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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin and gingival crevicular fluid tumour necrosis factor-? in children.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Osteocalcin, a protein secreted by osteoblasts during bone formation, is negatively associated with adult periodontal disease. Little is known about this association in children.
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Treatment for salivary gland hypofunction at both initial and advanced stages of Sjögren-like disease: a comparative study of bone marrow therapy versus spleen cell therapy with a 1-year monitoring period.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Non-obese diabetic mice (NOD) exhibit autoimmune Sjögren-like disease (SS-like). We reported previously that a combined-therapy consisting of immuno- and cell-based therapy rescued NOD from SS-like. However, therapies tested to date on NOD mice were aimed at the initial phase of SS-like. It is unknown whether therapies are effective in restoring salivary function when given at an advanced phase of SS-like.
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Interferon-? induces immunoproteasomes and the presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on human salivary gland cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A prominent histopathological feature of Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease, is the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary and lachrymal glands. Such infiltrates are comprised of activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and known to produce multiple cytokines including interferon-gamma (IFN-?). In this study, we have demonstrated that IFN-? strongly induces the expression of immunoproteasome beta subunits (?1i, ?2i and ?5i) and immunoproteasome activity but conversely inhibits the expression of proteasome beta subunits (?1, ?2 and ?5) in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mass spectrometric analysis has revealed potential MHC I-associated peptides on the HSG cells, including a tryptic peptide derived from salivary amylase, due to IFN-? stimulation. These results suggest that IFN-? induces immunoproteasomes in HSG cells, leading to enhanced presentation of MHC I-associated peptides on cell surface. These peptide-presenting salivary gland cells may be recognized and targeted by auto-reactive T lymphocytes. We have also found that lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, inhibits the expression of ?1 subunit in HSG cells and blocks the IFN-?-induced expression of ?1i and immunoproteasome activity. However, the expression of ?2i and ?5i in HSG cells is not affected by lactacystin. These results may add new insight into the mechanism regarding how lactacystin blocks the action of proteasomes or immunoproteasomes.
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Quantitative analysis of protein and gene expression in salivary glands of Sjogren's-like disease NOD mice treated by bone marrow soup.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup) has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment.
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GDFs promote tenogenic characteristics on human periodontal ligament-derived cells in culture at late passages.
Growth Factors
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Tendon/ligament injures are leading disabilities worldwide. The periodontal ligament (PDL) connects teeth to bone, and is comparable to a tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion. PDL-derived cells (PDLCs) express both osteo/cementogenesis and teno/ligamentogenesis genes. However, an efficient method to induce a tenogenic differentiation of PDLCs has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, this study tested if growth/differentiation factors (GDFs) enhanced tenogenic characteristics of human PDLCs, as a potential cell source for tendon/ligament engineering. Results demonstrated recombinant GDF-5/GDF-7 inhibited alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of PDLCs from passage 3 to 6, while GDF-5 enhanced ALP in dental pulp-derived cells and mesenchymal stem cells. GDF-5 (particularly at 10 ng/ml concentration) induced high expression of both early (scleraxis) and mature (tenomodulin, aggrecan, collagen3) tenogenic genes in P4-6 PDLCs, while inhibiting expression of specific transcription-factors for osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Exogenous GDFs might lead PDLCs being expanded in culture during several passages to highly useful cell source for tendon/ligament engineering.
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Metabolic syndrome and gingival inflammation in Caucasian children with a family history of obesity.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To investigate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with gingival inflammation in children.
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Tumor necrosis factor- ? and interleukin-6: potential interorgan inflammatory mediators contributing to destructive periodontal disease in obesity or metabolic syndrome.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? ) or interleukin 6 (IL-6)--both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease--in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF- ? and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.
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Regeneration of tissues of the oral complex: current clinical trends and research advances.
J Can Dent Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Regenerative therapy in oral health care is limited by both the bodys natural capacity for regeneration and the materials and methods currently available. Research on various aspects of regenerative therapy, such as tissue engineering and stem cell and gene therapy, has produced promising results. Compelling advances, ranging from the discovery and characterization of stem cell populations in oral tissue to the engineering and transplantation of whole tooth structures, could result in exciting new treatment methods for clinicians in the near future. In this review, we discuss the limitations of natural healing and regeneration of various tissues of the oral complex, including teeth, periodontium and salivary glands, and summarize current treatment methods for tissue damage as well as research advances in oral tissue regeneration.
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Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated.
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Cannulation of the mouse submandibular salivary gland via the Whartons duct.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Severe salivary gland hypofunction is frequently found in patients with Sjögrens syndrome and those who receiving therapeutic irradiation in their head and neck regions for cancer treatment. Both groups of patients experience symptoms such as xerostomia (dry mouth), dysphagia (impaired chewing and swallowing), severe dental caries, altered taste, oro-pharyngeal infections (candidiasis), mucositis, pain and discomfort. One innovative approach of regenerative medicine for the treatment of salivary gland hypo-function is speculated in RS Redman, E Mezey et al. 2009: stem cells can be directly deposited by cannulation into the gland as a potent method in reviving the functions of the impaired organ. Presumably, the migrated foreign stem cells will differentiate into glandular cells to function as part of the host salivary gland. Also, this cannulation technique is an expedient and effective delivery method for clinical gene transfer application. Here we illustrate the steps involved in performing the cannulation procedure on the mouse submandibular salivary gland via the Whartons duct (Fig 1). C3H mice (Charles River, Montreal, QC, Canada) are used for this experiment, which have been kept under clean conventional conditions at the McGill University animal resource center. All experiments have been approved by the University Animal Care Committee and were in accordance with the guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. For this experiment, a trypan blue solution is infused into the gland through the opening of the Whartons duct using a insulin syringe with a 29-gauge needle encased inside a polyethylene tube. Subsequently, the mouse is dissected to show that the infusions migrated into the gland successfully.
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Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured with salivary gland biopsies adopt an epithelial phenotype.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Sjogrens syndrome and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer result in severe xerostomia and irreversible salivary gland damage for which no effective treatment is currently available. Cell culture methods of primary human salivary gland epithelial cells (huSGs) are slow and cannot provide a sufficient number of cells. In addition, the majority of cultured huSGs are of a ductal phenotype and thus not fluid/saliva secretory cells. Some reports indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possessed the potential to differentiate into epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis with huSGs, a coculture system containing 2 chambers separated by a polyester membrane was used to study the capacity of human MSCs to adopt an epithelial phenotype when cocultured with human salivary gland biopsies. Results were that 20%-40% of cocultured MSCs expressed tight junction proteins [claudin-1 (CLDN-1), -2, -3, and -4; occludin; junctional adhesion molecule-A; and zonula occludens-1] as well as other epithelial markers [aquaporin-5, ?-amylase (?-AMY), and E-cadherin], and generated a higher transepithelial electrical resistance. Electron microscopy demonstrated that these MSCs had comparable cellular structures to huSGs, such as tight junction structures and numerous secretory granules. Quantitative real time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction revealed an upregulation of several salivary genes (aquaporin-5, AMY, and CLDN-2). Moreover, the amounts of ?-AMY detected in cocultured MSCs were comparable to those detected in huSGs control cultures. These data suggest that cocultured MSCs can demonstrate a temporary change into a salivary gland acinar phenotype.
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Matrigel improves functional properties of primary human salivary gland cells.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Currently, there is no effective treatment available to patients with irreversible loss of functional salivary acini caused by Sjogrens syndrome or after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. A tissue-engineered artificial salivary gland would help these patients. The graft cells for this device must establish tight junctions in addition to being of fluid-secretory nature. This study analyzed a graft source from human salivary glands (huSG) cultured on Matrigel. Cells were obtained from parotid and submandibular glands, expanded in vitro, and then plated on either Matrigel-coated (2 mg/mL) or uncoated culture dish. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and transepithelial electrical resistance were employed. On Matrigel, huSG cells adopted an acinar phenotype by forming three-dimensional acinar-like units (within 24 h of plating) as well as a monolayer of cells. On uncoated surfaces (plastic), huSG cells only formed monolayers of ductal cells. Both types of culture conditions allowed huSG cells to express tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4; occludin; JAM-A; and ZO-1) and adequate transepithelial electrical resistance. Importantly, 99% of huSG cells on Matrigel expressed ?-amylase and the water channel protein Aquaporin-5, as compared to <5% of huSG cells on plastic. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed an acinar phenotype with many secretory granules. Matrigel increased the secretion of ?-amylase two to five folds into the media, downregulated certain salivary genes, and regulated the translation of acinar proteins. This three-dimensional in vitro serum-free cell culture method allows the organization and differentiation of huSG cells into salivary cells with an acinar phenotype.
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Efficacy and safety of an intraoral electrostimulation device for xerostomia relief: a multicenter, randomized trial.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an intraoral electrostimulation device, consisting of stimulating electrodes, an electronic circuit, and a power source, in treating xerostomia. The device delivers electrostimulation through the oral mucosa to the lingual nerve in order to enhance the salivary reflex.
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Matrigel improves functional properties of human submandibular salivary gland cell line.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Sjogrens syndrome and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers result in irreversible damage to functional salivary tissue, for which no adequate treatment is available. The microenvironment for salivary gland cell cytodifferentiation is critical for the future development of salivary gland regeneration, repair and tissue engineering treatments. Results from this study indicate that human submandibular cell line (HSG) cultured on Matrigel (2mg/ml) could be induced to differentiate into polarized secretory acinar-like cells. The HSG cells grown on Matrigel were evaluated by physiological functional assays, molecular and immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and morphological assessments. The results showed (1) a decrease in cell proliferation; (2) an increase in cell apoptosis; (3) cellular polarization evident by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), expressions of tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, occludin, JAM-A, and ZO-1) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); (4) an increase in the production and/or secretion of acinar cell proteins, i.e., alpha-amylase, aquaporin-5, cytokeratins, and mucin-1, that were not associated with increases in mRNA transcription; (5) a decrease in vimentin expression; and (6) expression of potential stem cell biomarkers CD44 and CD166. The data indicated that Matrigel provided a suitable microenvironment for morphological and functional differentiation of HSG cells into 3D acinar like cells. This study provides an in vitro model and baseline data on future developments of new strategies for salivary gland regeneration and replacement.
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Microchimerism in salivary glands after blood- and marrow-derived stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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Blood- and marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) provide disease-ameliorating effects for cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Microchimerism from donor BMDSCs has been reported in several recipient tissues. We hypothesized that this finding suggests a potential use of BMDSCs in the treatment of salivary dysfunctions. We investigated the presence of Y chromosome-positive cells in salivary gland biopsies of 5 females who had received a marrow or blood stem cell transplant from male donors. One to 16 years after transplantation, all recipients exhibited scattered Y chromosome-positive cells in the acini, ducts, and stroma of their salivary glands (mean of 1.01%). Potentially, these cells can be markers of transplantation tolerance, contribute to neoplastic epithelial tissues, or engraft at sites of injury. In addition, transplantation of BMDSCs could be used for treatment of Sjögrens syndrome and salivary glands damaged by therapeutic irradiation for cancers of the head and neck.
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Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2010
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Treatment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands (SGs), which is accompanied by a loss of fluid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. While there are currently no adequate conventional treatments for this condition, cell-based therapies are receiving increasing attention to regenerate SGs. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can differentiate into salivary epithelial cells and restore SG function in head and neck irradiated mice. BMDCs from male mice were transplanted into the tail-vein of 18Gy-irradiated female mice. Salivary output was increased in mice that received BMDCs transplantation at week 8 and 24 post-irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation (IR), harvested SGs (submandibular and parotid glands) of BMDC-treated mice had greater weights than those of non-treated mice. Histological analysis shows that SGs of treated mice demonstrated an increased level of tissue regenerative activity such as blood vessel formation and cell proliferation, while apoptotic activity was increased in non-transplanted mice. The expression of stem cell markers (Sca-1 or c-kit) was detected in BMDC-treated SGs. Finally, we detected an increased ratio of acinar-cell area and approximately 9% of Y-chromosome-positive (donor-derived) salivary epithelial cells in BMDC-treated mice. We propose here that cell therapy using BMDCs can rescue the functional damage of irradiated SGs by direct differentiation of donor BMDCs into salivary epithelial cells.
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Bone marrow cells are a source of undifferentiated cells to prevent Sjögrens syndrome and to preserve salivary glands function in the non-obese diabetic mice.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjögrens-like syndrome (Ss) and a gradual loss of saliva secretory function. Our previous study showed that injections of matched normal spleen cells with Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA) reversed salivary gland dysfunction in 14-week-old NOD mice, which had established Ss. The spleen and bone marrow are closely related organs, and both are among the first sites of hematopoiesis during gestation. Noticing a rapidly increasing number of clinical trials using bone marrow (BM) cells treatments for autoimmune diseases, we tested if BM cells can prevent Ss and restore salivary glands function. We injected CFA and MHC class I-matched normal BM cells in 7-week-old NOD mice, which had not yet developed Ss. We found at week 52 post-treatment that all NOD mice receiving BM cells and CFA had a recovery of salivary flow and were protected from Ss and diabetes. BM cells-treated mice had their salivary function restored quantitatively and qualitatively. Saliva flow was higher (p<0.05) in BM cells-transplanted mice when compared to control mice, which continued to deteriorate over time. Total proteins, epidermal growth factor, amylase, and electrolytes concentrations in saliva of BM cells-treated mice were not significantly changed at week 44 and 52 post-therapy when compared to pre-therapy (when the mice did not have Ss). Restoration of salivary flow could have resulted from a combination of rescue and paracrine effects from BM cells. This study suggests that a combined immuno- and cell-based therapy can permanently prevent Ss and restored salivary function in NOD mice.
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Bone marrow-derived cells: A potential approach for the treatment of xerostomia.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Transplantations of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are traditionally used for hematologic diseases, but there are increasing numbers of clinical trials using BMDC treatments for non-hematologic disorders, including autoimmune diseases. BMDCs are recently reported to improve organ functions. This paper will review available reports supporting the role of BMDCs in reducing xerostomia (i.e. re-establishing salivary gland functions) due to head and neck irradiation for cancer therapies and in Sjögrens syndrome. There are reports that BMDCs provide a beneficial effect on the saliva production. BMDCs positively affect blood vessels stability and regeneration in irradiated salivary glands. Also, BMDCs provide an immunomodulatory activity in mice with Sjögrens-like disease. While the exact mechanisms by which BMDCs improve organ functions remain controversial, there is preliminary evidence that a combination of them (such as cell transdifferentiation, vasculogenesis, and paracrine effect) occur in salivary glands.
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Adiposity and gingival crevicular fluid tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in children.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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To investigate whether adiposity is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in children. We also examined whether this relationship is mediated through plasma fasting insulin.
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Mesenchymal stromal cells improve salivary function and reduce lymphocytic infiltrates in mice with Sjögrens-like disease.
PLoS ONE
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Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjögrens-like disease (SS-like) with loss of saliva flow and increased lymphocytic infiltrates in salivary glands (SGs). There are recent reports using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. This paper proposed a combined immuno- and cell-based therapy consisting of: A) an injection of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) to eradicate autoreactive T lymphocytes, and B) transplantations of MSCs to reselect lymphocytes. The objective of this was to test the effectiveness of CD45(-)/TER119(-) cells (MSCs) in re-establishing salivary function and in reducing the number of lymphocytic infiltrates (foci) in SGs. The second objective was to study if the mechanisms underlying a decrease in inflammation (focus score) was due to CFA, MSCs, or CFA+MSCs combined.
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Intraoral electrostimulator for xerostomia relief: a long-term, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled, clinical trial.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
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A previous sham-controlled multinational study demonstrated the short-term efficacy and safety for xerostomia treatment of an intraoral device that delivers electrostimulation to the lingual nerve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that those beneficial effects would be sustained over an 11-month period.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.