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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antibiotic resistance correlates with transmission in plasmid evolution.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Conjugative (horizontally transmissible) plasmids are autonomous replicators, whose 'self-interests' do not necessarily overlap with those of their hosts. This situation causes plasmids and bacteria to sometimes experience differing selection pressures. Escherichia coli plasmid pB15 contains genes for resistance to several antibiotics, including tetracycline. When plasmid-bearing cells were experimentally evolved in the laboratory, changes in resistance level in the unselected tetracycline marker coincided with changes in plasmid rates of vertical versus horizontal transmission. Here we used minimum-inhibitory assays that measure resistance levels as quantitative traits to determine phenotypic correlations among plasmid characters and to estimate divergence among plasmid lineages. Results suggested that plasmid-level evolution led to formation of two phenotypically-dissimilar groups: virulent (highly infectious) and avirulent (weakly infectious) plasmids. In contrast, measures of carbon-source utilization, and fitness assays relative to a common competitor revealed that bacterial hosts generally converged in phenotypic performance, despite divergence among their associated plasmids. Preliminary sequence analyses suggested that divergence in plasmid conjugation was due to altered configurations of a shufflon region (a site-specific recombination system), where genetic rearrangements affect conjugative ability. Furthermore, we proposed that correlated resistance and transmission in pB15 derivatives were caused by a tetracycline-resistance transposon inserted into a transfer operon, allowing transcription from its promoter to simultaneously affect both plasmid resistance and transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Contrasting genetic structure between two begomoviruses infecting the same leguminous hosts.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, ssDNA plant viruses and are among the most damaging pathogens causing epidemics in economically important crops worldwide. Wild/non-cultivated plants play a crucial epidemiological role, acting as begomovirus reservoirs and as 'mixing vessels' where recombination can occur. Previous work suggests a higher degree of genetic variability in begomovirus populations from non-cultivated hosts compared with cultivated hosts. To assess this supposed host effect on the genetic variability of begomovirus populations, cultivated (common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, and lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus) and non-cultivated (Macroptilium lathyroides) legume hosts were sampled from two regions of Brazil. A total of 212 full-length DNA-A genome segments were sequenced from samples collected between 2005 and 2012, and populations of the begomoviruses Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and Macroptilium yellow spot virus (MaYSV) were obtained. We found, for each begomovirus species, similar genetic variation between populations infecting cultivated and non-cultivated hosts, indicating that the presumed genetic variability of the host did not a priori affect viral variability. We observed a higher degree of genetic variation in isolates from MaYSV populations than BGMV populations, which was explained by numerous recombination events in MaYSV. MaYSV and BGMV showed distinct distributions of genetic variation, with the BGMV population (but not MaYSV) being structured by both host and geography.
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Frequent migration of introduced cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses among Middle Eastern countries.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In the early 2000s, two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses were introduced into the eastern Mediterranean basin: the Old World Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and the New World Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV). These viruses have been emerging in parallel over the last decade in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine.
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Bioinformatic analysis reveals genome size reduction and the emergence of tyrosine phosphorylation site in the movement protein of new world bipartite begomoviruses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection is devastating to a wide variety of agricultural crops including tomato, squash, and cassava. Thus, understanding the replication and adaptation of begomoviruses has important translational value in alleviating substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries. The bipartite genome of begomoviruses prevalent in the New World and their counterparts in the Old World share a high degree of genome homology except for a partially overlapping reading frame encoding the pre-coat protein (PCP, or AV2). PCP contributes to the essential functions of intercellular movement and suppression of host RNA silencing, but it is only present in the Old World viruses. In this study, we analyzed a set of non-redundant bipartite begomovirus genomes originating from the Old World (N?=?28) and the New World (N?=?65). Our bioinformatic analysis suggests ?120 nucleotides were deleted from PCP's proximal promoter region that may have contributed to its loss in the New World viruses. Consequently, genomes of the New World viruses are smaller than the Old World counterparts, possibly compensating for the loss of the intercellular movement functions of PCP. Additionally, we detected substantial purifying selection on a portion of the New World DNA-B movement protein (MP, or BC1). Further analysis of the New World MP gene revealed the emergence of a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site, which likely explains the increased purifying selection in that region. These findings provide important information about the strategies adopted by bipartite begomoviruses in adapting to new environment and suggest future in planta experiments.
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Cell tropism predicts long-term nucleotide substitution rates of mammalian RNA viruses.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The high rates of RNA virus evolution are generally attributed to replication with error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, these long-term nucleotide substitution rates span three orders of magnitude and do not correlate well with mutation rates or selection pressures. This substitution rate variation may be explained by differences in virus ecology or intrinsic genomic properties. We generated nucleotide substitution rate estimates for mammalian RNA viruses and compiled comparable published rates, yielding a dataset of 118 substitution rates of structural genes from 51 different species, as well as 40 rates of non-structural genes from 28 species. Through ANCOVA analyses, we evaluated the relationships between these rates and four ecological factors: target cell, transmission route, host range, infection duration; and three genomic properties: genome length, genome sense, genome segmentation. Of these seven factors, we found target cells to be the only significant predictors of viral substitution rates, with tropisms for epithelial cells or neurons (P<0.0001) as the most significant predictors. Further, one-tailed t-tests showed that viruses primarily infecting epithelial cells evolve significantly faster than neurotropic viruses (P<0.0001 and P<0.001 for the structural genes and non-structural genes, respectively). These results provide strong evidence that the fastest evolving mammalian RNA viruses infect cells with the highest turnover rates: the highly proliferative epithelial cells. Estimated viral generation times suggest that epithelial-infecting viruses replicate more quickly than viruses with different cell tropisms. Our results indicate that cell tropism is a key factor in viral evolvability.
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Frequent coinfection reduces RNA virus population genetic diversity.
J. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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The masking of deleterious mutations by complementation and the reassortment of virus segments (virus sex) are expected to increase population genetic diversity among coinfecting viruses. Conversely, clonally reproducing or noncoinfecting virus populations may experience clonal interference where viral clones compete with one another, preventing selective sweeps. This dynamic reduces the efficiency of selection and increases the genetic diversity. To determine the relative influences of these forces on population genetic diversity, we evolved 6 populations of bacteriophage ?6 under conditions promoting or preventing coinfection. Following 300 generations, we isolated and partially sequenced 10 clones from each population. We found greater diversity among asexual populations than sexual populations. Moreover, sexual populations did not show greater relative fitnesses than asexual populations, implying that reduced genetic variation did not result from purifying selection. However, sexual populations were less genetically robust than asexual populations and likely more prone to the deleterious epistatic effects of mutations. As such, a neutral mutation on the asexually evolved (robust) background could be profoundly deleterious on the sexually evolved (brittle) background. This could facilitate sexual populations undergoing greater purifying selection to remove deleterious mutations, but this selection is not reflected by increases in average population fitness. Our results bolster a growing literature suggesting that RNA virus segmentation is probably not a mechanism that evolved because it provides a generalized benefit of sex.
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A multispecies polyadenylation site model.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Polyadenylation is present in all three domains of life, making it the most conserved post-transcriptional process compared with splicing and 5-capping. Even though most mammalian poly(A) sites contain a highly conserved hexanucleotide in the upstream region and a far less conserved U/GU-rich sequence in the downstream region, there are many exceptions. Furthermore, poly(A) sites in other species, such as plants and invertebrates, exhibit high deviation from this genomic structure, making the construction of a general poly(A) site recognition model challenging. We surveyed nine poly(A) site prediction methods published between 1999 and 2011. All methods exploit the skewed nucleotide profile across the poly(A) sites, and the highly conserved poly(A) signal as the primary features for recognition. These methods typically use a large number of features, which increases the dimensionality of the models to crippling degrees, and typically are not validated against many kinds of genomes.
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Base composition and translational selection are insufficient to explain codon usage bias in plant viruses.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Viral codon usage bias may be the product of a number of synergistic or antagonistic factors, including genomic nucleotide composition, translational selection, genomic architecture, and mutational or repair biases. Most studies of viral codon bias evaluate only the relative importance of genomic base composition and translational selection, ignoring other possible factors. We analyzed the codon preferences of ssRNA (luteoviruses and potyviruses) and ssDNA (geminiviruses) plant viruses that infect translationally distinct monocot and dicot hosts. We found that neither genomic base composition nor translational selection satisfactorily explains their codon usage biases. Furthermore, we observed a strong relationship between the codon preferences of viruses in the same family or genus, regardless of host or genomic nucleotide content. Our results suggest that analyzing codon bias as either due to base composition or translational selection is a false dichotomy that obscures the role of other factors. Constraints such as genomic architecture and secondary structure can and do influence codon usage in plant viruses, and likely in viruses of other hosts.
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Single-stranded genomic architecture constrains optimal codon usage.
Bacteriophage
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Viral codon usage is shaped by the conflicting forces of mutational pressure and selection to match host patterns for optimal expression. We examined whether genomic architecture (single- or double-stranded DNA) influences the degree to which bacteriophage codon usage differ from their primary bacterial hosts and each other. While both correlated equally with their hosts genomic nucleotide content, the coat genes of ssDNA phages were less well adapted than those of dsDNA phages to their hosts codon usage profiles due to their preference for codons ending in thymine. No specific biases were detected in dsDNA phage genomes. In all nine of ten cases of codon redundancy in which a specific codon was overrepresented, ssDNA phages favored the NNT codon. A cytosine to thymine biased mutational pressure working in conjunction with strong selection against non-synonymous mutations appears be shaping codon usage bias in ssDNA viral genomes.
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Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus complex in Napa Valley.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is caused by a complex of several virus species (grapevine leafroll-associated viruses, GLRaV) in the family Closteroviridae. Because of its increasing importance, it is critical to determine which species of GLRaV is predominant in each region where this disease is occurring. A structured sampling design, utilizing a combination of RT-PCR based testing and sequencing methods, was used to survey GLRaVs in Napa Valley (California, USA) vineyards (n?=?36). Of the 216 samples tested for GLRaV-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -9, 62% (n?=?134) were GLRaV positive. Of the positives, 81% (n?=?109) were single infections with GLRaV-3, followed by GLRaV-2 (4%, n?=?5), while the remaining samples (15%, n?=?20) were mixed infections of GLRaV-3 with GLRaV-1, 2, 4, or 9. Additionally, 468 samples were tested for genetic variants of GLRaV-3, and of the 65% (n?=?306) of samples positive for GLRaV-3, 22% were infected with multiple GLRaV-3 variants. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequence data from the single infection GLRaV-3 samples produced seven well-supported GLRaV-3 variants, of which three represented 71% of all GLRaV-3 positive samples in Napa Valley. Furthermore, two novel variants, which grouped with a divergent isolate from New Zealand (NZ-1), were identified, and these variants comprised 6% of all positive GLRaV-3 samples. Spatial analyses showed that GLRaV-3a, 3b, and 3c were not homogeneously distributed across Napa Valley. Overall, 86% of all blocks (n?=?31) were positive for GLRaVs and 90% of positive blocks (n?=?28) had two or more GLRaV-3 variants, suggesting complex disease dynamics that might include multiple insect-mediated introduction events.
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Genus-specific substitution rate variability among picornaviruses.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Picornaviruses have some of the highest nucleotide substitution rates among viruses, but there have been no comparisons of evolutionary rates within this broad family. We combined our own Bayesian coalescent analyses of VP1 regions from four picornaviruses with 22 published VP1 rates to produce the first within-family meta-analysis of viral evolutionary rates. Similarly, we compared our rate estimates for the RNA polymerase 3D(pol) gene from five viruses to four published 3D(pol) rates. Both a structural and a nonstructural gene show that enteroviruses are evolving, on average, a half order of magnitude faster than members of other genera within the Picornaviridae family.
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Single-cell genomics reveals organismal interactions in uncultivated marine protists.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Whole-genome shotgun sequence data from three individual cells isolated from seawater, followed by analysis of ribosomal DNA, indicated that the cells represented three divergent clades of picobiliphytes. In contrast with the recent description of this phylum, we found no evidence of plastid DNA nor of nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, which suggests that these picobiliphytes are heterotrophs. Genome data from one cell were dominated by sequences from a widespread single-stranded DNA virus. This virus was absent from the other two cells, both of which contained non-eukaryote DNA derived from marine Bacteroidetes and large DNA viruses. By using shotgun sequencing of uncultured marine picobiliphytes, we revealed the distinct interactions of individual cells.
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Genetic diversity in the 3 terminal 4.7-kb region of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3; Ampelovirus, Closteroviridae), associated with grapevine leafroll disease, is an important pathogen found across all major grape-growing regions of the world. The genetic diversity of GLRaV-3 in Napa Valley, CA, was studied by sequencing 4.7 kb in the 3 terminal region of 50 isolates obtained from Vitis vinifera Merlot. GLRaV-3 isolates were subdivided into four distinct phylogenetic clades. No evidence of positive selection was observed in the data set, although neutral selection (ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates = 1.1) was observed in one open reading frame (ORF 11, p4). Additionally, the four clades had variable degrees of overall nucleotide diversity. Moreover, no geographical structure among isolates was observed, and isolates belonging to different phylogenetic clades were found in distinct vineyards, with one exception. Considered with the evidence of purifying selection (i.e., against deleterious mutations), these data indicate that the population of GLRaV-3 in Napa Valley is not expanding and its effective population size is not increasing. Furthermore, research on the biological characterization of GLRaV-3 strains might provide valuable insights on the biology of this species that may have epidemiological relevance.
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Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed "vector-enabled metagenomics" (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral diseases.
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98% identical, 100% wrong: per cent nucleotide identity can lead plant virus epidemiology astray.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Short-form publications such as Plant Disease reports serve essential functions: the rapid dissemination of information on the geography of established plant pathogens, incidence and symptomology of pathogens in new hosts, and the discovery of novel pathogens. Many of these sentinel publications include viral sequence data, but most use that information only to confirm the virus species. When researchers use the standard technique of per cent nucleotide identity to determine that the new sequence is closely related to another sequence, potentially erroneous conclusions can be drawn from the results. Multiple introductions of the same pathogen into a country are being ignored because researchers know fast-evolving plant viruses can accumulate substantial sequence divergence over time, even from a single introduction. An increased use of phylogenetic methods in short-form publications could speed our understanding of these cryptic second introductions and aid in control of epidemics.
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Insights into the evolutionary history of an emerging livestock pathogen: porcine circovirus 2.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the primary etiological agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), one of the most economically important emerging swine diseases worldwide. Virulent PCV2 was first identified following nearly simultaneous outbreaks of PMWS in North America and Europe in the 1990s and has since achieved global distribution. However, the processes responsible for the emergence and spread of PCV2 remain poorly understood. Here, phylogenetic and cophylogenetic inferences were utilized to address key questions on the time scale, processes, and geographic diffusion of emerging PCV2. The results of these analyses suggest that the two genotypes of PCV2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) are likely to have emerged from a common ancestor approximately 100 years ago and have been on independent evolutionary trajectories since that time, despite cocirculating in the same host species and geographic regions. The patterns of geographic movement of PCV2 that we recovered appear to mimic those of the global pig trade and suggest that the movement of asymptomatic animals is likely to have facilitated the rapid spread of virulent PCV2 around the globe. We further estimated the rate of nucleotide substitution for PCV2 to be on the order of 1.2 x 10(-3) substitutions/site/year, the highest yet recorded for a single-stranded DNA virus. This high rate of evolution may allow PCV2 to maintain evolutionary dynamics closer to those of single-stranded RNA viruses than to those of double-stranded DNA viruses, further facilitating the rapid emergence of PCV2 worldwide.
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Dating the origins of the maize-adapted strain of maize streak virus, MSV-A.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Maize streak virus (MSV), which causes maize streak disease (MSD), is one of the most serious biotic threats to African food security. Here, we use whole MSV genomes sampled over 30 years to estimate the dates of key evolutionary events in the 500 year association of MSV and maize. The substitution rates implied by our analyses agree closely with those estimated previously in controlled MSV evolution experiments, and we use them to infer the date when the maize-adapted strain, MSV-A, was generated by recombination between two grass-adapted MSV strains. Our results indicate that this recombination event occurred in the mid-1800 s, approximately 20 years before the first credible reports of MSD in South Africa and centuries after the introduction of maize to the continent in the early 1500 s. This suggests a causal link between MSV recombination and the emergence of MSV-A as a serious pathogen of maize.
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Point mutation rate of bacteriophage PhiX174.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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The point mutation rate of phage PhiX174 was determined using the fluctuation test. After identifying the genetic changes associated with the selected phenotype, we obtained an estimate of 1.0x10(-6) substitutions per base per round of copying, which is consistent with Drakes rule (0.003 mutations per genome per round of copying in DNA-based microorganisms).
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Diverse circovirus-like genome architectures revealed by environmental metagenomics.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses with circular genomes are the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotes. The present study identified 10 novel genomes similar to ssDNA circoviruses through data-mining of public viral metagenomes. The metagenomic libraries included samples from reclaimed water and three different marine environments (Chesapeake Bay, British Columbia coastal waters and Sargasso Sea). All the genomes have similarities to the replication (Rep) protein of circoviruses; however, only half have genomic features consistent with known circoviruses. Some of the genomes exhibit a mixture of genomic features associated with different families of ssDNA viruses (i.e. circoviruses, geminiviruses and parvoviruses). Unique genome architectures and phylogenetic analysis of the Rep protein suggest that these viruses belong to novel genera and/or families. Investigating the complex community of ssDNA viruses in the environment can lead to the discovery of divergent species and help elucidate evolutionary links between ssDNA viruses.
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Experimental evidence indicating that mastreviruses probably did not co-diverge with their hosts.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Despite the demonstration that geminiviruses, like many other single stranded DNA viruses, are evolving at rates similar to those of RNA viruses, a recent study has suggested that grass-infecting species in the genus Mastrevirus may have co-diverged with their hosts over millions of years. This "co-divergence hypothesis" requires that long-term mastrevirus substitution rates be at least 100,000-fold lower than their basal mutation rates and 10,000-fold lower than their observable short-term substitution rates. The credibility of this hypothesis, therefore, hinges on the testable claim that negative selection during mastrevirus evolution is so potent that it effectively purges 99.999% of all mutations that occur.
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Validation of high rates of nucleotide substitution in geminiviruses: phylogenetic evidence from East African cassava mosaic viruses.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses are major pathogens of the important crop cassava in Africa. The intensive sampling and sequencing of cassava mosaic disease-causing viruses that occurred in the wake of a severe outbreak in Central Africa (1997-2002) allowed us to estimate the rate of evolution of this virus. East African cassava mosaic virus and related species are obligately bipartite (DNA-A and DNA-B segments), and these two genome segments have different evolutionary histories. Despite these phylogenetic differences, we inferred high rates of nucleotide substitution in both segments: mean rates of 1.60x10(-3) and 1.33x10(-4) substitutions site(-1) year(-1) for DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively. While similarly high substitution rates were found in datasets free of detectable recombination, only that estimated for the coat protein gene (AV1), for which an additional DNA-A sequence isolated in 1995 was available, was statistically robust. These high substitution rates also confirm that those previously estimated for the monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are representative of multiple begomoviruses. We also validated our rate estimates by comparing them with those depicting the emergence of TYLCV in North America. These results further support the notion that geminiviruses evolve as rapidly as many RNA viruses.
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Synonymous site variation due to recombination explains higher genetic variability in begomovirus populations infecting non-cultivated hosts.
J. Gen. Virol.
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Begomoviruses are ssDNA plant viruses that cause serious epidemics in economically important crops worldwide. Non-cultivated plants also harbour many begomoviruses, and it is believed that these hosts may act as reservoirs and as mixing vessels where recombination may occur. Begomoviruses are notoriously recombination-prone, and also display nucleotide substitution rates equivalent to those of RNA viruses. In Brazil, several indigenous begomoviruses have been described infecting tomatoes following the introduction of a novel biotype of the whitefly vector in the mid-1990s. More recently, a number of viruses from non-cultivated hosts have also been described. Previous work has suggested that viruses infecting non-cultivated hosts have a higher degree of genetic variability compared with crop-infecting viruses. We intensively sampled cultivated and non-cultivated plants in similarly sized geographical areas known to harbour either the weed-infecting Macroptilium yellow spot virus (MaYSV) or the crop-infecting Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), and compared the molecular evolution and population genetics of these two distantly related begomoviruses. The results reinforce the assertion that infection of non-cultivated plant species leads to higher levels of standing genetic variability, and indicate that recombination, not adaptive selection, explains the higher begomovirus variability in non-cultivated hosts.
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A divergent variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 is present in California.
Virol. J.
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Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses are a problem for grape production globally. Symptoms are caused by a number of distinct viral species. During a survey of Napa Valley vineyards (California, USA), we found evidence of a new variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). We isolated its genome from a symptomatic greenhouse-raised plant and fully sequenced it.
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Evolutionary genomics of host-use in bifurcating demes of RNA virus phi-6.
BMC Evol. Biol.
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Viruses are exceedingly diverse in their evolved strategies to manipulate hosts for viral replication. However, despite these differences, most virus populations will occasionally experience two commonly-encountered challenges: growth in variable host environments, and growth under fluctuating population sizes. We used the segmented RNA bacteriophage ?6 as a model for studying the evolutionary genomics of virus adaptation in the face of host switches and parametrically varying population sizes. To do so, we created a bifurcating deme structure that reflected lineage splitting in natural populations, allowing us to test whether phylogenetic algorithms could accurately resolve this known phylogeny. The resulting tree yielded 32 clones at the tips and internal nodes; these strains were fully sequenced and measured for phenotypic changes in selected traits (fitness on original and novel hosts).
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A field guide to eukaryotic circular single-stranded DNA viruses: insights gained from metagenomics.
Arch. Virol.
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Despite their small size and limited protein-coding capacity, the rapid evolution rates of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have led to their emergence as serious plant and animal pathogens. Recently, metagenomics has revealed an unprecedented diversity of ssDNA viruses, expanding their known environmental distributions and host ranges. This review summarizes and contrasts the basic characteristics of known circular ssDNA viral groups, providing a resource for analyzing the wealth of ssDNA viral sequences identified through metagenomics. Since ssDNA viruses are largely identified based on conserved rolling circle replication proteins, this review highlights distinguishing motifs and catalytic residues important for replication. Genomes identified through metagenomics have demonstrated unique ssDNA viral genome architectures and revealed characteristics that blur the boundaries between previously well-defined groups. Metagenomic discovery of ssDNA viruses has created both a challenge to current taxonomic classification schemes and an opportunity to revisit hypotheses regarding the evolutionary history of these viruses.
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One misdated sequence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus prevents accurate estimation of its nucleotide substitution rate.
BMC Evol. Biol.
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The literature is ripe with phylogenetic estimates of nucleotide substitution rates, especially of measurably evolving species such as RNA viruses. However, it is not known how robust these rate estimates are to inaccuracies in the data, particularly in sampling dates that are used for molecular clock calibration. Here we report on the rate of evolution of the emerging pathogen Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which has significantly different rates of evolution for the same outer capsid (VP60) gene published in the literature. In an attempt to reconcile the conflicting data and further elucidate details of RHDV?s evolutionary history, we undertook fresh Bayesian analyses and employed jackknife control methods to produce robust substitution rate and time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) estimates for RHDV based on the VP60 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.