteoblast-derived WISP-1 inhibited miR-126 expression. Moreover, miR-216 mimic reversed the WISP-1-enhanced migration and VCAM-1 expression. This study suggests that osteoblast-derived WISP-1 promotes migration and VCAM-1 expression in human PCa cells by down-regulating miR-126 expression via ?v?1 integrin, FAK, and p38 signaling pathways. Thus, WISP-1 may be a new molecular therapeutic target in PCa bone metastasis.
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Dlg5 regulates dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis by controlling subcellular N-cadherin localization.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain are formed on dendritic spines, and spine density has a profound impact on synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins are intracellular scaffolding proteins with well established roles in synapse function. However, whether MAGUK proteins are required for the formation of dendritic spines in vivo is unclear. We isolated a novel disc large-5 (Dlg5) allele in mice, Dlg5(LP), which harbors a missense mutation in the DLG5 SH3 domain, greatly attenuating its ability to interact with the DLG5 GUK domain. We show here that DLG5 is a MAGUK protein that regulates spine formation, synaptogenesis, and synaptic transmission in cortical neurons. DLG5 regulates synaptogenesis by enhancing the cell surface localization of N-cadherin, revealing a key molecular mechanism for regulating the subcellular localization of this cell adhesion molecule during synaptogenesis.
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Inhibitory effects of butein on cancer metastasis and bioenergetic modulation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Tumor metastasis is the major obstacle for cancer treatment. Previous studies have shown that butein exhibits antiangiogenesis property and anticancer effects in different kinds of human cancer cells. However, the effects of butein on metastasis and energy metabolism of cancer cells are mostly unknown. This study showed that butein significantly inhibited invasion of cancer cells without acting in a cytotoxic fashion. It was further demonstrated that butien dramatically suppressed cancer metastasis by an in vivo CAM-intravasation model. Additionally, butein concentration-dependently repressed the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The study indicated that butein may repress MMP-9 and uPA proteolytic activities and subsequently inhibit cancer metastasis via Akt/mTOR/p70S6K translational machinery. Moreover, butein may partly suppress cancer metastasis by down-regulating ATP synthesis via both oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. The results suggest that butein is a potential antimetastatic agent worthy of further development for cancer treatment.
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Ameloblast transcriptome changes from secretory to maturation stages.
Connect. Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The purpose of this study was to identify the major molecular components in the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis through transcriptome analyses. Ameloblasts (40 sections per age group) were laser micro-dissected from Day 5 (secretory stage) and Days 11-12 (maturation stage) first molars. PolyA+ RNA was isolated from the lysed cells, converted to cDNA, and amplified to generate a cDNA library. DNA sequences were obtained using next generation sequencing and analyzed to identify genes whose expression had increased or decreased at least 1.5-fold in maturation stage relative to secretory stage ameloblasts. Among the 9198 genes that surpassed the quality threshold, 373 showed higher expression in secretory stage, while 614 genes increased in maturation stage ameloblasts. The results were cross-checked against a previously published transcriptome generated from tissues overlying secretory and maturation stage mouse incisor enamel and 34 increasing and 26 decreasing expressers common to the two studies were identified. Expression of F2r, which encodes protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) that showed 10-fold higher expression during the secretory stage in our transcriptome analysis, was characterized in mouse incisors by immunohistochemistry. PAR1 was detected in secretory, but not maturation stage ameloblasts. We conclude that transcriptome analyses are a good starting point for identifying genes/proteins that are critical for proper dental enamel formation and that PAR1 is specifically expressed by secretory stage ameloblasts.
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SOX9 as a Predictor for Neurogenesis Potentiality of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Preclinical studies of amniotic fluid-derived cell therapy have been successful in the research of neurodegenerative diseases, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain ischemia. Transplantation of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) into rat brain ventricles has shown improvement in symptoms of Parkinson's disease and also highlighted the minimal immune rejection risk of AFSCs, even between species. Although AFSCs appeared to be a promising resource for cell-based regenerative therapy, AFSCs contain a heterogeneous pool of distinct cell types, rendering each preparation of AFSCs unique. Identification of predictive markers for neuron-prone AFSCs is necessary before such stem cell-based therapeutics can become a reality. In an attempt to identify markers of AFSCs to predict their ability for neurogenesis, we performed a two-phase study. In the discovery phase of 23 AFSCs, we tested ZNF521/Zfp521, OCT6, SOX1, SOX2, SOX3, and SOX9 as predictive markers of AFSCs for neural differentiation. In the validation phase, the efficacy of these predictive markers was tested in independent sets of 18 AFSCs and 14 dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We found that high expression of SOX9 in AFSCs is associated with good neurogenetic ability, and these positive correlations were confirmed in independent sets of AFSCs and DPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX9 in AFSCs inhibited their neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, the discovery of SOX9 as a predictive marker for neuron-prone AFSCs could expedite the selection of useful clones for regenerative medicine, in particular, in neurological diseases and injuries.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases vascular endothelial growth factor expression and enhances angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Chondrosarcomas are a type of primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is commonly upregulated during neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanism involved in BDNF-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Here, we knocked down BDNF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and assessed their capacity to control VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We found knockdown of BDNF decreased VEGF expression and abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in vivo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mouse models. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, the knockdown of BDNF significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. BDNF increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through the TrkB receptor, PLC?, PKC?, and the HIF-1? signaling pathway. Finally, we analyzed samples from chondrosarcoma patients by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of BDNF and VEGF protein in 56 chondrosarcoma patients was significantly higher than in normal cartilage. In addition, the high level of BDNF expression correlated strongly with VEGF expression and tumor stage. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF increases VEGF expression and enhances angiogenesis through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PLC?, PKC?, and the HIF-1?. Therefore, BDNF may represent a novel target for anti-angiogenic therapy for human chondrosarcoma.
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Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A-/- GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A-/- mutants, PlexinA2-/- mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A-/- mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders.
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Spindle Cell Sarcoma of the Vulva With Myofibroblastic Differentiation.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Primary vulvar sarcomas are rare lesions of the lower genital tract. We report the case of a patient with a spindle cell sarcoma of the vulva.
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Effects of 100-km Ultramarathon on Acute Kidney Injury.
Clin J Sport Med
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of acute kidney injury (AKI) in 100-km ultramarathon runners.
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Medication use and fall-risk assessment for falls in an acute care hospital.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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A nested case-control study was carried out to examine relationships of a fall-risk score and the use of single medications and polypharmacy with falls among hospitalized patients aged 50 years and older in Taiwan.
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How to improve the outcome in patients with AJCC stage I hepatocellular carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Survival of patients with stage I hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher than in patients with more advanced disease, however many of them will ultimately die of tumor recurrence and liver failure. Our objective focuses on identifying the pathological and clinical factors that could affect disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition we reviewed the treatment offered for recurrence and its impact on OS.
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Leptin increases VEGF expression and enhances angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Leptin, 16kDa product of obese gene, is adipocytokine playing critical role in regulation of body weight. In recent years, leptin is also defined as potent angiogenic factor involving in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. However, it is unknown whether leptin regulates VEGF production in human chondrosarcoma and contributing the tumor-associated angiogenesis.
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Aliphatic phenolic ethers from Trichobotrys effusa.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Four novel aliphatic phenolic ethers, namely, trichoethers A-D (1-4), possessing a unique C11-O-C10 skeleton, together with coriloxin, zythiostromic acid A, radicicol, and 3,5-dihydroxytoluene were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fermented broths of Trichobotrys effusa YMJ1179. The structures of all the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data analysis. The configurations of 1-4 were established by J values and NOESY and compared with published data. Compounds 1-4 and radicicol exhibited growth-inhibitory activities against the A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line with GI50 values of 25.61, 19.32, 16.19, 24.31, and 1.43 ?M, respectively, in comparison with 5-fluorouracil (GI50 = 4.55 ?M).
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Biomechanical study of expandable pedicle screw fixation in severe osteoporotic bone comparing with conventional and cement-augmented pedicle screws.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Pedicle screws are widely utilized to treat the unstable thoracolumbar spine. The superior biomechanical strength of pedicle screws could increase fusion rates and provide accurate corrections of complex deformities. However, osteoporosis and revision cases of pedicle screw substantially reduce screw holding strength and cause loosening. Pedicle screw fixation becomes a challenge for spine surgeons in those scenarios. The purpose of this study was to determine if an expandable pedicle screw design could be used to improve biomechanical fixation in osteoporotic bone. Axial mechanical pull-out test was performed on the expandable, conventional and augmented pedicle screws placed in a commercial synthetic bone block which mimicked a human bone with severe osteoporosis. Results revealed that the pull-out strength and failure energy of expandable pedicle screws were similar with conventional pedicle screws augmented with bone cement by 2ml. The pull-out strength was 5-fold greater than conventional pedicle screws and the failure energy was about 2-fold greater. Besides, the pull-out strength of expandable screw was reinforced by the expandable mechanism without cement augmentation, indicated that the risks of cement leakage from vertebral body would potentially be avoided. Comparing with the biomechanical performances of conventional screw with or without cement augmentation, the expandable screws are recommended to be applied for the osteoporotic vertebrae.
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Rate of Ascent and Acute Mountain Sickness at High Altitude.
Clin J Sport Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To examine the effect of ascent rate on the induction of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in young adults during a climb to Jiaming Lake (3350 m) in Taiwan.
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Clinical and epidemiological characteristics in children with community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia in Taiwan: A nationwide surveillance.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of hospitalization of children. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens. The disease severity is diverse, and the diagnosis remains a challenge to clinical pediatricians. The aims of this study are to provide a nationwide surveillance of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia (CAMP) in children in Taiwan.
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Mutations in the non-structural protein region contribute to intra-genotypic evolution of enterovirus 71.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Clinical manifestations of enterovirus 71 (EV71) range from herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), to severe neurological complications. Unlike the situation of switching genotypes seen in EV71 outbreaks during 1998-2008 in Taiwan, genotype B5 was responsible for two large outbreaks in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In China, by contrast, EV71 often persists as a single genotype in the population and causes frequent outbreaks. To investigate genetic changes in viral evolution, complete EV71 genome sequences were used to analyze the intra-genotypic evolution pattern in Taiwan, China, and the Netherlands.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract in in vitro and in vivo models.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways.
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Differential patterns of effects of age and sex on metabolic syndrome in Taiwan: implication for the inadequate internal consistency of the current criteria.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Current criteria of metabolic syndrome (MetS) give equal weight to each component and apply mostly the same cut-off values to all ages. The contribution of each component to MetS and the effects of age and sex on each component and MetS were explored.
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Cespitulones A and B, cytotoxic diterpenoids of a new structure class from the soft coral Cespitularia taeniata.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Two novel diterpenoids, cespitulones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from extracts of the soft coral Cespitularia taeniata. Both compounds possess an unprecedented bicyclo [10.3.1] ring system with C-C bond connections between C-10 and C-20, and between C-20 and C-11. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against human medulloblastoma and colon adenocarcinoma cancer cells.
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Exploring the substrate range of wild-type aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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We tested the substrate range of four wild-type E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) with a library of nonstandard amino acids (nsAAs). Although these AARSs could discriminate efficiently against the other canonical amino acids, they were able to use many nsAAs as substrates. Our results also show that E. coli tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase have overlapping substrate ranges. In addition, we found that the nature of the anticodon sequence of tRNA(Trp) altered the nsAA substrate range of TrpRS; this implies that the sequence of the anticodon affects the TrpRS amino acid binding pocket. These results highlight again that inherent AARS polyspecificity will be a major challenge in the aim of incorporating multiple different amino acids site-specifically into proteins.
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Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions.
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Cephalochromin induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells by inflicting mitochondrial disruption.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The fungus-derived compound cephalochromin, isolated from the fermented broth of Cosmospora vilior YMJ89051501, shows growth-inhibitory and apoptotic activity against human lung cancer A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.8 ?M at 48 h. Cephalochromin induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase through down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, Cdk 2, and Cdk 4 expressions. Cephalochromin markedly increased the hypodiploid sub-G1 phase (apoptosis) of the cell cycle at 48 h as measured by flow cytometric analysis. Reactive oxygen species generation and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were also markedly induced by cephalochromin. Moreover, the immunoblotting assays showed that cephalochromin reduced survivin and Bcl-xL expression and induced the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, indicating the involvement of a caspase signaling cascade. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk significantly suppressed cephalochromin-induced apoptosis. Cephalochromin also triggered LC3 II, autophagic marker, expression. Taken together, this is the first report that cephalochromin induced an antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells through mitochondrial disruption and down-regulation of survivin, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, loss of MMP, and subsequently apoptotic cell death.
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Update of enterovirus 71 infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and vaccine.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic human pathogen that is the causative agent of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina and brain stem encephalitis. Recurrent EV71 epidemics of various scales have occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. Several specific cell surface molecules serve as the receptors for EV71. Identification of the receptors is an important step to understand EV71 disease. Cytokines, lymphocytes and monocytes contribute significantly to EV71 pathogenesis. The interaction of EV71 and receptors may be associated with the cytokines immunopathogenesis. Some animal models have been established and aim to explore the pathogenesis of EV71 infections. EV71 antibodies can neutralize or enhance infection at subneutralizing levels. These results are important for EV71 vaccine and therapeutics design. Several clinical trials of human inactivated EV71 vaccine have recently been completed. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent discoveries about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of EV71 and provide insights into human vaccine development.
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The genetic incorporation of thirteen novel non-canonical amino acids.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Thirteen novel non-canonical amino acids were synthesized and tested for suppression of an amber codon using a mutant pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNA(Pyl)(CUA) pair. Suppression was observed with varied efficiencies. One non-canonical amino acid in particular contains an azide that can be applied for site-selective protein labeling.
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Immunophenotype expressions and cytokine profiles of influenza A H1N1 virus infection in pediatric patients in 2009.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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A novel swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus (S-OIV) caused human infection and acute respiratory illness in 2009, resulting in an influenza pandemic.
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Quantitative detection of residual porcine host cell DNA by real-time PCR.
Biologicals
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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All biological products are derived from complex living systems and are often mixed with large numbers of impurities. For reasons of safety, residual host-cell DNA must be eliminated during processing. To assay host-cell DNA content in biopharmaceutical products derived from porcine sources, this study applies the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) method. The optimized assay in this study is based on the pol region of the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). Assay validation results demonstrate that the proposed assay has appropriate accuracy, preciseness, reproducibility, and sensitivity. Primer and probe specificity are evaluated in real-time Q-PCR reactions using genomic DNA from rabbit, mouse, cat, hamster, monkey, human cell, yeast, and Escherichia coli as templates. The sensitivity of real-time Q-PCR is determined using genomic DNA from the porcine kidney cell line. The reliable detection range is within 0.5-10(5) pg/reaction. The limit of quantitation is 500 fg. The sensitivity of the assay meets the authority criterion. Moreover, the assay is applied to determine the level of host-cell DNA in recombinant human coagulation factor IX (rhFIX) from transgenic pigs. The real-time Q-PCR assay is thus a promising new tool for quantitative detection and clearance validation of residual porcine DNA when manufacturing recombinant therapeutics.
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In-depth comparative characterization of hemoglobin glycation in normal and diabetic bloods by LC-MSMS.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The glycation level at ?-Val-1 of the hemoglobin ? chain in human blood (HbA1c%) is used to diagnose diabetes and other diseases. However, hemoglobin glycation occurs on multiple sites on different isoforms with different kinetics, but its differential profile has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, hemoglobin was extracted from the blood of normal and diabetic individuals by protein precipitation. Triplicate solutions prepared from each sample were directly analyzed or digested with multiple enzymes and then analyzed by nano-LC/MS via bottom-up approach for side-by-side characterization. Intact hemoglobin analysis indicated a single glucose-dominant glycation, which showed good correlation with the HbA1c% values. Moreover, full sequence (100%) of ?/? globin was mapped and seven glycation sites were unambiguously assigned. In addition to ?-Val-1, two other major sites at ?-Lys-61 and ?-Lys-66, which contain the common sequence HGKK, and four minor sites (<1%) on ?-Val-1, ?-Lys-132, ?-Lys-127, and ?-Lys-40 were identified. All sites were shown to exhibit similar patterns of site distribution despite different glucose levels. Both the intact mass measurement and bottom-up data consistently indicated that the total glycation percentage of the ?-globin was twice higher than the ?-globin. Using molecular modeling, the 3D structure of the consensus sequence (HGKK) was shown to contain a phosphate triangle cavity, which helps to catalyze the glycation reaction. For the first time, hemoglobin glycation in normal and diabetic bloods was comparatively characterized in-depth with 100% sequence coverage. The results provide insight about the HbA1c parameter and help define the new and old markers.
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The clinical correlation of regulatory T cells and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in enterovirus 71 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Brainstem encephalitis (BE) and pulmonary edema (PE) are notable complications of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.
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Associations of VEGF-C genetic polymorphisms with urothelial cell carcinoma susceptibility differ between smokers and non-smokers in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C is associated with lymphangiogenesis, pelvic regional lymph node metastasis, and an antiapoptotic phenotype in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). Knowledge of potential roles of VEGF-C genetic polymorphisms in susceptibility to UCC is lacking. This study was designed to examine associations between VEGF-C gene variants and UCC susceptibility and evaluate whether they are modified by smoking.
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ITGB6 loss-of-function mutations cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Integrins are cell-surface adhesion receptors that bind to extracellular matrices (ECM) and mediate cell-ECM interactions. Some integrins are known to play critical roles in dental enamel formation. We recruited two Hispanic families with generalized hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Analysis of whole-exome sequences identified three integrin beta 6 (ITGB6) mutations responsible for their enamel malformations. The female proband of Family 1 was a compound heterozygote with an ITGB6 transition mutation in Exon 4 (g.4545G > A c.427G > A p.Ala143Thr) and an ITGB6 transversion mutation in Exon 6 (g.27415T > A c.825T > A p.His275Gln). The male proband of Family 2 was homozygous for an ITGB6 transition mutation in Exon 11 (g.73664C > T c.1846C > T p.Arg616*) and hemizygous for a transition mutation in Exon 6 of Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS Xp22.13; g.355444T > C c.1697T > C p.Met566Thr). These are the first disease-causing ITGB6 mutations to be reported. Immunohistochemistry of mouse mandibular incisors localized ITGB6 to the distal membrane of differentiating ameloblasts and pre-ameloblasts, and then ITGB6 appeared to be internalized by secretory stage ameloblasts. ITGB6 expression was strongest in the maturation stage and its localization was associated with ameloblast modulation. Our findings demonstrate that early and late amelogenesis depend upon cell-matrix interactions. Our approach (from knockout mouse phenotype to human disease) demonstrates the power of mouse reverse genetics in mutational analysis of human genetic disorders and attests to the need for a careful dental phenotyping in large-scale knockout mouse projects.
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Increased risk of mortality among haemodialysis patients with or without prior stroke: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
Indian J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Patients with prior stroke (PS) undergoing chronic dialysis are at a high risk of mortality. However, little is known about the cumulative risk and survival rate of dialysis patients with long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to assess risks for mortality between patients with and without PS undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD).
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Poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide)-based gel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and mechanical integrity for lithium-ion batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Using gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) for lithium-ion batteries usually encounters the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the GPEs. This study demonstrates the outstanding performance of a GPE consisting of a commercial membrane (Celgard) incorporated with a poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide) copolymer (P(EO-co-PO)) swelled by a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents. The proposed GPE stably holds LE with an amount that is three times that of the Celgard-P(EO-co-PO) composite. This GPE has a higher ionic conductivity (2.8×10(-3) and 5.1×10(-4) S cm(-1) at 30 and -20 °C, respectively) and a wider electrochemical voltage range (5.1 V) than the LE-swelled Celgard because of the strong ion-solvation power of P(EO-co-PO). The active ion-solvation role of P(EO-co-PO) also suppresses the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase layer. When assembling the GPE in a Li/LiFePO4 battery, the P(EO-co-PO) network hinders anionic transport, producing a high Li+ transference number of 0.5 and decreased the polarization overpotential. The Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery delivers a discharge capacity of 156-135 mAh g(-1) between 0.1 and 1 C-rates, which is approximately 5% higher than that of the Li/LE/LiFePO4 battery. The IR drop of the Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery was 44% smaller than that of the Li/LE/LiFePO4. The Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery is more stable, with only a 1.2% capacity decay for 150 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The advantages of the proposed GPE are its high stability, conductivity, Li+ transference number, and mechanical integrity, which allow for the assembly of GPE-based batteries readily scalable to industrial levels.
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Bradykinin promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and increases angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a tendency for metastasis to distant organs. Angiogenesis is required for metastasis. Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator involved in tumor growth and metastasis, but its role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human prostate cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether BK promotes prostate cancer angiogenesis via VEGF expression. We found that exogenous BK increased VEGF expression in prostate cancer cells and further promoted tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment of prostate cancer with B2 receptor antagonist or small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced BK-mediated VEGF production. The Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways were activated after BK treatment, and BK-induced VEGF expression was abolished by the specific inhibitor and siRNA of the Akt and mTOR cascades. BK also promoted nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity. Importantly, BK knockdown reduced VEGF expression and abolished prostate cancer cell conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that BK operates through the B2 receptor, Akt, and mTOR, which in turn activate NF-?B and AP-1, activating VEGF expression and contributing to angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.
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Progressive growth of arachnoid cysts with cauda equina syndrome after lumbar spine surgery.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Intradural arachnoid cysts are a rare cause of spinal cord compression. In symptomatic cases neuropathic pain, gait disturbance, and paraparesis or quadriparesis are often present. Postoperative arachnoid cysts have rarely been reported. We describe a 56-year-old male who developed progressively enlarging arachnoid cysts with cauda equina syndrome and vertebral body erosion after lumbar surgery. The clinical presentation of the patient, the possible mechanisms of cyst formation, and the management of the disease are discussed with regard to previous literature.
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Clinical and laboratory predictive markers for acute dengue infection.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection during the febrile stage is essential for adjusting appropriate management. This study is to identify the predictive markers of clinical and laboratory findings in the acute stage of dengue infection during a major outbreak of dengue virus type 1 that occurred in southern Taiwan during 2007. A retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted at a university hospital in southern Taiwan from January to December, 2007. Patient who was reported for clinically suspected dengue infection was enrolled. Laboratory-positive dengue cases are confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of specific dengue IgM, fourfold increase of dengue-specific IgG titers in convalescent serum, or by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of dengue virus.
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Developing a semi-quantitative occupational risk prediction model for chemical exposures and its application to a national chemical exposure databank.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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In this study, a semi-quantitative occupational chemical exposure risk prediction model, based on the calculation of exposure hazard indexes, was proposed, corrected, and applied to a national chemical exposure databank. The model comprises one factor used to describe toxicity (i.e., the toxicity index), and two factors used to reflect the exposure potential (i.e., the exposure index and protection deficiency index) of workers exposed to chemicals. An expert system was used to correct the above proposed model. By applying the corrected model to data obtained from a national occupational chemical hazard survey program, chemical exposure risks of various manufacturing industries were determined and a national control strategy for the abatement of occupational chemical exposures was proposed. The results of the present study would provide useful information for governmental agencies to allocate their limited resources effectively for reducing chemical exposures of workers.
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Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase variants reveal ancestral aminoacylation function.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) is a class IIc aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that is related to phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS). Genetic selection provided PylRS variants with a broad range of specificity for diverse non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs). One variant is a specific phenylalanine-incorporating enzyme. Structural models of the PylRSamino acid complex show that the small pocket size and ?-interaction play an important role in specific recognition of Phe and the engineered PylRS active site resembles that of Escherichia coli PheRS.
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A density functional theory of chiral block copolymer melts.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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A density functional theory is developed for the diblock copolymer melt, where one block contains the segment orientation dependent chiral interaction. In addition to the standard (scalar) pair interaction between the two types of monomers, the chiral block has the additional pairwise interaction, which is linear in the tangent vectors of the segments. We construct a density functional, which contains both the scalar density field and the vector chain alignment field. The quadratic part of the density functional comes from the mean field theory of the microscopic model, whereas the fourth order terms are introduced phenomenologically in the spatially local form. From the stability analysis of this model, we find that the additional chiral interaction shifts the order-disorder transition, which is consistent with the behavior of experimental system. Further numerical calculation reveals a new metastable chiral helical cylinder structure, which is similar to the one found experimentally. Another similar metastable structure but with zigzag modulation is also observed. As the helical and zigzag structures disappear when the chiral interaction is switched off, we understand that the chiral effect is the driving force for the formation of these exotic metastable structures.
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Milrinone therapy for enterovirus 71-induced pulmonary edema and/or neurogenic shock in children: a randomized controlled trial.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Enterovirus 71-induced brainstem encephalitis with pulmonary edema and/or neurogenic shock (stage 3B) is associated with rapid mortality in children. In a small pilot study, we found that milrinone reduced early mortality compared with historical controls. This prospective, randomized control trial was designed to provide more definitive evidence of the ability of milrinone to reduce the 1-week mortality of stage 3B enterovirus 71 infections.
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Primary cervical osteomyelitis.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Cervical osteomyelitis accounts for only 3-11% of all cases of spinal osteomyelitis, and the diagnosis may be delayed. The characteristics of different pathogens causing cervical osteomyelitis are not fully understood, and there are few established guidelines for treatment.
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Synthesis and biopharmaceutical studies of JLTN as potential dasatinib prodrug.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Dasatinib was identified as a potent orally administered Src/Abl kinase inhibitor with excellent antiproliferative activity against Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. The low bioavailability of Dasatinib may be due to both incomplete oral absorption and first-pass metabolism. A prodrug, JLTN, was synthesized to minimize the first-pass effect of Dasatinib and improve the oral bioavailability following oral administration via targeting intestinal peptide transporter and enhancing chemical stability. Biological evaluation data indicated that there was a 150%-fold increase in oral bioavailability of this prodrug compared to the parent drug Dasatinib in monkeys.
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Childhood invasive pneumococcal disease caused by non-7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) serotypes under partial immunization in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Emerging non-7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes have replaced PCV7 serotypes in childhood invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). This study was designed to describe the IPD caused by non-PCV7 serotypes under partial PCV7 immunization in Taiwan.
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The trend of macrolide resistance and emm types of group A streptococci from children at a medical center in southern Taiwan.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a common pathogen in children. Macrolide resistance in GAS has been described worldwide. The aims of this study are to analyze macrolide resistance of GAS isolates in southern Taiwan and to clarify the relationship of emm typing and macrolide resistance in the past decade.
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FAM20C Functions Intracellularly Within Both Ameloblasts and Odontoblasts In Vivo.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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FAM20C, also known as Golgi casein kinase (G-CK), is proposed to be the archetype for a family of secreted kinases that phosphorylate target proteins in the Golgi and in extracellular matrices, but FAM20C serving an extracellular function is controversial. FAM20C phosphorylates secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs), which are associated with the evolution of biomineralization in vertebrates. Current models of biomineralization assume SCPP proteins are secreted as phosphoproteins and their phosphates are essential for protein conformation and function. It would be a radical departure from current theories if proteins in mineralizing matrices were dephosphorylated as part of the mineralization mechanism and rephosphorylated in the extracellular milieu by FAM20C using ATP. To see if such mechanisms are possible in the formation of dental enamel, we tested the hypothesis that FAM20C is secreted by ameloblasts and accumulates in the enamel extracellular matrix during tooth development. FAM20C localization was determined by immunohistochemistry in day 5 mouse incisors and molars and by Western blot analyses of proteins extracted from pig enamel organ epithelia (EOE) and enamel shavings. FAM20C localized intracellularly within ameloblasts and odontoblasts in a pattern consistent with Golgi localization. Western blots detected FAM20C in the EOE extracts but not in the enamel matrix. We conclude that FAM20C is not a constituent of the enamel extracellular matrix and functions intracellularly within ameloblasts. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Rhodiola crenulata extract for prevention of acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is widely used to prevent acute mountain sickness in the Himalayan areas and in Tibet, but no scientific studies have previously examined its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate its efficacy in acute mountain sickness prevention.
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Childhood tuberculosis in southern Taiwan, with emphasis on central nervous system complications.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Childhood tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem in Taiwan. Taiwan remains a highly endemic area despite neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and the availability of anti-TB therapy. The presentation is highly variable and it is often difficult to make an accurate diagnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings and outcomes of TB in children with emphasis on central nervous system (CNS) complications.
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Butein Inhibits Angiogenesis of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells via the Translation Dependent Signaling Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Compelling evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can contribute to postnatal neovascularization and tumor angiogenesis. EPCs have been shown to play a "catalytic" role in metastatic progression by mediating the angiogenic switch. Understanding the pharmacological functions and molecular targets of natural products is critical for drug development. Butein, a natural chalcone derivative, has been reported to exert potent anticancer activity. However, the antiangiogenic activity of butein has not been addressed. In this study, we found that butein inhibited serum- and vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) induced cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human EPCs in a concentration dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, butein markedly abrogated VEGF-induced vessels sprouting from aortic rings and suppressed microvessel formation in the Matrigel implant assay in vivo. In addition, butein concentration-dependently repressed the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and the major downstream effectors, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and eIF4E in EPCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that butein exhibits the antiangiogenic effect both in vitro and in vivo by targeting the translational machinery. Butein is a promising angiogenesis inhibitor with the potential for treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases.
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Hepatic damage caused by coxsackievirus B3 is dependent on age-related tissue tropisms associated with the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor.
Pathog Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Coxsackievirus B (CVB) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are important causes of severe enteroviral diseases in neonates or young children in Taiwan. CVB can cause fulminant hepatitis, myocarditis or meningoencephalitis. This study was designed to explore the role of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) in the pathogenesis of CVB3-infected hepatocytes via in vitro and mice studies. CVB3 (CVB3/2630) was isolated from liver tissue of a neonate with fulminant hepatitis. Cell lines A549, HeLa, HEp2 and Huh-7 were maintained in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium. Mice progeny 1 or 7 days old were used in the experiments. Viremia was noted in 7-day-old ICR mice 2 h after intraperitoneal injection. The highest viral titers were detected in blood, liver and spleen. Histopathological studies of the liver demonstrated polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, massive hepatic cell necrosis and apoptosis. CAR was expressed more in liver than in other tissues. Expression of CAR decreased with mouse age. Anti-CAR monoclonal antibody prevented infection of Huh-7 cells from CVB3. Furthermore, anti-CAR monoclonal antibody pretreatment can reduce mortality and decrease the level of liver enzymes in CVB3-infected mice. These findings indicate that CAR plays an important role in the initiation of CVB infections and is closely associated with hepatotropism and age-specific susceptibility.
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Trichodermin induces cell apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor, and it responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Nalanthamala psidii was described originally as Myxosporium in 1926. This is the first study to investigate the anti-tumor activity of trichodermin (trichothec-9-en-4-ol, 12,13-epoxy-, acetate), an endophytic fungal metabolite from N. psidii against human chondrosarcoma cells. We demonstrated that trichodermin induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353 cells) instead of primary chondrocytes. In addition, trichodermin triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein levels of IRE1, p-PERK, GRP78, and GRP94, which were characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels. Furthermore, trichodermin induced the upregulation of Bax and Bid, the downregulation of Bcl-2, and the dysfunction of mitochondria, which released cytochrome c and activated caspase-3 in human chondrosarcoma. In addition, animal experiments illustrated reduced tumor volume, which led to an increased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and an increased level of cleaved PARP protein following trichodermin treatment. Together, this study demonstrates that trichodermin is a novel anti-tumor agent against human chondrosarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress.
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FAM20A mutations can cause enamel-renal syndrome (ERS).
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Enamel-renal syndrome (ERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, enlarged gingiva, and nephrocalcinosis. Recently, mutations in FAM20A were reported to cause amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome (AIGFS), which closely resembles ERS except for the renal calcifications. We characterized three families with AIGFS and identified, in each case, recessive FAM20A mutations: family 1 (c.992G>A; g.63853G>A; p.Gly331Asp), family 2 (c.720-2A>G; g.62232A>G; p.Gln241_Arg271del), and family 3 (c.406C>T; g.50213C>T; p.Arg136* and c.1432C>T; g.68284C>T; p.Arg478*). Significantly, a kidney ultrasound of the family 2 proband revealed nephrocalcinosis, revising the diagnosis from AIGFS to ERS. By characterizing teeth extracted from the family 3 proband, we demonstrated that FAM20A(-/-) molars lacked true enamel, showed extensive crown and root resorption, hypercementosis, and partial replacement of resorbed mineral with bone or coalesced mineral spheres. Supported by the observation of severe ectopic calcifications in the kidneys of Fam20a null mice, we conclude that FAM20A, which has a kinase homology domain and localizes to the Golgi, is a putative Golgi kinase that plays a significant role in the regulation of biomineralization processes, and that mutations in FAM20A cause both AIGFS and ERS.
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Different duration of high-altitude pre-exposure associated with the incidence of acute mountain sickness on Jade Mountain.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The objective of this study is to determine the association between the duration of high-altitude (>3000 m) pre-exposure and acute mountain sickness (AMS) incidence.
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy.
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Does the size of the rod affect the surgical results in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? 5.5-mm versus 6.35-mm rod.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Favorable clinical outcomes of surgical treatment with Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation (CDI) or instrumentations that follow the principles of CDI, for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have been reported. However, there are few studies concerning the results with rods of different sizes.
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Subneutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 induce antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in newborn mice.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infections can be induced by subneutralizing concentrations of specific antibodies. We recently demonstrated ADE in human monocytes infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71). The current study was designed to extend these observations by determining the effect of ADE on the pathogenesis of EV71 infection in newborn mice. We compared the clinical manifestations, mortality, virus titer, histopathology, and serum levels of cytokines and chemokines in newborn mice pretreated with subneutralizing antibodies to EV71 or normal mouse IgG with and without virus. Seven-day-old ICR mice were pretreated with a wide range of mouse anti-EV71 IgG 24 h prior to intraperitoneal injection of EV71. Mice were protected from infection by neutralizing doses of anti-EV71 IgG ranging from 6.43 × 10?¹ to 329.6 ?g/ml. Subneutralizing doses ranging from 2.01 × 10?² to 3.21 × 10?¹ ?g/ml were found to significantly increase 14-day mortality compared to virus alone. The ADE effect was not evident at lower doses. Histopathological examination of mice given a subneutralizing dose of 8.04 × 10?² ?g/ml revealed extensive neuronal and muscular damage compared to untreated infected controls. Higher serum levels of interferon (IFN)-? and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were noted in mice pretreated with subneutralizing doses than untreated infected controls. These findings support the concept that subneutralizing antibodies directed enhance EV71 induce ADE in newborn mice.
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Integrating solid-state sensor and microfluidic devices for glucose, urea and creatinine detection based on enzyme-carrying alginate microbeads.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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A solid-state sensor embedded microfluidic chip is demonstrated for the detection of glucose, urea and creatinine in human serum. In the presented device, magnetic powder-containing enzyme-carrying alginate microbeads are immobilized on the surface of an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensor by means of a step-like obstacle in the microchannel and an external magnetic force. The sample is injected into the microchannel and reacts with the enzyme contained within the alginate beads; prompting the release of hydrogen ions. The sample concentration is then evaluated by measuring the resulting change in the voltage signal of the EIS sensor. The reaction time and alginate bead size are optimized experimentally using a standard glucose solution. The experimental results show that the device has a detection range of 2-8mM, 1-16mM and 10(-2)-10mM for glucose, urea and creatinine, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that the device is capable of sequentially measuring all three indicators in a human serum sample. Finally, it is shown that the measured values of the glucose, urea and creatinine concentrations obtained using the device deviate from those obtained using a commercial kit by just 5.17%, 6.22% and 13.53%, respectively. This method can be extended to sequentially measure multiple blood indicators in the sample chip by replacing different types of enzyme in alginate bead and can address the enzyme preservation issue in the microfluidic device. Overall, the results presented in this study indicate that the microfluidic chip has significant potential for blood monitoring in point-of-care applications.
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High-incidence of human adenoviral co-infections in taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Respiratory infections caused by adenovirus (HAdV) are common year round. Recently, a significant increase of adenoviral infections was observed in Taiwan.
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Estradiol and tamoxifen induce cell migration through GPR30 and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in endometrial cancers with low or without nuclear estrogen receptor ? (ER?).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Estrogens and tamoxifen (an antiestrogen) exert their actions by activation of estrogen receptor (ER) through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms and are implicated in the development of endometrial cancer. Previous reports have demonstrated that estradiol and tamoxifen induce proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells through GPR30 (non-genomic ER) signaling pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in cell migration induced by estradiol, tamoxifen and G1 (a GPR30 agonist) through the transmembrane ER (GPR30) in endometrial cancer cell lines with or without ER? (Ishikawa and RL95-2). Additionally, the GPR30-mediated cell migration was further abolished by administration of either specific RNA interference targeting GPR30 or an FAK inhibitor. Moreover, we have validated that the signaling between GPR30 and phosphorylated FAK is indeed mediated by the EGFR/PI3K/ERK pathway. Clinically, a significant correlation between levels of GPR30 and phophorylated FAK (pFAK) observed in human endometrial cancer tissues with low or without ER? further suggested that estrogen-induced phosphorylation of FAK and cell migration were most likely triggered by GPR30 activation. These results provided new insights for understanding the pathophysiological functions of GPR30 in human endometrial cancers.
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Proteomic profiling of rabbit embryonic stem cells derived from parthenotes and fertilized embryos.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Rabbit embryonic stem (rES) cells can be derived from various sources of embryos. However, understanding of the gene expression profile, which distincts embryonic stem (ES) cells from other cell types, is still extremely limited. In this study, we compared the protein profiles of three independent lines of rabbit cells, i.e., fibroblasts, fertilized embryo-derived stem (f-rES) cells, and parthenote-derived ES (p-rES) cells. Proteomic analyses were performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Collectively, the expression levels of 100 out of 284 protein spots differed significantly among these three cell types (p<0.05). Of those differentially expressed spots, 91% were identified in the protein database and represented 63 distinct proteins. Proteins with known identities are mainly localized in the cytoplasmic compartments (48%), nucleus (14%), and cytoskeletal machineries (13%). These proteins were majorly involved in biological functions of energy and metabolic pathways (25%), cell growth and maintenance (25%), signal transduction (14%), and protein metabolisms (10%). When protein expression levels among cell types were compared, six proteins associated with a variety of cellular activities, including structural constituents of the cytoskeleton (tubulins), structural molecule (KRT8), catalytic molecules (?-enolase), receptor complex scaffold (14-3-3 protein sigma), microfilament motor proteins (Myosin-9), and heat shock protein (HSP60), were found highly expressed in p-rES cells. Two proteins related to HSP activity and structural constituent of cytoskeleton in f-rES cells, and one structural molecule activity protein in fibroblasts showed significantly higher expression levels (p<0.05). Marker protein expressions in f-rES and p-rES cells were further confirmed by Western blotting and immunocytochemical staining. This study demonstrated unique proteomic profiles of the three rabbit cell types and revealed some novel proteins differentially expressed between f-rES and p-rES cells. These analyses provide insights into rES cell biology and would invite more in-depth studies toward rES cell applications.
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Real-time electrocardiogram transmission from Mount Everest during continued ascent.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The feasibility of a real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission via satellite phone from Mount Everest to determine a climbers suitability for continued ascent was examined. Four Taiwanese climbers were enrolled in the 2009 Mount Everest summit program. Physiological measurements were taken at base camp (5300 m), camp 2 (6400 m), camp 3 (7100 m), and camp 4 (7950 m) 1 hour after arrival and following a 10 minute rest period. A total of 3 out of 4 climbers were able to summit Mount Everest successfully. Overall, ECG and global positioning system (GPS) coordinates of climbers were transmitted in real-time via satellite phone successfully from base camp, camp 2, camp 3, and camp 4. At each camp, Resting Heart Rate (RHR) was transmitted and recorded: base camp (54-113 bpm), camp 2 (94-130 bpm), camp 3 (98-115 bpm), and camp 4 (93-111 bpm). Real-time ECG and GPS coordinate transmission via satellite phone is feasible for climbers on Mount Everest. Real-time RHR data can be used to evaluate a climbers physiological capacity to continue an ascent and to summit.
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Enamel malformations associated with a defined dentin sialophosphoprotein mutation in two families.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) mutations cause dentin dysplasia type II (DD-II) and dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III (DGI-II and DGI-III, respectively). We identified two kindreds with DGI-II who exhibited vertical bands of hypoplastic enamel. Both families had a previously reported DSPP mutation that segregated with the disease phenotype. Oral photographs and dental radiographs of four affected and one unaffected participant in one family and of the proband in the second family were used to document the dental phenotypes. We aligned the 33 unique allelic DSPP sequences showing variable patterns of insertions and deletions (indels), generated a merged dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) sequence that includes sequences from all DSPP length haplotypes, and mapped the known DSPP mutations in this context. Analyses of the DSPP sequence changes and their probable effects on protein expression, as well as published findings of the dental phenotype in Dspp null mice, support the hypothesis that all DSPP mutations cause pathology through dominant-negative effects. Noting that Dspp is transiently expressed by mouse pre-ameloblasts during formation of the dentino-enamel junction, we hypothesize that DSPP dominant-negative effects potentially cause cellular pathology in pre-ameloblasts that, in turn, causes enamel defects. We conclude that enamel defects can be part of the dental phenotype caused by DSPP mutations, although DSPP is not critical for dental enamel formation.
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Iron oxide nanoparticle-induced epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human stem cells for tumor therapy.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles show promise as labels for cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the application of stem cell-based therapy. However, the unaddressed concerns about the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on stem cell attributes make the feasibility of SPIO labeling uncertain. Here, we show that the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with ferucarbotran can induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression. Labeled hMSCs with their overexpressed EGFR were attracted by tumorous EGF and more effectively migrated toward tumor than unlabeled cells, resulting in more potent intrinsic antitumor activity. Moreover, the captured binding of tumorous EGF by overexpressed EGFR of labeled hMSCs blocked EGF/EGFR signaling-derived tumor growth, tumorous angiogenesis, and tumorous VEGF expression also responsible for tumor progression and development. Our results show that the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on stem cell attributes is not necessarily harmful but can be cleverly used to be beneficial to stem cell-based therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.