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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Endothelial Function in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Aim: The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid DHA), reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events, and reduced serum levels of n-3 PUFA may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, controversy remains regarding which components of PUFA are associated with the endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We therefore examined the associations between the n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels and CAD.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 160 consecutive Japanese patients with CAD whose endothelial function was measured according to the percent change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the serum levels of n-3 PUFA, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA, and n-6 PUFA, including arachidonic acid (AA) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA).Results: A single regression analysis showed no relationships between the FMD and the serum levels of PUFA, including EPA, DHA, AA and DHLA. In contrast, a multiple regression analysis showed that the DHA level was a positive (P?0.01) and age was a negative (P?0.001) contributor to an increased FMD; however, sex, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, current/past smoking and the levels of HbA1c, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, EPA, AA and DHLA did not significantly affect the outcome.Conclusions: The serum level of DHA is associated with the endothelial function evaluated according to the FMD in patients with CAD, thus suggesting that a low serum level of DHA may be a predictive biomarker for endothelial dysfunction.
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Cardiac rehabilitation reduces serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels have been found to play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, methods for effectively reducing oxLDL levels have not been established. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with exercise training prevents the progression of atherosclerosis, and might reduce oxLDL levels.Methods?and?Results:We measured the serum levels of malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), a marker of oxLDL, in 136 patients who were enrolled in a 6-month CR program. Peak oxygen consumption (V?O2) and MDA-LDL levels were analyzed, before and 6 months after enrolment. In total, 67 patients completed the CR program (CR group) and 69 patients failed to complete the program (non-CR group). Peak V?O2increased significantly in the CR group (P<0.01). The levels of MDA-LDL decreased significantly in the CR group (P<0.01) but not in the non-CR group. ?V?O2(peak V?O2after CR-peak V?O2before CR) was negatively associated with ?MDA-LDL (MDA-LDL after CR-MDA-LDL before CR) (R(2)=0.11, P=0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that continuing CR was an independent determining factor for lowering MDA-LDL levels.
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[Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors for treatment of hypertension with abnormal circadian rhythm of blood pressure].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) has recently been focused on because increase in nocturnal BP and morning BP surge have been shown to be risks for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases independent of 24-h BP level. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is involved in BP circadian rhythm, and RAAS inhibitors therefore play an important role in the control of circadian rhythm of BP. Bedtime administration of RAAS inhibitors is more effective than morning administration for reducing nocturnal and morning BP levels in addition to converting the BP profile into a dipper pattern, which is known as chronotherapy. For reducing cardio-cerebro-vascular events, controlling abnormal circadian rhythm of BP in addition to 24-h BP using RAAS inhibitors with optimal time dosing should be considered.
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High serum parathyroid hormone and calcium are risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Excess parathyroid hormone (PTH), known as primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), results in hypercalcemia and bone loss. Recent studies have shown that PTH is associated with the occurrence of hypertension in Western countries; however, controversy remains regarding high serum levels of PTH and calcium as risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients. We retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive Japanese patients who visited our hospital for examination and treatment of hypercalcemia and/or hypertension with serum calcium levels ? 9.8 mg/dL. To estimate the prevalence of hypertension, the patients were categorized according to calcium levels into hypercalcemic (10.2-13.4 mg/dL) and normocalcemic (9.8-10.1 mg/dL) groups, which were further categorized into high PTH (50-440 pg/mL) and low PTH (8-49 pg/mL) groups. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in patients with hypercalcemia than in patients with normocalcemia in both the high and low PTH groups. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in patients with high serum PTH levels than in patients with low serum PTH levels in both the hypercalcemic and normocalcemic groups. Logistic multiple regression analysis determined that serum calcium (P < 0.05) and PTH (P < 0.01) levels were positive contributors to hypertension. In conclusion, high serum levels of PTH and calcium are risk factors for hypertension in Japanese patients.
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Association of lower limb muscle mass and energy expenditure with visceral fat mass in healthy men.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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A high-calorie diet and physical inactivity, an imbalance between caloric intake and energy consumption, are major causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which manifests as accumulation of visceral fat and insulin resistance. However, the lifestyle-related factors associated with visceral fat mass in healthy men are not fully understood.
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Pre-load stress echocardiography for predicting the prognosis in mild heart failure.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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This study sought to introduce and confirm the efficacy of pre-load stress echocardiography with leg-positive pressure (LPP) for improving risk stratification of patients with mild stable heart failure.
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MicroRNA-378 Regulates Adiponectin Expression in Adipose Tissue: A New Plausible Mechanism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mechanisms regulating adiponectin expression have not been fully clarified. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in biological processes, including obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated whether the miRNA-378 pathway is involved in regulating adiponectin expression.
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Pentraxin 3 is a local inflammatory marker in atrial fibrillation.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is produced abundantly in local inflammatory lesions while C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced mainly in the liver. In this study, we investigated whether a local level of PTX3 might be a sensitive marker for the local inflammation of AF. Blood from the periphery and left atrial appendage (LAA) was sampled from 23 patients with AF undergoing pulmonary vein isolation, and from 10 control subjects with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We measured peripheral and LAA plasma concentrations of CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and PTX3. Plasma PTX3 concentrations in both locations were higher in patients with AF than in control subjects. PTX3 concentrations were significantly higher in the LAA than the periphery in patients with AF (3.7 ± 1.4 vs 3.3 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P < 0.01), but not in control subjects (2.4 ± 0.5 vs 2.4 ± 0.5 ng/ml, not significant). Patients and controls showed no significant differences in CRP, IL-6, or TNF-? concentrations between the periphery and LAA. Interestingly, there was a significant positive correlation between LAA plasma concentrations of PTX3 and left atrial volume (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). These data demonstrate that Local PTX3 production in the left atrium might reflect the local inflammation of AF.
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Androgen receptor promotes sex-independent angiogenesis in response to ischemia and is required for activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Hypoandrogenemia is associated with an increased risk of ischemic diseases. Because actions of androgens are exerted through androgen receptor (AR) activation, we studied hind-limb ischemia in AR knockout mice to elucidate the role of AR in response to ischemia.
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Ectopic fat deposition and global cardiometabolic risk: new paradigm in cardiovascular medicine.
J. Med. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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The obesity epidemic is a global public health concern that increases the likelihood of morbidity and mortality of metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and threatens to reduce life expectancy around the world. The concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) takes into account that visceral fat plays an essential role in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, MetS cannot be used to assess global CVD risk but is at best one more modifiable CVD risk factor. Thus, global cardiometabolic risk (the global risk of cardiovascular disease resulting from traditional risk factors combined with the additional contribution of the metabolic syndrome and/or insulin resistance) should be considered individually. There is solid evidence supporting the notion that excess abdominal fat is predictive of insulin resistance and the presence of related metabolic abnormalities currently referred to as MetS. Despite the fact that abdominal obesity is a highly prevalent feature of MetS, the mechanisms by which abdominal obesity is causally related to MetS are not fully elucidated. Besides visceral fat accumulation, ectopic lipid deposition, especially in liver and skeletal muscle, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity-related disorders. Also, ectopic fat deposition could be deteriorated in the heart components such as (1) circulatory and locally recruited fat, (2) intra- and extra-myocellular fat, (3) perivascular fat, and (4) pericardial fat. In this review, the contribution of ectopic lipid deposition to global cardiometabolic risk is reviewed and also discussed are potential underlying mechanisms including adipocytokine, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity.
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Ghrelin protects the heart against ischemia-induced arrhythmias by preserving connexin-43 protein.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Vagal nerve stimulation has been postulated to confer an antifibrillatory effect. We studied whether ghrelin administration would exert an antiarrhythmic effect via modulation of autonomic nerve activity in rats after acute myocardial ischemia (MI). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 min of ischemia following ligation of the left coronary artery. Animals were then randomized to receive either ghrelin (n = 26) or saline (n = 26) during the period of coronary ligation. Power spectral analysis of heart-rate variability revealed that the administration of ghrelin increased the high-frequency (HF) power and decreased the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were less frequent in rats after MI who received ghrelin in comparison with rats that received saline. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that rats given saline alone during MI exhibited a marked reduction in phosphorylated connexin-43 within the left ventricle, whereas those that received ghrelin displayed only minor reductions in comparison with sham-operated rats. These effects of ghrelin were diminished by the coadministration of atropine or the blockade of vagal afferents. These data demonstrate that the beneficial effect of ghrelin might be mediated by modulation of cardiac autonomic nerve activity.
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Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has a pivotal role in cognitive impairment.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Because dementia is associated with both deterioration in the quality of life and poor prognosis, the prevention of cognitive impairment (CI) is a critical problem in public health promotion. Hypertension is a risk factor for the aggravation of CI, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a key player in the increased incidence and development of hypertension. Therefore, the RAAS is considered to be a promoting factor for CI development. Conversely, recent studies have shown that lowering blood pressure with RAAS inhibitors decreases the incidence of CI, dementia and cardiovascular disease. Blood-brain barrier-penetrating RAAS inhibitors appear to have advantages in preventing cognitive decline because they can suppress the RAAS in the hippocampus, which has an important role in cognition. Thus, RAAS blockage is a notable strategy for preventing CI.
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Elevated concentrations of pentraxin 3 are associated with coronary plaque vulnerability.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Inflammation is a critical contributing factor to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is produced abundantly in atherosclerotic lesions while C-reactive protein (CRP) is mainly produced in the liver. In this study, we investigated whether plasma levels of PTX3 might be a sensitive marker both for the severity of coronary artery disease and vulnerable plaques. Next, we determined whether assays for inflammatory molecules can be used to monitor the therapeutic effects of telmisartan on stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.
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Effect of low-dose (1 mg/day) pitavastatin on left ventricular diastolic function and albuminuria in patients with hyperlipidemia.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors that modulate the protective action of statins on cardiorenal function, regardless of the lipid-lowering effect. To treat abnormal serum lipid profiles, low-dose pitavastatin (1.0 mg/day) was administered to 65 hyperlipidemic patients. The exclusion criteria included left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and apparent renal disease. Age- and gender-matched patients with hyperlipidemia (n = 40) served as the controls. After 12 to 16 weeks of pitavastatin treatment, pitavastatin had decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 143.5 ± 31.4 to 98.2 ± 19.4 mg/dl, p <0.01), triglycerides (from 157.7 ± 57.2 to 140.5 ± 60.7 mg/dl, p <0.01), E/e (from 10.8 ± 6.2 to 9.0 ± 4.5, p <0.05), a parameter of left ventricular diastolic function, and albuminuria (from 47.6 ± 55.9 to 28.5 ± 40.0 mg/g creatinine, p <0.01). Furthermore, pitavastatin decreased serum transforming growth factor-?1 (from 709 ± 242 to 550 ± 299 pg/ml, p <0.01), urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (from 6.6 ± 4.1 to 5.0 ± 3.1 ?g/g creatinine, p <0.01), an oxidative stress marker, and increased urinary nitrate and nitrite (from 22.5 ± 14.6 to 29.4 ± 27.6 nmol/g creatinine, p <0.05). No such changes were observed in the controls. Multiple regression analysis in the pitavastatin group revealed the effect of pitavastatin on cardiorenal function was associated with suppression of oxidative stress, but not on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction. In conclusion, pitavastatin decreases E/e and albuminuria, which is associated with suppression of oxidative stress.
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MicroRNA-22 regulates hypoxia signaling in colon cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA that regulate a variety of cellular functions by suppressing target protein expression. We hypothesized that a set of microRNA regulate tumor responses to hypoxia by inhibiting components of the hypoxia signaling pathway. We found that miR-22 expression in human colon cancer is lower than in normal colon tissue. We also found that miR-22 controls hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) expression in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Over-expression of miR-22 inhibits HIF-1? expression, repressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production during hypoxia. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous miR-22 enhances hypoxia induced expression of HIF-1? and VEGF. The conditioned media from cells over-expressing miR-22 contain less VEGF protein than control cells, and also induce less endothelial cell growth and invasion, suggesting miR-22 in adjacent cells influences endothelial cell function. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-22 might have an anti-angiogenic effect in colon cancer.
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Plasma heparin cofactor II activity is inversely associated with left atrial volume and diastolic dysfunction in humans with cardiovascular risk factors.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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Thrombin has a crucial role in cardiac remodeling through protease-activated receptor-1 activation in cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. As heparin cofactor II (HCII) inhibits the action of tissue thrombin in the cardiovascular system, it is possible that HCII counteracts the development of cardiac remodeling. We investigated the relationships between plasma HCII activity and surrogate markers of cardiac geometry, including left atrial volume index (LAVI), relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index, and deceleration time (DcT) and the ratio of peak E velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/e ratio) as surrogate markers of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction measured using echocardiography in 304 Japanese elderly individuals without systolic heart failure (169 men and 135 women; mean age: 65.4 ± 11.8 years). Mean plasma HCII activity in all participants was 95.8 ± 17.0% and there was no difference between the mean plasma HCII activities in males and females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that there were significant inverse relationships between plasma HCII activity and LAVI (coefficient: -0.2302, P<0.001), between HCII activity and RWT (coefficient: -0.0007, P<0.05), between HCII activity and DcT (coefficient: -0.5189, P<0.05) and between HCII activity and E/e ratio (coefficient: -0.0558, P<0.01). Plasma HCII activity was independently and inversely associated with the development of cardiac remodeling, including cardiac concentric change, left atrial enlargement and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. These findings suggest that cardiac tissue thrombin inactivation by HCII is a novel therapeutic target for cardiac remodeling and atherosclerosis.
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Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in megakaryocytes reduces platelet-derived growth factor-BB in platelets.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling by promoting the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The objective of this study was to clarify the pleiotropic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activators on PDGF-BB expression in megakaryocytes and platelets.
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Bosentan ameliorated exercise-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension complicated with systemic sclerosis.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a frequent complication in patients with systemic sclerosis. Bosentan is used in patients with symptomatic PAH; however, it has not been established whether or not bosentan ameliorates the progression of PAH in patients with no PAH-related symptoms. We present a case of systemic sclerosis with no PAH-related symptoms in which bosentan ameliorated exercise-induced PAH evaluated by 6-minute walk stress echocardiography, brachial flow-mediated dilation, and skin temperature of hands and feet. The results suggest that administration of bosentan in patients with early-stage PAH ameliorates pulmonary arterial vasodilatation through improvement of endothelial function.
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Transforming Growth Factor-?1 as a Common Target Molecule for Development of Cardiovascular Diseases, Renal Insufficiency and Metabolic Syndrome.
Cardiol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor ? superfamily of cytokines. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions including control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. In the cardiovascular system, TGF-?1 plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension, restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In addition, TGF-?1 has been shown to be increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects with insulin resistance. Furthermore, TGF-?1 is a potent initiator of proliferation of renal mesangial cells leading to chronic kidney disease. Some currently available agents can manipulate TGF-?1 expression leading to amelioration of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, an understanding of interactions between chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome and the development of cardiovascular diseases is an important issue, and attention should be given to TGF-?1 as a crucial factor for regulation and modulation of those pathological conditions.
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High plasma aldosterone concentration is a novel risk factor of cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Cognitive impairment leading to dementia is associated with high prevalence of hypertension, decreased quality of life and poor prognosis. Aldosterone is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, mineral corticoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus, which plays a pivotal role in cognitive function; however, it has not been determined whether plasma aldosterone level is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension. We enrolled 68 patients with essential hypertension and assessed their cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, history of cerebral infarction, renal function, parameters of inflammation, oxidative stress and nitric oxide bioavailability, a parameter of cerebral blood flow and carotid plaque by ultrasound examination, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC). The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was used to evaluate cognitive function. The relevance of cardiovascular risk factors and MMSE score was statistically evaluated. Multiple regression analysis showed that age (P < 0.01), PAC (P < 0.01) and history of cerebral infarction (P < 0.05) were inversely and independently associated with MMSE score. Mineral corticoid receptor antagonists, including spironolactone and eplerenone, increased MMSE score in seven patients with hypertension, but not in the controls. In conclusion, increased PAC is associated with impaired cognitive function and mineral corticoid receptor blockade may protect against not only cardiovascular mortality, but also cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension.
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Heparin cofactor II protects against angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling via attenuation of oxidative stress in mice.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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Heparin cofactor II (HCII), a serine protease inhibitor, inhibits tissue thrombin action after binding with dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the vascular system. We previously reported that heterozygous HCII-deficient (HCII(+/-)) humans and mice demonstrate acceleration of vascular remodeling, including atherosclerosis. However, the action of HCII on cardiac remodeling never has been determined. HCII(+/+) and HCII(+/-) mice at age 25 weeks were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 2.0 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks by an osmotic mini-pump. Echocardiography revealed acceleration of cardiac concentric remodeling in HCII(+/-) mice and larger left atrial volume in HCII(+/-) mice than in HCII(+/+) mice. Histopathologic studies showed more prominent interstitial fibrosis in both the left atrium and left ventricle in HCII(+/-) mice than in HCII(+/+) mice. Daily urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a parameter of oxidative stress, and dihydroethidium-positive spots, indicating superoxide production in the myocardium, were markedly increased in Ang II-treated HCII(+/-) mice compared to those in HCII(+/+) mice. Cardiac gene expression levels of atrial natriuretic peptides and brain natriuretic peptides, members of the natriuretic peptide family, Nox 4, Rac-1, and p67(phox) as components of NAD(P)H oxidase, and transforming growth factor-beta1 and procollagen III were more augmented in HCII(+/-) mice than in HCII(+/+) mice. However, administration of human HCII protein attenuated all of those abnormalities in Ang II-treated HCII(+/-) mice. Moreover, human HCII protein supplementation almost abolished cardiac fibrosis in Ang II-treated HCII(+/+) mice. The results indicate that HCII has a protective role against Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling through suppression of the NAD(P)H oxidase-transforming growth factor-beta1 pathway.
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MicroRNA-34a regulation of endothelial senescence.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Endothelial senescence is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that endothelial microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate endothelial survival and senescence. We found that miR-34a is highly expressed in primary endothelial cells. We observed that miR-34a expression increases in senescent human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in heart and spleen of older mice. MiR-34a over-expression induces endothelial cell senescence and also suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting cell cycle progression. Searching for how miR-34a affects senescence, we discovered that SIRT1 is a target of miR-34a. Over-expressing miR-34a inhibits SIRT1 protein expression, and knocking down miR-34a enhances SIRT1 expression. MiR-34a triggers endothelial senescence in part through SIRT1, since forced expression of SIRT1 blocks the ability of miR-34a to induce senescence. Our data suggest that miR-34a contributes to endothelial senescence through suppression of SIRT1.
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Androgen receptor counteracts Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in male mice.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Doxorubicin (Dox) has been used as a potent anticancer agent, but serious cardiotoxicity precludes its use in a wide range of patients. We have reported that the androgen-androgen receptor (AR) system plays important roles in cardiac growth and protection from angiotensin II-induced cardiac remodeling. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether the androgen-AR system exerts a cardioprotective effect against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Male AR knockout (ARKO) and age-matched littermate male wild-type (WT) mice at 25 wk of age were given ip injections of Dox (20 mg/kg) or a vehicle. The survival rate and left ventricular function in Dox-treated male ARKO mice were reduced compared with those in Dox-treated male WT mice. Electron microscopic study showed prominent vacuole formation of myocardial mitochondria in Dox-treated male ARKO mice. Cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes were increased more prominently by Dox treatment in male ARKO mice than in male WT mice. In addition, Dox-induced reduction in the expression of cardiac mitochondria transcription factor A (Tfam) and phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinase (Akt) was more pronounced in male ARKO mice than in male WT mice. In cardiac myoblast cells, testosterone up-regulated Akt phosphorylation and Tfam expression and exerted an antiapoptotic effect against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, the results demonstrate that Dox-induced cardiotoxicity is aggravated in male ARKO mice via exacerbation of mitochondrial damage and superoxide generation, leading to enhanced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Thus, the androgen-AR system is thought to counteract Dox-induced cardiotoxicity partly through activation of the Akt pathway and up-regulation of Tfam to protect cardiomyocytes from mitochondrial damage and apoptosis.
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Congenital ventricular aneurysm as an unexpected complication of monomorphic premature ventricular contractions.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Congenital ventricular diverticulum (CVD) in adults is a rare cardiac malformation, which includes fibrous type congenital ventricular aneurysm (CVA). CVA is often clinically asymptomatic and shows no abnormality in the electrocardiogram or chest X-ray. However, some cases of sudden death resulting from ventricular tachycardia, cardiac embolism or ventricular rupture have been reported. Therefore, physicians should perform further cardiac imaging studies to detect a CVA if ventricular arrhythmia originating from the left ventricle is observed. Here, we report two successfully followed cases of CVA which were diagnosed from premature ventricular contractions.
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Local persistent hypercoagulability after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in patients with stable angina.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Late stent thrombosis (LST) after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation has been demonstrated previously. Although incomplete neointimal coverage after SES implantation has been reported, local long-term hypercoagulability remains unknown.
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Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is inversely associated with sex-dependent diverse carotid atherosclerosis regardless of endothelial function.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is thought to be associated with life expectancy and anti-aging. However, its biological significance in atherosclerosis remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether DHEAS is associated with development of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors.
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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-independent protective action of statin against angiotensin II-induced atrial remodeling via reduced oxidant injury.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Activation of the renin-angiotensin system exacerbates atrial remodeling, leading to atrial fibrillation and thrombosis, especially in a condition with decreased NO bioavailability. Recently, it has been reported that statins reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation through attenuation of atrial remodeling; however, the mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the beneficial effect of statin on atrial remodeling in condition with reduced NO bioavailability. Endothelial NO synthase(-/-) mice were sham operated or infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) via an osmotic minipump for 2 weeks, and Ang II-infused mice were divided into 3 treatment groups: pitavastatin, Tempol (a free radical scavenger), or vehicle. Echocardiography and electrocardiography showed that Ang II infusion caused left atrial enlargement and a high incidence of atrial fibrillation, whereas pitavastatin and Tempol prevented these abnormalities. In histological analysis, Ang II-induced atrial interstitial fibrosis, perivascular fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were all attenuated by pitavastatin and Tempol. Immunohistochemical staining showed that Ang II downregulated thrombomodulin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor and upregulated tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the left atrium and that pitavastatin and Tempol corrected the thrombogenic condition. Moreover, pitavastatin and Tempol reduced Ang II-induced atrial superoxide production and atrial transforming growth factor-beta1 expression and Smad 2/3 phosphorylation. Atrial rac1-GTPase activity, known to activate NADPH oxidase, was attenuated by pitavastatin but not by Tempol. In conclusion, pitavastatin exerts endothelial NO synthase-independent protective actions against Ang II-induced atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation with enhanced thrombogenicity through suppression of oxidant injury.
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Ezetimibe ameliorates metabolic disorders and microalbuminuria in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Ezetimibe, an inhibitor of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein, has been shown to reduce the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. We investigated whether it also has beneficial effects on metabolic disorder and/or renal insufficiency in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
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Comparison of chronic-stage histopathological findings among 3 coronary stents implanted in the same patient.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2009
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A 73-year-old woman suffering from anterior thoracic pain on exertion presented to our hospital. We performed coronary angiography and noted three stenotic legions in each coronary artery. For each angiographic finding, we implanted a bare metal stent (BMS), sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) into the right coronary artery, left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries, respectively. Nine months later, she died of lung disease, and we could compare the histopathological findings among the three coronary stents. In the drug-eluting stents, very thin intima, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and fibrin deposition were observed, while thick intima and no inflammatory findings were observed in the BMS. Fibrin deposition was more marked in the PES than in the SES. This report shows marked differences in the subsequent pathological course among three stents in the same patient.
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Decrease in plasma brain natriuretic peptide level in the early phase after the start of carvedilol therapy is a novel predictor of long-term outcome in patients with chronic heart failure.
Acta Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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The purpose of the present study was to determine whether change in plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level at an early phase of carvedilol therapy is a predictor of improvement in cardiac function and long-term prognosis in patients with systolic chronic heart failure (CHF).
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Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome associated with patent foramen ovale and aortic ectasia.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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A 59-year-old man was admitted for dyspnea on exertion and edema. The patient did not have any pulmonary diseases that could cause dyspnea. Transesophageal echocardiography on the tilting bed with contrast infusion revealed a right-to-left shunt through the patent foramen ovale. Therefore, he was diagosed as platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome due to the patent foramen ovale. Surgical closure was done and all of his symptoms had improved.
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Heparin cofactor II is an independent protective factor against peripheral arterial disease in elderly subjects with cardiovascular risk factors.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Heparin cofactor II (HCII) specifically inactivates thrombin action at the injured vascular wall. We have reported that HCII is a protective factor against coronary in-stent restenosis and carotid atherosclerosis; however, it is unclear whether there is any correlation between plasma HCII levels and the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
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Clinical utility of single-beat E/e obtained by simultaneous recording of flow and tissue Doppler velocities in atrial fibrillation with preserved systolic function.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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We evaluated the usefulness of the ratio of the early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (E) to the mitral annular velocity (e) calculated from simultaneously recorded E and e in atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Androgen-androgen receptor system protects against angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Age-related andropause promotes cardiovascular disease in males. Although we had previously reported that the androgen-androgen receptor (AR) system plays important roles in cardiac growth and remodeling, the systems involvement in vascular remodeling remains unclear. To clarify this role, 25-wk-old male AR knockout (ARKO) mice and littermate male wild-type (WT) mice were divided into two groups with and without angiotensin II (Ang II) administration (2.0 mg/kg . d) for 14 d, respectively. No morphological differences in the coronary artery and thoracic aorta were observed between the groups without Ang II. Ang II stimulation markedly increased medial thickness and perivascular fibrosis in ARKO mice, with enhanced TGF-beta1, collagen type I, and collagen type III gene expression in the aorta. Ang II stimulation also prominently increased superoxide production, lipid peroxidation, and gene expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase components in ARKO mice compared with WT mice. In addition, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated (Smad2/3) was remarkably enhanced in Ang II-treated ARKO mice compared with Ang II-treated WT mice. Notably, daily urinary nitric oxide (NO) metabolites excretion as a marker of NO bioavailability, aortic endothelial NO synthase expression and phosphorylation, and Akt phosphorylation were significantly reduced in ARKO mice compared with WT mice, regardless of Ang II stimulation. In conclusion, the androgen-AR system is required for the preservation of NO bioavailability through Akt-endothelial NO synthase system activation and exerts protective effects against Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by regulating oxidative stress, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, and the TGF-beta-phosphorylated Smad pathway.
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Serial imaging changes during treatment of Takayasu arteritis with pulmonary artery stenosis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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Most cases of chronic stenosis or occlusive lesions of the pulmonary arteries are attributed to thromboembolism, and pulmonary arteritis is extremely rare as the primary cause of these entities. We report a case of pulmonary stenosis and occlusion caused by Takayasu arteritis. The patient was a 54-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea. Total occlusion of the left pulmonary artery and significant stenosis of the right pulmonary artery caused by Takayasu arteritis were confirmed by various imaging modalities including pulmonary angiography, 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. After 6 weeks of steroid therapy, follow-up imaging studies showed that the stenotic lesion had resolved.
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Beneficial effect of a synthetic prostacyclin agonist, ONO-1301, in rat autoimmune myocarditis model.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
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Injury to the heart can result in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cell death. Myocarditis sometimes progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy. We previously reported that ONO-1301, a synthetic prostacyclin agonist with thromboxane-synthase inhibitory activity, promotes production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from various cell types and ameliorates ischemia-induced left ventricle dysfunction in the mouse, rat and pig. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of ONO-1301 in a rat model of myosin-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis, in which the heart transits from an acute inflammatory phase to a chronic dilated cardiomyopathy phase. Four weeks after myosin injection to Lewis rats, ONO-1301 (6 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 4 weeks (ONO-1301 group). Hemodynamic parameters and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level were significantly improved by ONO-1301. Histological analysis revealed that capillary density in the myocardium was significantly increased by ONO-1301. ONO-1301 increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) as determined by FACS analysis. These beneficial effects of ONO-1301 were partially abrogated by a neutralizing anti-HGF antibody (8 mg/kg/dose). These findings indicate beneficial effects of ONO-1301 in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis model.
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Effects of statins on cardiorenal syndrome.
Int J Vasc Med
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Cardiovascular disease and renal disease have a close relationship that forms a vicious cycle as a cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammation could be therapeutic targets when the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is activated by accumulation of conventional cardiovascular risk factors; however, a strategy for management of CRS has not been established yet. Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, have not only cholesterol-lowering effects but also pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular systems, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and improvement of nitric oxide bioavailability. Since recent studies have indicated that statins have beneficial effects on chronic kidney disease and heart failure as well as coronary artery disease in cholesterol-lowering-dependent/independent manners, treatment with statins might be a successful strategy for preventing deterioration of CRS.
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Renoprotective and antioxidant effects of cilnidipine in hypertensive patients.
Hypertens. Res.
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Cilnidipine, an L/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been reported to have more beneficial effects on proteinuria progression in hypertensive patients than amlodipine, an L-type CCB. The N-type calcium channel blockade that inhibits renal sympathetic nerve activity might reduce glomerular hypertension by facilitating vasodilation of the efferent arterioles. However, the precise mechanism of the renoprotective effect of cilnidipine remains unknown. Because cilnidipine exerted significantly higher antioxidant activity than amlodipine in cultured human mesangial cells, we hypothesized that cilnidipine might exert a renoprotective effect by suppressing oxidative stress. A total of 35 hypertensive patients receiving a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor were randomly assigned to a cilnidipine (n=18; 10 mg per day cilnidipine titrated to 20 mg per day) or amlodipine (n=17; 5 mg per day amlodipine titrated to 10 mg per day) group; the target blood pressure (BP) was set at 130/85 mmHg. After 6 months of treatment, systolic and diastolic BPs were significantly reduced in both of the groups, without any significant difference between the groups. The urinary albumin, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (OHdG) and liver-type fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) to creatinine ratios significantly decreased in the cilnidipine group (P<0.05) compared with those in the amlodipine group. The reductions in urinary albumin, 8-OHdG and L-FABP were not correlated with the change in systolic BP. In conclusion, cilnidipine, but not amlodipine, ameliorated urinary albumin excretion and decreased urinary 8-OHdG and L-FABP in the hypertensive patients. Cilnidipine probably exerts a greater renoprotective effect through its antioxidative properties.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.