JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Amplification characteristics of a cryogenic Yb³?:YAG total-reflection active-mirror laser.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have studied the amplification characteristics of a cryogenically cooled Yb³?:YAG total-reflection active-mirror (TRAM) ceramic laser including wavefront distortion, birefringence loss, small signal gain (SSG), and temperature rise for developing high-performance master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) systems. A 0.6 mm thick Yb³?:YAG ceramic sample was used, and maximum pump intensity ~10??kW/cm² was reached. The transmitted wavefront was measured by using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and we evaluated the thermal lens focal length and Strehl ratio for different pump conditions. We have also observed a butterfly-like leakage profile of thermally induced birefringence loss at the maximum pump intensity. From SSG measurements, we obtained moderate laser gain of G=3 for one bounce with a near aberration-free wavefront. Gain calculations, which included also temperature dependence of the emission cross section and reabsorption of Yb³?:YAG, were in good agreement with the experiments. These experimental results will be useful as benchmark data for numerical simulations of temperature distribution in TRAM and for designing multikilowatt-class high-performance MOPA systems.
Related JoVE Video
Pleiotropic Effects of Obesity on Fracture Risk: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some aspects of an obese body habitus may protect against fracture risk (higher BMD and greater tissue padding), while others may augment that risk (greater impact forces during a fall). To examine these competing pathways, we analyzed data from a multisite, multiethnic cohort of 1924 women, premenopausal or early perimenopausal at baseline. Obesity was defined as baseline body mass index (BMI)> 30kg/m2. Composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to fall impact forces were constructed from DXA-derived bone size, bone mineral density (BMD) and body size. Incident fractures were ascertained annually during a median follow-up of 9 years. In multivariable linear regression adjusted for covariates, higher BMI was associated with higher BMD but with lower composite strength indices, suggesting that although BMD increases with greater skeletal loading, the increase is not sufficient to compensate for the increase in fall impact forces. During the follow-up, 201 women had fractures. In Cox proportional hazard analyses, obesity was associated with increased fracture hazard adjusted for BMD, consistent with greater fall impact forces in obese individuals. Adjusted for composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to fall impact forces, obesity was associated with decreased fracture hazard, consistent with a protective effect of soft tissue padding. Further adjustment for hip circumference, a surrogate marker of soft tissue padding, attenuated the obesity-fracture association. Our findings support that there are at least three major mechanisms by which obesity influences fracture risk: increased BMD in response to greater skeletal loading, increased impact forces, and greater absorption of impact forces by soft tissue padding. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a simple screening test for sarcopenia in older adults.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a simple screening test to identify older adults at high risk for sarcopenia.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenia and Role of Sex and Age: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Kashiwa Cohort Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women). Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9-15.9) but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of dementia in Japan: a systematic review.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The actual prevalence of dementia in Japan as well as the changes in the prevalence are not well known. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to collect evidence regarding the prevalence of dementia in Japan.
Related JoVE Video
Predicting the timeline to the final menstrual period: the study of womens health across the nation.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Predicting the final menstrual period (FMP) would help women know when their menopause transition will be completed. Additionally, biological changes, such as accelerated bone loss, precede the FMP by at least 1 year.
Related JoVE Video
C-reactive protein, bone strength, and nine-year fracture risk: data from the Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN).
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, are associated with increased fracture risk, although previous studies on CRP and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded conflicting results. We aimed to test the hypotheses that composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load, which are inversely associated with fracture risk, would also be inversely associated with CRP, and would explain part of the association between CRP and fracture risk. We analyzed data from a multisite, multiethnic prospective cohort of 1872 community-dwelling women, premenopausal or early perimenopausal at baseline. Femoral neck composite strength indices in three failure modes were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived femoral neck width (FNW), femoral neck axis length (FNAL), femoral neck BMD and body size at baseline, as BMD*FNW/weight for compression strength, BMD*(FNW)(2) /(FNAL*weight) for bending strength, and BMD*FNW*FNAL/(height*weight) for impact strength. Incident nondigital, noncraniofacial fractures were ascertained annually over a median follow-up of 9 years. In analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, diabetes, menopause transition stage, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, medications, prior fracture, and study site, CRP was associated inversely with each composite strength index (0.035-0.041 SD decrement per doubling of CRP, all p?
Related JoVE Video
Priorities of health care outcomes for the elderly.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physicians are uncertain about what medical services should be provided to older and/or disabled patients. Better understanding of health outcome prioritization among health care providers and recipients may help the process of decision- and policy-making. For this purpose, surveys were conducted on priorities of health care outcomes for the elderly.
Related JoVE Video
Engineered monoclonal antibody with novel antigen-sweeping activity in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies are widely used to target disease-related antigens. However, because conventional antibody binds to the antigen but cannot eliminate the antigen from plasma, and rather increases the plasma antigen concentration by reducing the clearance of the antigen, some clinically important antigens are still difficult to target with monoclonal antibodies because of the huge dosages required. While conventional antibody can only bind to the antigen, some natural endocytic receptors not only bind to the ligands but also continuously eliminate them from plasma by pH-dependent dissociation of the ligands within the acidic endosome and subsequent receptor recycling to the cell surface. Here, we demonstrate that an engineered antibody, named sweeping antibody, having both pH-dependent antigen binding (to mimic the receptor-ligand interaction) and increased binding to cell surface neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) at neutral pH (to mimic the cell-bound form of the receptor), selectively eliminated the antigen from plasma. With this novel antigen-sweeping activity, antibody without in vitro neutralizing activity exerted in vivo efficacy by directly eliminating the antigen from plasma. Moreover, conversion of conventional antibody with in vitro neutralizing activity into sweeping antibody further potentiated the in vivo efficacy. Depending on the binding affinity to FcRn at neutral pH, sweeping antibody reduced antigen concentration 50- to 1000-fold compared to conventional antibody. Thereby, sweeping antibody antagonized excess amounts of antigen in plasma against which conventional antibody was completely ineffective, and could afford marked reduction of dosage to a level that conventional antibody can never achieve. Thus, the novel mode of action of sweeping antibody provides potential advantages over conventional antibody and may allow access to the target antigens which were previously undruggable by conventional antibody.
Related JoVE Video
Diabetes and femoral neck strength: findings from the Hip Strength Across the Menopausal Transition Study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased hip fracture risk, despite being associated with higher bone mineral density in the femoral neck.
Related JoVE Video
Engineering the variable region of therapeutic IgG antibodies.
MAbs
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since the first generation of humanized IgG1 antibodies reached the market in the late 1990s, IgG antibody molecules have been extensively engineered. The success of antibody therapeutics has introduced severe competition in developing novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, especially for promising or clinically validated targets. Such competition has led researchers to generate so-called second or third generation antibodies with clinical differentiation utilizing various engineering and optimization technologies. Parent IgG antibodies can be engineered to have improved antigen binding properties, effector functions, pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutical properties and safety issues. Although the primary role of the antibody variable region is to bind to the antigen, it is also the main source of antibody diversity and its sequence affects various properties important for developing antibody therapeutics. Here we review recent research activity in variable region engineering to generate superior antibody therapeutics.
Related JoVE Video
Zig-zag active-mirror laser with cryogenic Yb3+:YAG/YAG composite ceramics.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on a novel amplifier configuration concept for a 10 kW laser system using a zig-zag optical path based on a cryogenic Yb:YAG Total-Reflection Active-Mirror (TRAM) laser. The laser material is a compact composite ceramic, in which three Yb:YAG TRAMs are combined in series to increase the output power. Output powers of up to 214 W with a slope efficiency of 63% have been demonstrated for CW operation, even at a quite low pump intensity of less than 170 W/cm2. Further scaling could achieve output powers of more than 10 kW.
Related JoVE Video
Potentially reversible resident factors associated with rejection of care behaviors.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify the potentially modifiable resident-level factors associated with rejection of care in nursing home (NH) residents.
Related JoVE Video
Antibody recycling by engineered pH-dependent antigen binding improves the duration of antigen neutralization.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For many antibodies, each antigen-binding site binds to only one antigen molecule during the antibodys lifetime in plasma. To increase the number of cycles of antigen binding and lysosomal degradation, we engineered tocilizumab (Actemra), an antibody against the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), to rapidly dissociate from IL-6R within the acidic environment of the endosome (pH 6.0) while maintaining its binding affinity to IL-6R in plasma (pH 7.4). Studies using normal mice and mice expressing human IL-6R suggested that this pH-dependent IL-6R dissociation within the acidic environment of the endosome resulted in lysosomal degradation of the previously bound IL-6R while releasing the free antibody back to the plasma to bind another IL-6R molecule. In cynomolgus monkeys, an antibody with pH-dependent antigen binding, but not an affinity-matured variant, significantly improved the pharmacokinetics and duration of C-reactive protein inhibition. Engineering pH dependency into the interactions of therapeutic antibodies with their targets may enable them to be delivered less frequently or at lower doses.
Related JoVE Video
A conceptual framework for rejection of care behaviors: review of literature and analysis of role of dementia severity.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rejection of care behaviors is common in the geriatric population, especially among patients with dementia. Nonetheless, the concept of rejection of care is not well defined and existing psychosocial theoretical models fall short of capturing complex relationships between factors associated with rejection of care. We propose a definition of rejection of care and develop a conceptual framework of rejection of care incorporating 7 components: intrinsic factors, match between needs and environmental resources, behavior state, antecedents, individual preferences, rejection of care behaviors, and consequences. A literature search yielded 55 studies that examined the associations between rejection of care and factors of the conceptual framework. We quantitatively synthesized studies focused on dementia severity and rejection of care. The literature review demonstrated that rejection of care is more prevalent among patients with dementia or functional impairment, associated with some mutable factors, and is triggered by specific antecedents in the context of daily personal care provision and associated with various adverse outcomes. The meta-analysis provided evidence that severe dementia is associated with higher likelihood of developing rejection of care behaviors compared with mild to moderate dementia. We also found that research on unmet needs, antecedents, and individual preferences has been scarce. The direction of further research is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of pituitary-adrenal responsiveness between insulin tolerance test and growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 test: a pilot study.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for assessing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function. GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2, which has a strong GH-stimulating activity, is useful for diagnosing GH deficiency as well as ITT. Additionally, GHRP-2 is also known to activate HPA axis. There have been no comparative studies of pituitary-adrenal responsiveness between GHRP-2 test and ITT in patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease. To assess whether GHRP-2 test could be an alternative to ITT for diagnosing HPA axis failure, both ITT and GHRP-2 test were performed in 15 patients suspected of hypopituitarism. A 100mug dose of GHRP-2 was administered intravenously and plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were measured. In ITT, a peak cortisol value over 18mug/dl is considered normal. Nine patients were diagnosed as HPA axis failure by ITT. Their median peak cortisol in GHRP-2 test was 11.4mug/ml. In 6 patients diagnosed as normal HPA axis status by ITT, their median peak cortisol in response to GHRP-2 test was 21.4mug/dl, significantly higher (p=0.0032) than seen in patients diagnosed as HPA axis failure. There was a strong correlation between the peak cortisol in GHRP-2 test and ITT (r=0.817; p<0.0001). When the cut-off value for the peak cortisol in GHRP-2 test was set to 13-14mug/dl for diagnosing HPA axis failure, the specificity and sensitivity were 100% and 88.9%, respectively. Although further studies that include normal subjects are needed, these preliminary results suggest the possibility that GHRP-2 test may be an alternative to ITT for assessing HPA axis function.
Related JoVE Video
Total-reflection active-mirror laser with cryogenic Yb:YAG ceramics.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient high-power laser operation has been demonstrated by using a cryogenic Yb:YAG composite ceramic with a total-reflection active-mirror arrangement. The composite ceramic, which had no high-reflection coating and was cooled with liquid nitrogen directly, showed four-level operation even at 67 kW/cm(3) of high pump density. A 273 W cw output power was obtained with 65% optical efficiency and 72% slope efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Effective screening method of agonistic diabodies based on autocrine growth.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Agonistic diabodies that mimic the function of natural ligands are expected to increase the value of therapeutic antibodies. We have developed a method that detects agonistic diabodies based on their ability to transduce growth signals through receptors, thereby permitting cytokine-independent growth of BaF/3-derived cytokine-dependent cells. Retrovirus-mediated expression of the diabody in cytokine-dependent cells was followed by selection of clones for growth in the absence of cytokine. A diabody library derived from splenocytes of human Mpl immunized mice was constructed. Infection of cells with viral particles led to the isolation of over 500 autonomously growing clones whose cultured supernatants showed agonistic activities against Mpl. Genome-integrated diabodies were cloned; representative clone AB317 showed agonistic activities as potent as a natural ligand and cross-reactive against mouse Mpl.
Related JoVE Video
Apathy: a common psychiatric syndrome in the elderly.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apathy, or a lack of motivation, has been increasingly recognized as a distinct psychiatric syndrome. Apathy is primarily a dysfunction of the frontal-subcortical circuit and is associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders including Alzheimers disease. Apathy is associated with a number of adverse outcomes, including apparent cognitive impairment, decreased daily function, poor insight into ones own functional and cognitive impairment, and poor outcome from rehabilitation treatment. Furthermore, the degree of caregivers burden in these patients is significant. This article reviews the definition of apathy, prevalence and associated adverse outcomes, causation, the approach to patients with apathy, and available treatment options with particular attention to studies conducted in a nursing home setting. The purpose of this article is to increase the recognition of apathy by physicians working in the nursing home.
Related JoVE Video
A bispecific antibody to factors IXa and X restores factor VIII hemostatic activity in a hemophilia A model.
Nat. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder resulting from coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Exogenously provided FVIII effectively reduces bleeding complications in patients with severe hemophilia A. In approximately 30% of such patients, however, the foreignness of the FVIII molecule causes them to develop inhibitory antibodies against FVIII (inhibitors), precluding FVIII treatment in this set of patients. Moreover, the poor pharmacokinetics of FVIII, attributed to low subcutaneous bioavailability and a short half-life of 0.5 d, necessitates frequent intravenous injections. To overcome these drawbacks, we generated a humanized bispecific antibody to factor IXa (FIXa) and factor X (FX), termed hBS23, that places these two factors into spatially appropriate positions and mimics the cofactor function of FVIII. hBS23 exerted coagulation activity in FVIII-deficient plasma, even in the presence of inhibitors, and showed in vivo hemostatic activity in a nonhuman primate model of acquired hemophilia A. Notably, hBS23 had high subcutaneous bioavailability and a 2-week half-life and would not be expected to elicit the development of FVIII-specific inhibitory antibodies, as its molecular structure, and hence antigenicity, differs from that of FVIII. A long-acting, subcutaneously injectable agent that is unaffected by the presence of inhibitors could markedly reduce the burden of care for the treatment of hemophilia A.
Related JoVE Video
Fracture risk assessment without race/ethnicity information.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) does not explain interracial differences in fracture risk; thus, BMD-based fracture risk assessment requires patient race/ethnicity information and ethnicity-specific BMD reference databases.
Related JoVE Video
Gender, obesity and repeated elevation of C-reactive protein: data from the CARDIA cohort.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
C-reactive Protein (CRP) measurements above 10 mg/L have been conventionally treated as acute inflammation and excluded from epidemiologic studies of chronic inflammation. However, recent evidence suggest that such CRP elevations can be seen even with chronic inflammation. The authors assessed 3,300 participants in The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, who had two or more CRP measurements between 1992/3 and 2005/6 to a) investigate characteristics associated with repeated CRP elevation above 10 mg/L; b) identify subgroups at high risk of repeated elevation; and c) investigate the effect of different CRP thresholds on the probability of an elevation being one-time rather than repeated. 225 participants (6.8%) had one-time and 103 (3.1%) had repeated CRP elevation above 10 mg/L. Repeated elevation was associated with obesity, female gender, low income, and sex hormone use. The probability of an elevation above 10 mg/L being one-time rather than repeated was lowest (51%) in women with body mass index above 31 kg/m(2), compared to 82% in others. These findings suggest that CRP elevations above 10 mg/L in obese women are likely to be from chronic rather than acute inflammation, and that CRP thresholds above 10 mg/L may be warranted to distinguish acute from chronic inflammation in obese women.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.