Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus complex in Napa Valley.
Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is caused by a complex of several virus species (grapevine leafroll-associated viruses, GLRaV) in the family Closteroviridae. Because of its increasing importance, it is critical to determine which species of GLRaV is predominant in each region where this disease is occurring. A structured sampling design, utilizing a combination of RT-PCR based testing and sequencing methods, was used to survey GLRaVs in Napa Valley (California, USA) vineyards (n?=?36). Of the 216 samples tested for GLRaV-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -9, 62% (n?=?134) were GLRaV positive. Of the positives, 81% (n?=?109) were single infections with GLRaV-3, followed by GLRaV-2 (4%, n?=?5), while the remaining samples (15%, n?=?20) were mixed infections of GLRaV-3 with GLRaV-1, 2, 4, or 9. Additionally, 468 samples were tested for genetic variants of GLRaV-3, and of the 65% (n?=?306) of samples positive for GLRaV-3, 22% were infected with multiple GLRaV-3 variants. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequence data from the single infection GLRaV-3 samples produced seven well-supported GLRaV-3 variants, of which three represented 71% of all GLRaV-3 positive samples in Napa Valley. Furthermore, two novel variants, which grouped with a divergent isolate from New Zealand (NZ-1), were identified, and these variants comprised 6% of all positive GLRaV-3 samples. Spatial analyses showed that GLRaV-3a, 3b, and 3c were not homogeneously distributed across Napa Valley. Overall, 86% of all blocks (n?=?31) were positive for GLRaVs and 90% of positive blocks (n?=?28) had two or more GLRaV-3 variants, suggesting complex disease dynamics that might include multiple insect-mediated introduction events.