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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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Delipidation of insect lipoprotein, lipophorin, affects its binding to the lipophorin receptor, LpR: implications for the role of LpR-mediated endocytosis.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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The insect lipophorin receptor (LpR), an LDL receptor (LDLR) homologue that is expressed during restricted periods of insect development, binds and endocytoses high-density lipophorin (HDLp). However, in contrast to LDL, HDLp is not lysosomally degraded, but recycled in a transferrin-like manner, leaving a function of receptor-mediated uptake of HDLp to be uncovered. Since a hallmark of circulatory HDLp is its ability to function as a reusable shuttle that selectively loads and unloads lipids at target tissues without being endocytosed or degraded, circulatory HDLp can exist in several forms with respect to lipid loading. To investigate whether lipid content of the lipoprotein affects binding and subsequent endocytosis by LpR, HDLp was partially delipidated in vitro by incubation with alpha-cyclodextrin, yielding a particle of buoyant density 1.17g/mL (HDLp-1.17). Binding experiments demonstrated that LpR bound HDLp-1.17 with a substantially higher affinity than HDLp both in LpR-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and isolated insect fat body tissue endogenously expressing LpR. Similar to HDLp, HDLp-1.17 was targeted to the endocytic recycling compartment after endocytosis in CHO(LpR) cells. The complex of HDLp-1.17 and LpR appeared to be resistant to endosomal pH, as was recently demonstrated for the LpR-HDLp complex, corroborating that HDLp-1.17 is recycled similar to HDLp. This conclusion was further supported by the observation of a significant decrease with time of HDLp-1.17-containing vesicles after endocytosis of HDLp-1.17 in LpR-expressing insect fat body tissue. Collectively, our results indicate that LpR favors the binding and subsequent endocytosis of HDLp-1.17 over HDLp, suggesting a physiological role for LpR in selective endocytosis of relatively lipid-unloaded HDLp particles, while lipid reloading during their intracellular itinerary might result in decreased affinity for LpR and thus allows recycling.
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Circulatory lipid transport: lipoprotein assembly and function from an evolutionary perspective.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Circulatory transport of neutral lipids (fat) in animals relies on members of the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) superfamily, including mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) and insect apolipophorin II/I (apoLp-II/I). Latter proteins, which constitute the structural basis for the assembly of various lipoproteins, acquire lipids through microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)--another LLTP family member--and bind them by means of amphipathic structures. Comparative research reveals that LLTPs have evolved from the earliest animals and additionally highlights the structural and functional adaptations in these lipid carriers. For instance, in contrast to mammalian apoB, the insect apoB homologue, apoLp-II/I, is post-translationally cleaved by a furin, resulting in their appearance of two non-exchangeable apolipoproteins in the insect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) homologue, high-density lipophorin (HDLp). An important difference between mammalian and insect lipoproteins relates to the mechanism of lipid delivery. Whereas in mammals, endocytic uptake of lipoprotein particles, mediated via members of the LDL receptor (LDLR) family, results in their degradation in lysosomes, the insect HDLp was shown to act as a reusable lipid shuttle which is capable of reloading lipid. Although the recent identification of a lipophorin receptor (LpR), a homologue of LDLR, reveals that endocytic uptake of HDLp may constitute an additional mechanism of lipid delivery, the endocytosed lipoprotein appears to be recycled in a transferrin-like manner. Binding studies indicate that the HDLp-LpR complex, in contrast to the LDL-LDLR complex, is resistant to dissociation at endosomal pH as well as by treatment with EDTA mimicking the drop in Ca(2+) concentration in the endosome. This remarkable stability of the ligand-receptor complex may provide a crucial key to the recycling mechanism. Based on the binding and dissociation capacities of mutant and hybrid receptors, the specific binding interaction of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor with HDLp was characterized. These structural similarities and functional adaptations of the lipid transport systems operative in mammals and insects are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.