Here we describe the design and synthesis of a bifunctional two-photon fluorescence probe, N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-(biphenyl-2,1-ethenediyl)dipyridinium hexafluorophosphate (BP6). HeLa, Hek293, and Paramecium caudatum cells were stained with BP6. BP6 accumulated on the mitochondria of all three cell types when the mitochondrial membrane potential was high. As the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased following the addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine, BP6 moved from the mitochondria to the nucleus in a reversible manner, depending on the mitochondrial membrane potential status. The maximum value of the two-photon absorption cross-section of BP6 is 250 GM (1 GM = 1 × 10(-50) cm(4) s molecules(-1) photon(-1)). This value is 3 and 30 times larger, respectively, than that of the conventional mitochondria selective probes, rhodamine 123 and green fluorescence protein. These results suggest that BP6 should be useful for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential by two-photon excitation.
Cytoplasmic dynein drives the movement of a wide range of cargoes towards the minus ends of microtubules. We previously demonstrated that LIS1 forms an idling complex with dynein, which is transported to the plus ends of microtubules by kinesin motors. Here we report that the small GTPase Rab6a is essential for activation of idling dynein. Immunoprecipitation and microtubule pull-down assays reveal that the GTP bound mutant, Rab6a(Q72L), dissociates LIS1 from a LIS1-dynein complex, activating dynein movement in in vitro microtubule gliding assays. We monitor transient interaction between Rab6a(Q72L) and dynein in vivo using dual-colour fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that Rab6a(Q72L) mediates LIS1 release from a LIS1-dynein complex followed by dynein activation through an in vitro single-molecule assay using triple-colour quantum dots. Our findings reveal a surprising function for GTP bound Rab6a as an activator of idling dynein.
Two-laser-beam fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) is promising technique that provides quantitative information about the interactions of biomolecules. The p50/p65 heterodimer is the most abundant and well understood of the NF?B dimers in most cells. However, the quantitative value of affinity, namely the K(d), for the heterodimer in living cells is not known yet. To quantify the heterodimerization of the IPT domain of p50/p65 in the living cell, we used two-laser-beam FCCS. The K(d) values of mCherry2- and EGFP-fused p50 and p65 were determined to be 0.46 ?M in the cytoplasm and 1.06 ?M in the nucleus of the living cell. These results suggest the different binding affinities of the p50/p65 heterodimer in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the living cell and different complex formation in each region.
The efficient delivery of hydrophobic drugs into target cells without the use of organic solvents or chemical linkage to delivery carriers is an important theme in the biomedical and pharmaceutical field. In this study, we synthesized virus-like particles (VLPs) coupled with cyclodextrins (CDs) as hydrophobic pockets through disulfide bonds inside the VLPs, where hydrophobic drugs can be incorporated. We report here the intracellular delivery of hydrophobic dyes or drugs encapsulated in VLPs through CDs with high efficiency and their subsequent release in cells in response to glutathione. As a model anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX)-CD complexes were encapsulated inside VLPs and the cytotoxic drug activity of PTX loaded VLPs against NIH3T3 cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. PTX-loaded VLPs exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect with a 20-fold smaller IC(50) than that of free PTX dissolved in DMSO. These results indicate that VLPs with removable CDs afford highly promising carriers of hydrophobic drugs without chemical modification of drugs.
Transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) plays a key role in the regulation of immune responses to inflammation. However, convenient assay systems to quantitate the NF-?B activity level in a timely manner are not available in the setting of clinical laboratories. Therefore, we developed a novel and high-throughput quantitative assay based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to detect the NF-?B activity level in cellular nuclear extracts and evaluated the performance of this method. The basic principle of this assay is to calculate the binding fraction of NF-?B to fluorescent-labeled DNA probes, which contain NF-?B binding sites.
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has become a powerful and sensitive tool in biochemistry and biophysics. It directly obtains physical parameters such as the average number of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion time in a tiny detection area. It also provides other useful information such as the brightness of molecules. Ultimately, it can give precise information about molecular interactions in the aqueous condition. In FCS experiments, the fluctuation of fluorescence emission intensity from the tiny detection area is monitored as a function of time. The monitored fluorescence fluctuation signals are transformed to an autocorrelation curve according to the autocorrelation calculator unit and the curves are then fitted to an appropriate physical model. This protocol outlines an FCS example involving a shift of the autocorrelation curve.
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has become a powerful and sensitive tool in biochemistry and biophysics. It directly obtains physical parameters such as the average number of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion time in a tiny detection area. It also provides other useful information such as the brightness of molecules. Ultimately, it can give precise information about molecular interactions in the aqueous condition. This protocol outlines the basic FCS setup and how measurements are made.
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has become a powerful and sensitive tool in biochemistry and biophysics. It directly obtains physical parameters such as the average number of fluorescent molecules and their diffusion time in a tiny detection area. It also provides other useful information such as the brightness of molecules. Ultimately, it can give precise information about molecular interactions in the aqueous condition. This article outlines the basic parameters and properties of FCS.
Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) reveals information about the spatiotemporal coincidence of two spectrally well-defined fluorescent molecules in a small observation area at the level of single-molecule sensitivity. To simultaneously evaluate the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, we constructed a chimeral protein that consisted of tandemly fused enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), monomeric red fluorescent protein (mCherry) and monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (Venus). In HeLa cell lysates, a combination of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)- and cycloheximide (CHX-)-induced apoptosis was monitored. In this, decreases of cross-correlation amplitudes were observed between ECFP and mCherry and between mCherry and Venus. Moreover, time-dependent monitoring of single cells revealed decreases in the cross-correlation amplitudes between ECFP and mCherry and between mCherry and Venus before morphologic changes were observed by laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (LSM). Thus, our method could predict the fate of the cell in the early apoptotic stage.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.