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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical features and outcome of mucormycosis.
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Mucormycosis (MCM) is a life-threatening infection that carries high mortality rates despite recent advances in its diagnosis and treatment. The objective was to report 14 cases of mucormycosis infection and review the relevant literature. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical data of 14 consecutive patients that presented with MCM in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Mexico. The mean age of the patients was 39.9 (range 5-65). Nine of the patients were male. Ten patients had diabetes mellitus as the underlying disease, and 6 patients had a hematological malignancy (acute leukemia). Of the diabetic patients, 3 had chronic renal failure and 4 presented with diabetic ketoacidosis. All patients had rhinocerebral involvement. In-hospital mortality was 50%. All patients received medical therapy with polyene antifungals and 11 patients underwent surgical therapy. Survivors were significantly younger and less likely to have diabetes than nonsurvivors, and had higher levels of serum albumin on admission. The clinical outcome of patients with MCM is poor. Uncontrolled diabetes and age are negative prognostic factors.
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Genetic diversity evaluation on Portuguese Leishmania infantum strains by multilocus microsatellite typing.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Leishmania infantum is the main etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region, including Portugal, but, given its low isoenzyme diversity in this country, the population structure is poorly known. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers was studied on 136 Portuguese Leishmania strains isolated from different hosts, geographic regions and different clinical forms. A total of 108 different genotypes were found, which is a degree of genetic diversity comparable to other regions, even within zymodeme MON-1. A single most common genotype was detected in 1:5 of all strains, which, with a greater number of multi-strain genotypes found in the Lisbon Metropolitan Region, particularly for human strains, was suggestive of the occurrence of clonal transmission. In addition, a high re-infection rate was found among HIV+ patients. Model based analysis by STRUCTURE uncovered two main populations (populations A and B, composed of MON-1 and non-MON-1 strains, respectively), with great genetic diversity between them, and two MON-1 sub-populations (A1 and A2). High inbreeding coefficients were found in these populations, although strains with mixed ancestry were identified, suggesting that recombination also plays a role in the epidemiology of this species in Portugal. Some but limited geographical differentiation was observed, with groups of strains from the same regions clustering together, particularly those from canine origin. Our results show that L. infantum isolates from Portugal present microsatellite diversity comparable to other regions and that different transmission models play a role in its epidemiology, from clonal transmission to recombination. In addition, although Portugal is a small country, mobility of people and animals is high and Leishmania can be probably easily disseminated between infected hosts throughout the country, two instances of seemingly local restricted transmission were identified.
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The first detection of Leishmania major in naturally infected Sergentomyia minuta in Portugal.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Phlebotomine sandflies of the genus Sergentomyia are widely distributed throughout the Old World. It has been suggested that Sergentomyia spp are involved in the transmission of Leishmania in India and Africa, whereas Phlebotomus spp are thought to be the sole vectors of Leishmania in the Old World. In this study, Leishmania major DNA was detected in one Sergentomyia minuta specimen that was collected in the southern region of Portugal. This study challenges the dogma that Leishmania is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World.
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In vitro and in vivo behaviour of sympatric Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) peruviana and their hybrids.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main cause of highly disfiguring mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in South America. The related species L. (V.) peruviana has only been identified in simple cutaneous lesions (CL). Hybrids between L. braziliensis and L. peruviana have been reported although genetic exchange in Leishmania is considered to be rare. Here we compared growth in vitro, adaptive capacity under thermal and oxidative stress and behaviour in a hamster model, of L. braziliensis, L. peruviana, and their putative hybrids. At 24°C, the optimal temperature for in vitro growth, L. braziliensis had the highest growth rate. In in vitro studies hybrid clones presented heterogeneous phenotypes, from slower growth rates, similar to L. peruviana, to higher growth rates, as observed in L. braziliensis. Hamsters infected with hybrid strains, presented the highest parasite densities and aggressive relapses at a later stage of infection. Hybrids generally presented higher plasticity and phenotypic diversity than the putative parental species, with potential eco-epidemiological implications, including an impact on the success of disease control.
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KDNA genetic signatures obtained by LSSP-PCR analysis of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum isolated from the new and the old world.
PLoS ONE
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Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) caused by species from the Leishmania donovani complex is the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated. VL caused by Leishmania infantum is a zoonosis with an increasing number of human cases and millions of dogs infected in the Old and the New World. In this study, L. infantum (syn. L.chagasi) strains were isolated from human and canine VL cases. The strains were obtained from endemic areas from Brazil and Portugal and their genetic polymorphism was ascertained using the LSSP-PCR (Low-Stringency Single Specific Primer PCR) technique for analyzing the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles hypervariable region.
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Risk factors for canine leishmaniasis in an endemic Mediterranean region.
Vet. Parasitol.
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Human visceral leishmaniasis is an emergent/re-emergent parasitic zoonotic disease in Europe caused by Leishmania infantum, with domestic dog as its main reservoir host. This study presents the results of a canine epidemiological survey in a mediterranean region where human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) are endemic - Portugal. The main goal was to identify risk factors, which can be relevant for Leishmania infection control. The national survey was carried out in January 2009 with a screening of 3974 dogs from all 18 districts of mainland Portugal. Direct Agglutination Test was used for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in canine blood. An overall CanL true prevalence of 6.31% was observed. Apparent prevalence at district level ranged from 0.88% to 16.16%, with the highest prevalence in the interior regions. Identified risk factors for positivity were: dogs of 2 years and older (adjusted odds ratio OR=5.39); spending exclusively/most of the time outdoors (OR=2.51); origin from the interior of Portugal in comparison to littoral/coast districts (OR=2.51); not having long fur (OR=2.03); and being pure exotic (OR=1.67). The results confirm the leishmaniasis endemicity in Portugal and the dynamic character of prevalence as new foci emerged and old foci lost their importance. The dogs age, fur size, district and living outdoors as opposed to indoors were more important than dog breeds and insecticide treatment in the transmission of Leishmania infection. The future of CanL prevention and control rely on an integrated approach involving veterinarians, dog owners and health authorities in order to reduce the canine infection risk and consequently, the human zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.