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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relation between national-level tobacco control policies and individual-level voluntary home smoking bans in Europe.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Little is known about the relationship between national tobacco control policies and implementation of private home smoking bans.
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Support for a tobacco endgame strategy in 18 European countries.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The feasibility of a tobacco endgame strategy, aiming to bring smoking prevalence to near-zero levels, is currently under debate. We provide information on public support for such a strategy in Europe.
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E-Cigarette Awareness, Use, and Harm Perception in Italy: A National Representative Survey.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Only a few studies provided information on awareness, use, and harm perception of e-cigarettes in Europe. We fill the knowledge gap in Italy.
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Overweight and obesity in 16 European countries.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In Europe, only a few population-based studies have been conducted on obesity in different countries at the same time using homogeneous methodologies. We provide updated information on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe, using data from a pan-European survey.
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Regular use of aspirin for cardiovascular disease prevention in Italy.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Only a few European studies focused on aspirin use in the general population. We provide updated information on the prevalence and determinants of regular aspirin use for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Italian adult population.
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Aspirin and prostate cancer prevention.
Recent Results Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Aspirin has been associated to a reduced risk of colorectal, and possibly of other cancers. Data from at least 25 observational studies also suggest a modest reduced risk of prostate cancer in regular aspirin users, with a summary relative risk, RR, of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.86-0.96) overall, 0.87 (95 % CI 0.74-1.02) from nine case-control studies, and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.87-0.97) from 16 cohort studies. However, risk estimates are heterogeneous and there is no relation with frequency, dose, or duration of aspirin use. Data from randomized controlled trials of aspirin for the prevention of vascular events showed a nonsignificant reduced risk of death from prostate cancer after a latent period of five or more years (RR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.20-1.24) based on 37 deaths from prostate cancer from seven trials. The RR was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.61-1.06) after 20 years of follow-up, based on 210 cases from three trials with long-term follow-up. Thus, data from observational studies and clinical trials are compatible with a modest favorable effect of aspirin on prostate cancer. Inference for causality and public health implications are, however, far from conclusive given the heterogeneity of results and the lack of dose and duration-risk relationships. Data on prostate cancer survival are still limited and inconsistent.
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Roll-your-own cigarettes in Europe: use, weight and implications for fiscal policies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Excise duties on roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, which are generally based on RYO cigarettes containing 1 g of tobacco, are lower than duties on factory-made (FM) cigarettes. This provides a price incentive for smokers to switch to RYO, the use of which is increasing across Europe. To effectively approximate duties on the two types of products, accurate data on the weight of RYO cigarettes are required. We provide updated information on RYO use and RYO cigarette weight across Europe. From a representative face-to-face survey conducted in 2010 in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden), we considered data from 5158 current smokers aged 15 years or above, with available information on daily consumption of FM and RYO cigarettes separately. In Europe, 10.4% of current smokers (12.9% of men and 7.5% of women) were 'predominant' RYO users (i.e. >50% of cigarettes smoked). This proportion was highest in England (27.3%), France (16.5%) and Finland (13.6%). The median weight of one RYO cigarette is 0.75 g (based on 192 smokers consuming exclusively RYO cigarettes). The proportion of RYO smokers is substantial in several European countries. Our finding on the weight of RYO cigarettes is consistent with the scientific literature and industry documents showing that the weight of RYO cigarettes is substantially lower than that of FM ones. Basing excise duties on RYO on an average cigarette weight of 0.75 g rather than 1 g would help increase the excise levels to those on FM cigarettes.
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Overall acceptability and efficacy of commonly used bowel preparations for colonoscopy in Italian clinical practice. A multicentre prospective study.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The recent enormous increase in colonoscopy demand prompted this multicentre observational study assessing overall acceptability and efficacy of commonly used bowel preparations in Italian clinical practice.
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Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic.
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Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded Project Star report.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (Project Star, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm.
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Why do smokers start?
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Most studies investigating the reasons for smoking initiation are based on adolescents or young individuals. We considered the issue in a large dataset on the general Italian population. Six population-based surveys on smoking were conducted annually from 2005 to 2010 on representative samples of Italian individuals aged 15 years or over, involving more than 3000 individuals each year. A specific question on the main reason to start smoking was asked to 7469 ever smokers. Overall, 59.9% of ever smokers started smoking before 18 years of age and 33.6% started smoking before 16 years of age. Among ever smokers, 61.1% reported having started smoking because of the influence of friends, 15.6% for enjoyment and satisfaction, 9.0% to feel mature and independent, 6.6% because of the influence of partner/family, 2.5% because of stress, 1.9% to feel more secure and 1.8% for curiosity. The finding that the majority of Italian men and women - particularly those who started smoking at a young age - started smoking because of the influence of friends suggests that antismoking campaigns should consider social influence, resistance and the dimension of self-esteem. An improvement in the legislation prohibiting the purchase of tobacco products by minors aged less than 18 years and a smoking ban in school courtyards are urgently required in Italy.
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Why do smokers quit?
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Scarce information is available, particularly from Europe, on why smokers quit. We analyzed this issue in a large dataset of Italian ex-smokers. Six population-based surveys on smoking were annually conducted in 2005-2010 on a representative sample of the Italian adult population, which included more than 3000 participants each year. A specific question on the main reason for quitting smoking was answered by a total of 3075 ex-smokers (1936 men and 1139 women). Overall, 43.2% of ex-smokers mentioned a current health condition as the main reason to stop smoking, 31.9% stopped to avoid future health problems, 6.3% stopped because of pregnancy or child birth, 4.0% because of imposition by the partner/family, 3.7% because of a physicians recommendation, 3.0% because of the economic cost, 0.5% because of smoking bans, and 4.6% because of other reasons. Statistically significant differences in the motivation to quit smoking have been found according to sex, age, social class, and smoking history. The majority of ex-smokers quit because of tobacco-related health conditions. Only a minority of ex-smokers quit to avoid future illness. Physicians should be encouraged to assist smokers to quit. The current prices of cigarettes in Italy are not sufficiently high to discourage people from continuing smoking.
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Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.
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Patterns of smoking prevalence among the elderly in Europe.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (?65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women). An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3%) and northern Europe for women (13.1%). In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe.
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A prospective study on survival in cancer patients with and without venous thromboembolism.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Retrospective population-based studies showed that in cancer patients venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with reduced survival. Master Oncology is a multicenter study in patients with solid advanced cancer aimed at assessing (1) risk factors for VTE using a case-control design, and (2) survival in cases (patients with VTE) and controls (patients without VTE). Survival data were prospectively collected for at least 10 months. Overall, 237 cases and 339 controls were included in the analysis. The following factors were found to be associated with an increased risk of VTE: body mass index (BMI; OR 2.02; 95 % CI 1.31-3.12 for ?26 vs. <23 kg/m(2)), ECOG score (OR 2.14; 95 % CI 1.47-3.11 for grade 1, and 3.32; 95 % CI 1.64-6.00 for grade 2-3, compared to grade 0) and recent diagnosis of cancer (OR 1.90; 95 % CI 1.33-2.71 for <12 vs. ?12 months). After an average prospective observation of 8.3 months, 136 cases (57.4 %) and 127 controls (37.5 %) died with a median survival of 8.7 (95 % CI 7.5-10.9) and 14.3 months (95 % CI 12.2-18.7), respectively, (Wilcoxon = 27.72, p < 0.001; multivariate hazard ratio 1.55; 95 % CI 1.21-2.00). Median survival time was reduced for both patients with symptomatic (Wilcoxon = 35.22, p < 0.001) and asymptomatic VTE (Wilcoxon = 4.63, p = 0.031). Patients with advanced solid cancer, high BMI, high ECOG score, and recent diagnosis of cancer are associated with an increased risk for VTE. Patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE have a reduced survival compared to those without VTE.
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Do smoke-free policies in work and public places increase smoking in private venues?
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly smoke-free bans at work and in public places, and smoking prevalence in private venues in the 27 countries of the European Union. DESIGN: Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. DATA SOURCES: Data analysis of tobacco control activities in European countries in 2007 as compiled in the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and information on the level of smoking permissiveness in houses and cars from the Special Eurobarometer on Tobacco conducted in 2009. ANALYSIS: Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: The correlation between the TCS score and the prevalence of smoking in private venues (houses and cars) where smoking inside was always allowed was close to zero. A similar lack of association was observed between the TCS score of specific bans at work and in public places and smoking rules inside houses and cars. There was a non-significant direct correlation between the TCS score and the prevalence of smoke-free houses (rsp=0.21, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.55) and a non-significant inverse correlation with smoking allowed in certain rooms inside the house (rsp=-0.34; 95% CI -0.64 to 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smoke-free legislation in workplaces and public places is not correlated with increased smoking prevalence in private venues (houses and cars) at an ecological level.
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Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries.
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Coffee reduces risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Coffee consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to provide updated information on how coffee drinking affects HCC risk.
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Smoking prevalence in Italy 2011 and 2012, with a focus on hand-rolled cigarettes.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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To provide updated information on smoking prevalence in Italy, with a focus on type of tobacco product, including hand-rolled (HR) cigarettes.
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Exposure to secondhand smoke in Italian non-smokers 5 years after the Italian smoking ban.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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No data on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are available on a national level in Italy. To assess the prevalence of exposure to SHS in indoor public places, home and cars in non-smoking Italian population, we conducted a survey 5 years after the national smoking ban.
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Smoking in young and adult population, Italy 2009.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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To monitor smoking prevalence and trends of young and adult populations in Italy. METHOD AND STUDY DESIGN: A survey on smoking was conducted during March-April 2009 on a sample of 3213 participants (1546 men and 1667 women), representative of the Italian population aged 15 years or over. Data from a simplified questionnaire were collected in an over-sample of 1010 young individuals, reaching a total of 1390 participants aged 15-24 years (713 males and 677 females).
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Predicting the future prevalence of cigarette smoking in Italy over the next three decades.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Smoking prevalence in Italy decreased by 37% from 1980 to now. This is due to changes in smoking initiation and cessation rates and is in part attributable to the development of tobacco control policies. This work aims to estimate the age- and sex-specific smoking initiation and cessation probabilities for different time periods and to predict the future smoking prevalence in Italy, assuming different scenarios.
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Attitudes towards the extension of smoking restrictions to selected outdoor areas in Italy.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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To estimate the attitudes of Italians on the extension of the smoking ban to selected public outdoor areas.
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Smoking prevalence and smoking attributable mortality in Italy, 2010.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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To provide updated information on smoking prevalence and attributable mortality in Italy.
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Temporal changes of under-reporting of cigarette consumption in population-based studies.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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To monitor trends in under-reporting of smoking in Italy over the last two decades.
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Soft drinks, sweetened beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Soft drinks usually contain sugar and caffeine that might influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. We considered the association between carbonated drink consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study conducted in 1991-2008 on 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 matched controls. We also combined the results from all the studies on soft drinks or sweetened beverages and pancreatic cancer published before June 2010, using a meta-analytic approach. In the case-control study, compared with non-drinkers, the multivariate odds ratio was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.72-1.44) for carbonated drink consumers and 0.89 (95% CI 0.53-1.50) for regular consumers (at least one drink/day). Besides our study, from the literature search, we identified 4 other case-control (1,919 cases) and 6 cohort studies (2,367 cases). The pooled relative risks (RR) for soft drink consumers vs. non-consumers were 0.97 (95% CI 0.81-1.16) for case-control, 1.05 (95% CI 0.94-1.17) for cohort, and 1.02 (95% CI 0.93-1.12) for all studies. The pooled RRs for heavy drinkers were 1.08 (95% CI 0.73-1.60) for case-control, 1.21 (95% CI 0.90-1.63) for cohort, and 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45) for all studies. In conclusion, soft drink consumption is not materially related to pancreatic cancer risk.
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Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European Union.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2010
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The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27).
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Aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Preclinical findings suggest that aspirin might inhibit pancreatic carcinogenesis, but epidemiological data are scanty and controversial. The role of aspirin use in pancreatic cancer is further analyzed in a multicentric hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2008. Cases were 308 patients with incident pancreatic cancer and controls were 477 patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute conditions, not related to risk factors for pancreatic cancer. A total of 22 cases (7%) and 37 controls (8%) reported regular aspirin use, with a corresponding adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-1.61]. A slight protection, although not significant, was observed for duration of use > or =5 years (OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.21-1.33) and for time since first use > or =10 years (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.25-1.93). The risk of pancreatic cancer was significantly below unity for current users of > or =5 years (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.90), but the risk was based on three cases and 16 controls only. We observed no association between regular aspirin use and pancreatic cancer risk, although our results suggested a possible protective effect for long-term current users.
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Alcohol and endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk, we analyzed data from a hospital-based case-control study, conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2006, on 454 endometrial cancer cases and 908 controls, and performed a meta-analysis updated to October 2009. Compared to never alcohol drinkers, the odds ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-1.41) for < or = 7, 1.27 (95% CI 0.86-1.87) for 8-14, and 1.19 (95% CI 0.80-1.77) for > or = 15 drinks/week, with no trend in risk. No association emerged for wine, beer, and spirit consumption analyzed separately. The meta-analysis included 20 case-control and seven cohort studies, for a total of 13,120 cases. Compared to non/low drinkers, the pooled relative risks for drinkers were 0.90 (95% CI 0.80-1.01) for case-control studies, 1.01 (95% CI 0.90-1.14) for cohort studies, and 0.95 (95% CI 0.88-1.03) overall, with no heterogeneity between study design (p = 0.156). The overall estimate for heavy versus non/low drinkers was 1.12 (95% CI 0.87-1.45). The results were consistent according to selected study characteristics, including geographic area, definition of alcohol drinkers, and type of controls in case-control studies. Our findings provide evidence that alcohol drinking is not associated with endometrial cancer risk, although a weak positive association for very high drinkers cannot be excluded.
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Ambient particulate matter and preterm birth or birth weight: a review of the literature.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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To review epidemiologic evidence on maternal exposure to particulate matter and adverse pregnancy outcomes, we performed a MEDLINE search of the literature up to June 2009. We considered all original studies published in English including information on total suspended particles (TSP), respirable (PM(10)) or fine (PM(2.5)) particles and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) or very low birth weight (VLBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). We identified a total of 30 papers, including 13 with information on preterm birth, 17 on LBW or VLBW, and 4 on SGA. Eight studies on preterm birth, 11 studies on LBW/VLBW and two studies on SGA reported some increased risk (by about 10-20%) in relation to exposure to PM; no meaningful associations was found in the remaining studies. However, even in studies reporting some excess risk, this was inconsistent across exposure levels and pregnancy periods. Epidemiologic studies on maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy thus do not provide convincing evidence of an association with the risk of preterm birth and LBW/VLBW and SGA. The excess risks, if any, are small, and it is unclear whether they are causal, due to misclassification of the exposure or some sources of bias/residual confounding.
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Are colonoscopy and bowel ultrasound useful for assessing response to short-term therapy and predicting disease outcome of moderate-to-severe forms of ulcerative colitis?: a prospective study.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Mucosal healing has been proposed as an important sign of the efficacy of medical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; however, direct evidence in ulcerative colitis (UC) is scarce. We evaluated the usefulness of colonoscopy and bowel ultrasound (US) as indexes of response to short-term therapy and as predictors of subsequent outcome in UC.
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Tobacco sales to minors in Italy.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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One of the strategies to control tobacco is to limit purchase of cigarettes to minors. To understand the attitudes of Italian adults towards regulations to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco products, we added specific questions to the annual survey on smoking in Italy.
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Artificial sweeteners and the risk of gastric, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers in Italy.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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The role of sweeteners on cancer risk has been widely debated over the last few decades. To provide additional information on saccharin and other artificial or low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), we updated the analysis of an integrated network of case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1991 and 2004 including data on cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and endometrium.
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Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue.
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Hardcore smoking among Italian men and women.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Hardcore smokers are described as heavy smokers who have not attempted to quit and have no future intentions to quit. The objectives of this study were to characterize hardcore and nonhardcore smokers in Italy. The data for this analysis were collected from 3057 Italians aged 15 years and older in March and April 2007 who were randomly selected to be representative of the population. Hardcore smoking, defined as consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no earlier quit attempts and no future intention to quit, was examined in individuals who were aged 26 years and older. Hardcore smokers were compared with their nonhardcore counterparts with respect to sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, perceived stress, and attitudes and beliefs about smoking. The smoking prevalence overall was 23.5% (27.9% among males and 19.3% among females). An estimated 7.8% of individuals were hardcore smokers (9.7% among males and 6% among females), which translates into 33.1% of all smokers in Italy. Age at smoking initiation, occupation (among males), home smoking rules, and perceived stress (among females) distinguished hardcore from nonhardcore smokers. This is the highest prevalence of hardcore smoking that has been reported in the literature to date. This reflects the general attitude toward smoking cessation in Italy. Although the indoor smoking ban has helped to reduce the rate of smoking, it is clearly not enough. Stronger tobacco control measures are warranted.
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Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Italian schoolchildren: factors affecting its variation.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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The frequency of atopic dermatitis in Italian children and its relationship with selected variables were analysed in a large survey of skin health conducted in Italy. In 1997 we conducted a survey on schoolchildren aged 12-17 years from 13 areas of northern, central and southern Italy. For the present analyses, 3179 Caucasian children (1618 males, 1561 females) were considered. A diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was reported in 224 cases (7.0%). The frequency of reported atopic dermatitis was significantly higher in children with asthma (rate ratio (RR) 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.1-6.5). The lifetime prevalence of a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was higher among schoolchildren reporting a diagnosis of psoriasis (RR 5.5, 95% CI 3.0-10.1) and vitiligo (RR 16.1, 95% CI 6.5-39.5). This study gives estimates of the lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis in adolescents in Italy and emphasizes the direct association between the condition and other immune-related skin diseases.
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Coffee drinking and endometrial cancer risk: a metaanalysis of observational studies.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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We conducted a metaanalysis of published studies on the relation between coffee drinking and endometrial cancer risk, which included 2 cohort (201 cases) and 7 case-control studies (2409 cases). The summary relative risk (RR) for coffee drinkers vs nondrinkers was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.94), with significant heterogeneity between studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the summary RR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78-0.97) for low-to-moderate coffee drinkers and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.86) for heavy coffee drinkers. The summary RR for an increase of 1 cup/d was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.97), which suggests an inverse relation between coffee and endometrial cancer. However, the causality must be confirmed.
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Use of pharmacotherapy while attempting cessation among Italian smokers.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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The objective of this study was to examine the use of pharmacotherapy while attempting smoking cessation among current smokers and also the prevalence of use among former smokers in Italy. The data for this study were collected as part of six Italian tobacco surveys conducted between the years 2002 and 2007 on a total of 19 459 Italians aged 15 years and older. These surveys were designed to be representative of the Italian population with respect to age and sex. The current smoker analysis involved estimating the prevalence and the 95% confidence interval of use of pharmacotherapy among smokers in any previous quit attempt. Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also estimated. The former smoker analysis involved estimating the prevalence of use of pharmacotherapy to assist in cessation for smokers who quit between 1995 and 2006 in an attempt to determine if it was being used with increasing frequency over time. Among 1854 smokers who had made at least one quit attempt in the past, 9.4% reported using pharmacotherapy during at least one attempt. Use of pharmacotherapy was related to smoking intensity, education level, and age. Among former smokers, pharmacotherapy use for cessation ranged between 0 and 4.9%. Methods to increase the use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation need to be enhanced in Italy because these products are not reaching a large majority of smokers. One possible solution is to add pharmacotherapy to the list of medications covered by the National Health Service.
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Aspirin and cancer risk: a summary review to 2007.
Recent Results Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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Aspirin has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and--based on limited evidence--to cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, breast, ovary and lung. The role of aspirin on other cancers, such as pancreatic, prostate and bladder cancer and non-Hodgkins lymphomas and myeloma is less clear, and an increase of risk has been suggested for kidney cancer. For most cancer sites, however, significant heterogeneity between studies, and particularly between study design, was found, with a reduction in risk generally stronger in case-control studies than in cohort ones.
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Cancer mortality in a cohort of continuous glass filament workers.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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To examine cancer mortality in continuous glass filament workers.
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Predictors of long-term outcome of functional dyspepsia and duodenal ulcer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication--a 7-year follow-up study.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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To investigate the course of dyspeptic symptoms, predictors of symptom relief and use of antidyspeptic drugs in patients with duodenal ulcer disease and functional dyspepsia 6-7 years after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.
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Coffee, black tea and risk of gastric cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To provide information about the association of coffee, black tea with gastric cancer risk.
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Socio-demographic variation in smoking habits: Italy, 2008.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To provide updated information on smoking prevalence in Italy, with a focus on demographic and socio-economic characteristics.
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Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea intake, and risk of renal cell cancer.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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The relation between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk was analyzed in a case-control study conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2004. Cases were 767 subjects with incident histologically confirmed RCC and controls were 1,534 patients in hospital for acute non neoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC were computed by multiple logistic regression models, conditioned on study center, sex, and age. Coffee intake (mostly espresso and mocha) was not associated with RCC risk, with an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.73-1.43) in drinkers of > or = 4 cups/day compared with drinkers of < 1 cup/day. The corresponding ORs were 1.34 (95% CI 0.87-2.07) in men and 0.67 (95% CI 0.38-1.18) in women, 1.91 (95% CI 0.85-4.31) in current smokers and 0.74 (95% CI 0.41-1.31) in never smokers, with no trend in risk with dose. No relation was observed with decaffeinated coffee (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.94-2.03 for drinkers compared with nondrinkers) and tea intake (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.59-1.05 for drinkers of > or = 1 cup/day compared with nondrinkers). No significant heterogeneity was found for coffee intake across strata of age, education, body mass index, and consumption of sugar. This study, based on a large dataset, provides further evidence that coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to RCC risk.
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Smoking while driving and public support for car smoking bans in Italy.
Tob Control
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OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence and correlates of smoking in cars as well as attitudes towards the extension of smoking bans in private vehicles among Italian adults. METHODS: We used data from two surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012 on an overall sample of 6167 individuals representative of the Italian population aged ?15 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking while driving was 65.5% among adult smokers. There was a negative trend with age and a positive one with education level. Smoking while driving was more prevalent among men, heavy smokers and smokers who believe there is little or no increased risk of accidents from smoking while driving. Among smokers who smoke while driving, 20.9% smoke in cars carrying children. Overall, 79.6% of Italians (88.2% non-smokers and 48.8% current smokers) support a ban on smoking in cars, and 92.5% (95.0% non-smokers and 83.5% current smokers) support such a ban in cars carrying children. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high percentage of smokers who smoke in private vehicles, the majority of the Italian population (including smokers) support the introduction of a smoking ban in cars, particularly in cars carrying children. Smoke-free laws should therefore be extended to private vehicles, particularly if they are carrying children. Moreover, warning labels on cigarette packages should include information on the increased risk of accidents when smoking while driving. Mass media campaigns should also consider targeting this topic.
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Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.
Tob Control
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OBJECTIVE: Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. DESIGN: Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. SETTING: 18 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. RESULTS: Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion.
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Lung cancer mortality in European women: trends and predictions.
Lung Cancer
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Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates.
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Time to first cigarette and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in Japan.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Cigarette smoking is the major cause for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. The time to first cigarette (TTFC) of the day is a distinct indicator of nicotine dependence, but scanty information is available on its possible relation with UADT cancers (oral, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, laryngeal, nasopharyngeal, and esophageal cancers).
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Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy.
BMC Public Health
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While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy.
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[Variability in cigarette consumption according to the data source in Spain (1993-2009)].
Gac Sanit
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To assess the variability in the number of cigarettes smoked per person per day in Spain according to the information source (health surveys versus legal sales).
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Overweight and obesity prevalence and determinants in Italy: an update to 2010.
Eur J Nutr
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To provide updated information on trends and determinants of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Italian adults.
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Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009.
BMC Public Health
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No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year) are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation.
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Aspirin and urologic cancer risk: an update.
Nat Rev Urol
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Aspirin has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. With specific reference to urological cancers, a protective role for aspirin has been suggested for prostate cancer, but data for cancers of the bladder and kidney have been limited and inconsistent. Epidemiological evidence suggests that prostate cancer risk is reduced by 10% in regular aspirin users, with similar risk reductions reported in both case-control and cohort studies, and for both slow-growing and aggressive cancers. However, risk estimates were significantly heterogeneous and there was no relationship between risk reduction and frequency, dose or duration of use. Thus, inference for causality and public health implications remain far from conclusive. Although a few case-control studies have reported a favorable effect of aspirin on bladder cancer, most investigations did not find any meaningful association. A modest nonsignificant increased risk was reported for kidney cancer. Such excess risk, however, might be due to exposure to phenacetin-containing analgesics, which have been reported to increase renal cell cancer risk.
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Weight perception among Italian adults, 2006-2010.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
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Underweight, overweight and obesity are associated with increased mortality from several chronic diseases, including cancer. Self body weight misperceptions affect weight control. We monitored weight perception in Italy on a total of 14 135 individuals (6834 men, 7301 women), representative of the Italian adult population with available information on BMI derived by self-reported height and weight. Differences in misperception of body mass index (BMI) categories across subpopulations were analysed using unconditional multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for a number of covariates. Overall, 66.4% of individuals accurately perceived, 21.0% underestimated and 12.6% overestimated their category of BMI. In men, 27.2% underestimated and 5.0% overestimated their BMI category the corresponding estimates for women were 15.3% and 19.6%, respectively. The large majority of underweight (64.3%) and obese individuals (93.1%) overestimated and underestimated their weight, respectively. Overall, 13.5% of Italians misperceived (8.9% underestimated and 4.6% overestimated) their BMI category by more than 2 kg/m. By multivariate analysis, we observed significant differences in terms of sex, education, geographic area, marital status, smoking and drinking habit, year of survey and BMI category. In conclusion, misperception of body weight is frequent in Italy, paralleling findings from other countries with more unfavourable overweight and obesity patterns. The fact that one out of three Italian adults misperceive their weight is of great concern and indicates that media intervention campaigns aimed at explaining measurement and correct interpretation of BMI are required.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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